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    • Reichwald, Ralf

    • open innovation : Kunden als Partner im innovationsprozess

    • 3
    •  
    • Interaktive Wertschöpfung in der innovation : open innovation

      Authors : Ralf Reichwald, Frank Piller

      Source : Interaktive Wertschöpfung, 2009

      Die kleinste Forschungsabteilung des Weltkonzerns Procter & Gamble liegt in Roseto in den italienischen Abruzzen (Uehlecke 2007). Abends verwandelt dort Giorgia Sgargetta ihre Einbauküche in ein Labor. Sie holt ihre Ausrüstung vom Speicher: ein paar Glaskolben, eine Präzisionswaage und die Flaschen mit den Chemikalien. Und dann löst sie Probleme, an denen die bestbezahlten Wissenschaftler in High-Tech- Labors bisher gescheitert sind. Ihre Aufträge findet die 34-Jährige auf der Internetseite der amerikanischen Firma InnoCentive . Auf ihrer Website entledigen sich rund 30 Konzerne, darunter Procter & Gamble, Dupont, Henkel und BASF, Forschungsfragestellungen in den Kategorien Chemie und Biologie. Dabei handelt es sich in der Regel um spezifische kleinere, aber anspruchsvolle technische Probleme. Lösungsvorschläge darf jeder einsenden, Hausfrauen und Universitätsprofessoren, Rentner und Erstsemesterstudenten (siehe Kasten 4–1 für ein weiteres Beispiel). Rund 140.000 Freizeiterfinder aus 175 Ländern haben sich bereits registriert. Darunter auch Angestellte wie Giorgia Sgargetta, die von ihrem Job als Qualitätsmanagerin in einer Pflanzenschutzmittelfabrik unterfordert ist. Wer innerhalb einer festgelegten Zeit die beste Lösung findet, bekommt vom suchenden Unternehmen eine Prämie zwischen 10- 50.000 US$.

      [Search references]

      open innovation: Grundlagen, Werkzeuge, Kompetenzentwicklung

      Authors : Ralf Reichwald, Kathrin M. Möslein, Hagen Habicht

      Source : Information Management & Consulting, 2011

      open innovation gilt als grundlegend neues Paradigma mit enormen Potenzialen für den Einzelnen, für Unternehmen und ganze Volkswirtschaften. Chesbrough stellt diese Form der innovation als neuen Ansatz der Wertschöpfung und als überlegenes innovationsmodell gegenüber geschlossenen innovation dar [1]. Andere betrachten open innovation eher mit Skepsis, sie sehen gar ein Risiko für das geistige Eigentum des Innovators. Was verbirgt sich hinter dem Konzept der open innovation? Welche Werkzeuge stehen Unternehmen für open innovation zur Verfügung? Wie können Unternehmen die nötigen Kompetenzen für open innovation erwerben? Wo liegen die Herausforderungen und Chancen für Unternehmen? Bringt open innovation Wettbewerbsvorteile für das innovierende Unternehmen? Diesen Fragen geht der Beitrag nach.

      [Search references]

      Interaktive Wertschöpfung: open innovation, Individualisierung und neue Formen der Arbeitsteilung

      Authors : Ralf Reichwald, Frank Piller

      Source : Gabler, 2006

      Kunden sind heute nicht nur passive Empfänger und Konsumenten einer vom Hersteller dominierten Wertschöpfung. Vielmehr gestalten viele Kunden Produkte und Dienstleistungen aktiv mit und übernehmen dabei sogar teilweise deren Entwicklung und Herstellung. Diese Wertschöpfungspartnerschaft führt zu neuen Formen der Arbeitsteilung, der Koordination und Organisation von innovations- und Produktionsprozessen. Zur Organisation arbeitsteiliger Wertschöpfung gibt es bislang zwei wesentliche Alternativen: die hierarchische Koordination im Unternehmen oder die Nutzung des Marktmechanismus über Angebot und Nachfrage. Eine Zwischenform bilden die verschiedenen Varianten von Unternehmensnetzwerken. Die interaktive Wertschöpfung bildet eine dritte Alternative: die Arbeitsteilung zwischen Herstellerunternehmen und Kunden, die zum Wertschöpfungspartner werden. Reichwald/Piller behandeln Entwicklungen wie Peer-Production, Kundeninnovation, open-Source-Software-Entwicklung, Kunden-Communities oder Web 2.

      [Search references]

      open innovation : Kunden als Partner im innovationsprozess

      Authors : Ralf Reichwald, Frank Piller

      Source : Innovation, 2005

      Abstract: Moderne Informations- und Kommunikationsmedien bieten völlig neue methodi- sche Möglichkeiten, das Wissen der Kunden zu erheben und systematisch in den innovations- prozess zu integrieren. Dabei werden innovationsprozesse auch vom Kunden selbst angesto- ßen: Kunden werden zu aktiven Beteiligten im innovationsprozess. Basierend auf Studien über open-Source-Software-Entwicklung und andere kundeninitiierte Neuproduktentwick- lungen (z.B. in der Sportartikelindustrie) wird unter dem Begriff open innovation in jüngs- ter Zeit eine intensive Diskussion über die Potentiale neuartiger Formen von Entwicklungs- kooperationen zwischen Unternehmen und Abnehmern (insbesondere privaten Konsumenten) geführt. Unser Beitrag gibt eine Einführung in diese Thematik.

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      My List [38]

    •  
    • Du Chatenier, Elise Du

    • Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams

    • 3
    •  
    • The Challenges of Collaborative Knowledge Creation in open innovation Teams

      Authors : Elise Du Du Chatenier, Onno S. W. F Omta, J. A.A.M. Verstegen, H. J.A. Biemans, Martin Mulder

      Source : Human Resource Development Review, 2009

      In open innovation teams, people from different organizations work together to develop new products, services, or markets. This organizational diversity can positively influence collaborative knowledge creation but can frustrate and obstruct the process as well. To increase the success rates of open innovation, it is vital to learn how individuals create knowledge in open innovation teams and the problems they face. However, HRD research on this topic is still lacking. This article reviews the literature in HRD, organizational, and learning sci- ences, describing how individuals interact when creating knowledge collabora- tively, and gives an overview of the challenges with collaborative knowledge creation in open innovation teams. The article ends with a discussion and con- clusion, and implications for further research.

      [Search references]

      Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams

      Authors : Elise Du Du Chatenier, Onno S. W. F Omta, J. A.A.M. Verstegen, H. J.A. Biemans, Martin Mulder

      Source : R&D Management, 2010

      In the open innovation management literature, it is widely acknowledged that individuals play a crucial role in collaborative knowledge creation processes. However, the literature tends not to explore the human side of open innovation teams. The present article therefore examines the competencies that professionals need for working in open innovation teams (specific but not necessarily unique to open innovation) and to cope with the challenges they face. A qualitative study consisting of explorative interviews and focus group discussions was conducted, resulting in a competence profile for open innovation professionals. The profile adds a new perspective to the field of open innovation management by focusing on how individuals involved in open innovation teams can enhance open innovation success. It reveals, among other things, how professionals can generate new knowledge, build trust, and deal with low reciprocal commit- ment in open innovation teams. Especially, brokering solutions and being socially competent seem to be important for open innovation professionals. Companies should focus on these competencies when supporting their professionals in open innovation teams.

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      My List [38]

    •  
    • Omta, Onno S. W. F

    • Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams

    • 3
    •  
    • The Challenges of Collaborative Knowledge Creation in open innovation Teams

      Authors : Elise Du Du Chatenier, Onno S. W. F Omta, J. A.A.M. Verstegen, H. J.A. Biemans, Martin Mulder

      Source : Human Resource Development Review, 2009

      In open innovation teams, people from different organizations work together to develop new products, services, or markets. This organizational diversity can positively influence collaborative knowledge creation but can frustrate and obstruct the process as well. To increase the success rates of open innovation, it is vital to learn how individuals create knowledge in open innovation teams and the problems they face. However, HRD research on this topic is still lacking. This article reviews the literature in HRD, organizational, and learning sci- ences, describing how individuals interact when creating knowledge collabora- tively, and gives an overview of the challenges with collaborative knowledge creation in open innovation teams. The article ends with a discussion and con- clusion, and implications for further research.

      [Search references]

      Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams

      Authors : Elise Du Du Chatenier, Onno S. W. F Omta, J. A.A.M. Verstegen, H. J.A. Biemans, Martin Mulder

      Source : R&D Management, 2010

      In the open innovation management literature, it is widely acknowledged that individuals play a crucial role in collaborative knowledge creation processes. However, the literature tends not to explore the human side of open innovation teams. The present article therefore examines the competencies that professionals need for working in open innovation teams (specific but not necessarily unique to open innovation) and to cope with the challenges they face. A qualitative study consisting of explorative interviews and focus group discussions was conducted, resulting in a competence profile for open innovation professionals. The profile adds a new perspective to the field of open innovation management by focusing on how individuals involved in open innovation teams can enhance open innovation success. It reveals, among other things, how professionals can generate new knowledge, build trust, and deal with low reciprocal commit- ment in open innovation teams. Especially, brokering solutions and being socially competent seem to be important for open innovation professionals. Companies should focus on these competencies when supporting their professionals in open innovation teams.

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      My List [38]

    •  
    • OLLILA, SUSANNE

    • Exploring the field of open innovation

    • 3
    •  
    • TURNING open innovation INTO PRACTICE: open innovation RESEARCH THROUGH THE LENS OF MANAGERS

      Authors : SUSANNE OLLILA, ELENI GIANNOPOULOU, ANNA YSTRÖM

      Source : International Journal of Innovation Management, 2011

      Despite the fact that open innovation (OI) has rapidly become one of the hottest topics in innovation management, comprehensive reviews of the state of the research field and its managerial implications are scarce. This could be one of the reasons why OI still represents a big challenge for innovation managers. This paper, based on a literature review covering the period from 2003 up until June 2009, identifies managerial implications of OI under four major categories: namely organizing for openness, co-creating value, leadership for diversity and intellectual property (IP) management. The contribution of this paper is both practical and theoretical. On the one hand, innovation managers can find useful suggestions for dealing with the challenge of openness in their organization. On the other hand, gaps and omissions in the practical aspects of OI management are identified in order to guide further research on the field. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

      [Search references]

      Managing open innovation: Exploring Challenges at the Interfaces of an open innovation Arena

      Authors : Maria Elmquist, SUSANNE OLLILA

      Source : Creativity & Innovation Management, 2011

      Collaborating with peers to gain access to knowledge is an attractive alternative for organizations keen to improve their innovativeness, and the rising popularity of open innovation has resulted in the emergence of new actors in the innovation process. Previous research focuses mainly on the firms that collaborate with these actors. This paper adopts the perspective of an open innovation actor and the managerial challenges involved. It is based on a case study of SAFER, a Swedish traffic and vehicle safety research unit with 22 collaborating partners. The unit, which is here called an open innovation arena, differs from an intermediary in that it both enables open innovation within a specific field of expertise and envisages itself as a key player in that same field. The case study reveals three types of challenges for the management of an open innovation arena: challenges that arise at the interface with partner organizations, challenges related to collaboration between the partners, and challenges related to the arena itself. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Creativity & innovation Management is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

      [Search references]

      Managing open innovation - Present Findings and Future Directions

      Authors : Maria Elmquist, SUSANNE OLLILA, Tobias Fredberg

      Source : Vinnova Report, 2008

      (abstract missing)

      [Search references]

      Exploring the field of open innovation

      Authors : Maria Elmquist, SUSANNE OLLILA, Tobias Fredberg

      Source : European Journal of Innovation Management, 2009

      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the emerging research field of open innovation and identify where the field is going as well as suggest future fields of research. Design/methodology/approach – All academic papers and books published until November 2007 under the label of open innovation were systematically reviewed. Also, nine key researchers were asked to contribute with their opinions on the research frontier. Findings – A number of key themes in the research were identified, and conclusions on the underlying structure were drawn. This reveals that there is a tendency towards a broader definition and application of the term, a growing critical perspective, and a concentration on theory development and managerial implications. Research limitations/implications – The paper suggests that the locus of the innovation process and the extent of collaboration should be used as two dimensions in a model to further understanding of how open innovation develops. These dimensions have an important impact on both the human and the organizational side of innovation, areas that are highlighted as important fields for further research. Originality/value – Despite the interest in the open innovation topic, a comprehensive review of the academic publications in the area does not seem to exist. The review and the conclusions drawn support the understanding of the growing field.

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      My List [38]

    •  
    • Minshall, Tim

    • how to implement open innovation

    • 3
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    • How do large multinational companies implement open innovation?

      Authors : Letizia Mortara, Tim Minshall

      Source : Technovation, 2011

      (abstract missing)

      [Search references]

      how to implement open innovation

      Authors : Letizia Mortara, Tim Minshall, Johann Napp, Imke Slacik

      Source : The Institute for …, 2009

      Tis report sets out to answer the question: I want to implement open innovation where should I start and what should I do? It provides an overview of existing approaches to OI and outlines how a company can start to implement a strategy to match the organisations needs. Te report will be particularly relevant for CEOs, CTOs and senior managers of R&D and supply chains. It will also be useful for senior managers who have been charged with OI implementation. Te report is the product of two years research within the Cambridge open innovation Network, a network hosted by the Institute for Manufacturing and funded by Unilever and the Cambridge Integrated Knowledge Centre. It illustrates the challenges facing senior managers who are setting out to implement an open innovation strategy in their companies. Te importance of organisational culture, and ways in which the culture can be influenced, has been the key focus of this research. From interviews across various sectors, it was clear that OI means different things to different industries. However, all the companies involved recognised that OI represents an opportunity to improve innovation capability and to confront business challenges. All the contributors to our study showed a great interest in understanding and sharing practice about ways to implement OI in their business.

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      My List [38]

    •  
    • Mortara, Letizia

    • how to implement open innovation

    • 3
    •  
    • How do large multinational companies implement open innovation?

      Authors : Letizia Mortara, Tim Minshall

      Source : Technovation, 2011

      (abstract missing)

      [Search references]

      how to implement open innovation

      Authors : Letizia Mortara, Tim Minshall, Johann Napp, Imke Slacik

      Source : The Institute for …, 2009

      Tis report sets out to answer the question: I want to implement open innovation where should I start and what should I do? It provides an overview of existing approaches to OI and outlines how a company can start to implement a strategy to match the organisations needs. Te report will be particularly relevant for CEOs, CTOs and senior managers of R&D and supply chains. It will also be useful for senior managers who have been charged with OI implementation. Te report is the product of two years research within the Cambridge open innovation Network, a network hosted by the Institute for Manufacturing and funded by Unilever and the Cambridge Integrated Knowledge Centre. It illustrates the challenges facing senior managers who are setting out to implement an open innovation strategy in their companies. Te importance of organisational culture, and ways in which the culture can be influenced, has been the key focus of this research. From interviews across various sectors, it was clear that OI means different things to different industries. However, all the companies involved recognised that OI represents an opportunity to improve innovation capability and to confront business challenges. All the contributors to our study showed a great interest in understanding and sharing practice about ways to implement OI in their business.

      [Search references]
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      My List [38]

    •  
    • Möslein, Kathrin M.

    • open innovation Einführung Grundlagen der open innovation

    • 3
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    • open innovation Maturity: Ein Reifegradkonzept zum Controlling von open innovation

      Authors : Kathrin M. Möslein, Hagen Habicht

      Source : Controlling - Zeitschrift für Erfolgsorientierte Unternehmenssteuerung, 2011

      Viele Firmen sehen in open innovation (OI) großes Potenzial für langfristigen Erfolg. Ihr Einsatz reicht von der Lösung konkreter innovationsaufgaben über das Screening breiter innovationsfelder bis zum Marketinginstrument. OI kann klassische innovationssysteme sinnvoll ergänzen, oder auch komplett ersetzen. Dennoch: „Viele Unternehmen sind noch nicht bereit, sich auf OI einzulassen, sondern suchen nach einer Art OI Light“ [Interview S3/1]. Diese Erfahrung verdeutlicht, dass Unternehmen sich OI als wertvolles Instrument erst erschließen und entsprechende Kompetenzen entwickeln müssen. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt mit open innovation Maturity einen Controlling? Ansatz vor, mit dem Transparenz und Kompetenzentwicklung gezielt adressiert werden.

      [Search references]

      open innovation als innovationsstrategie

      Authors : Kathrin M. Möslein, Bastian Bansemir

      Source : Technologie und Dienstleistung Innovationen in Forschung Wissenschaft und Unternehmen Beiträge der 7 Dienstleistungstagung des BMBF, 2008

      In den vergangenen Jahren beobachteten wir eine intensive Öffnung unternehmerischer innovationsprozesse und zunehmende innovationsaktivität über die Grenzen von Organisationen hinweg. Es wurden dafür Begriffe wie "open innovation", "Demokratisierung von innovation" oder "Interaktive Wertschöpfung" geprägt. Der Beitrag greift diese globale Entwicklung des Unternehmens- und innovationsmanagements auf: den vielfach beschriebenen und empirisch belegbaren Wandel der Wirtschaftspraxis von einem Modell der Closed innovation, praktiziert in weitgehend geschlossenen unternehmensinternen innovationsabteilungen, zu einem Modell der open innovation im wechselseitigen Austausch und der fruchtbaren Interaktion mit externen Innovatoren und Institutionen der Wissens- und innovationsgenerierung.

      [Search references]

      open innovation: Grundlagen, Werkzeuge, Kompetenzentwicklung

      Authors : Ralf Reichwald, Kathrin M. Möslein, Hagen Habicht

      Source : Information Management & Consulting, 2011

      open innovation gilt als grundlegend neues Paradigma mit enormen Potenzialen für den Einzelnen, für Unternehmen und ganze Volkswirtschaften. Chesbrough stellt diese Form der innovation als neuen Ansatz der Wertschöpfung und als überlegenes innovationsmodell gegenüber geschlossenen innovation dar [1]. Andere betrachten open innovation eher mit Skepsis, sie sehen gar ein Risiko für das geistige Eigentum des Innovators. Was verbirgt sich hinter dem Konzept der open innovation? Welche Werkzeuge stehen Unternehmen für open innovation zur Verfügung? Wie können Unternehmen die nötigen Kompetenzen für open innovation erwerben? Wo liegen die Herausforderungen und Chancen für Unternehmen? Bringt open innovation Wettbewerbsvorteile für das innovierende Unternehmen? Diesen Fragen geht der Beitrag nach.

      [Search references]

      open innovation Einführung Grundlagen der open innovation

      Authors : Kathrin M. Möslein, Anne-Katrin Neyer

      Source : Kommunikation als Erfolgsfaktor im Innovationsmanagement, 2009

      open innovation bezeichnet innovationsprozesse, die nicht an den Grenzen von Unternehmen oder deren innovationsabteilungen enden, sondern Akteure unabhängig von deren institutioneller Zugehörigkeit als Ideengeber, Konzeptentwickler oder auch innovationsumsetzer in die Gestaltung von innovationen einbinden. Dieser Beitrag skizziert Grundlagen und Realisierungsformen der open innovation. Er stellt die einzubindenden Akteure und ihre Rollen im innovationsgeschehen vor und führt ein in die fünf zentralen Werkzeugklassen, auf die Unternehmen zur Implementierung von open innovation heute zurückgreifen können. Herausforderungen und Spannungsfelder, die bei der Realisierung von open innovation zu berücksichtigen sind, werden abschließend aufgezeigt.

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      My List [38]

    •  
    • Elmquist, Maria

    • Exploring the field of open innovation

    • 3
    •  
    • Managing open innovation: Exploring Challenges at the Interfaces of an open innovation Arena

      Authors : Maria Elmquist, SUSANNE OLLILA

      Source : Creativity & Innovation Management, 2011

      Collaborating with peers to gain access to knowledge is an attractive alternative for organizations keen to improve their innovativeness, and the rising popularity of open innovation has resulted in the emergence of new actors in the innovation process. Previous research focuses mainly on the firms that collaborate with these actors. This paper adopts the perspective of an open innovation actor and the managerial challenges involved. It is based on a case study of SAFER, a Swedish traffic and vehicle safety research unit with 22 collaborating partners. The unit, which is here called an open innovation arena, differs from an intermediary in that it both enables open innovation within a specific field of expertise and envisages itself as a key player in that same field. The case study reveals three types of challenges for the management of an open innovation arena: challenges that arise at the interface with partner organizations, challenges related to collaboration between the partners, and challenges related to the arena itself. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Creativity & innovation Management is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

      [Search references]

      Managing open innovation - Present Findings and Future Directions

      Authors : Maria Elmquist, SUSANNE OLLILA, Tobias Fredberg

      Source : Vinnova Report, 2008

      (abstract missing)

      [Search references]

      Exploring the field of open innovation

      Authors : Maria Elmquist, SUSANNE OLLILA, Tobias Fredberg

      Source : European Journal of Innovation Management, 2009

      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the emerging research field of open innovation and identify where the field is going as well as suggest future fields of research. Design/methodology/approach – All academic papers and books published until November 2007 under the label of open innovation were systematically reviewed. Also, nine key researchers were asked to contribute with their opinions on the research frontier. Findings – A number of key themes in the research were identified, and conclusions on the underlying structure were drawn. This reveals that there is a tendency towards a broader definition and application of the term, a growing critical perspective, and a concentration on theory development and managerial implications. Research limitations/implications – The paper suggests that the locus of the innovation process and the extent of collaboration should be used as two dimensions in a model to further understanding of how open innovation develops. These dimensions have an important impact on both the human and the organizational side of innovation, areas that are highlighted as important fields for further research. Originality/value – Despite the interest in the open innovation topic, a comprehensive review of the academic publications in the area does not seem to exist. The review and the conclusions drawn support the understanding of the growing field.

      [Search references]
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      My List [38]

    •  
    • Schenker-Wicki, Andrea

    • Fostering radical innovations with open innovation

    • 3
    •  
    • The impact of outside-in open innovation on innovation performance

      Authors : Matthias Inauen, Andrea Schenker-Wicki

      Source : European Journal of Innovation Management, 2011

      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of an open outside-in innovation management strategy on companies’ innovativeness and innovation performance. Specifically, it focuses on the adoption of the open innovation paradigm in practice and the extent of collaboration with different stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed hypotheses are tested empirically using survey data collected from stock-listed companies in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. The data include the complete responses from 141 R&D managers for the period from 2004 to 2008. Findings – The openness of the outside-in process in R&D management is of crucial importance for achieving high direct and indirect innovation output effects. In particular, openness towards customers, suppliers and universities has a significant positive impact on the different innovation performance measures. Regarding openness towards cross-sector companies, the analysis reveals a significant negative effect on innovation performance. Research limitations/implications – The utilization of cross-sectional data and its dependency on the perceptions and experiences of the respondents has its limitations. Thus, future research should be based on a more longitudinal design that emphasizes quantitative measurement techniques. Originality/value – To date, the adoption of open innovation in practice has not been examined in depth. This study provides empirical insights into the open innovation approaches in German-speaking countries and, by drawing important conclusions for managers involved in the R&D processes, fills a gap in the innovation management literature. Keywords open innovation, Outside-in process, openness, innovation performance, innovation, Stakeholders Paper type Research paper European

      [Search references]

      Fostering radical innovations with open innovation

      Authors : Matthias Inauen, Andrea Schenker-Wicki

      Source : European Journal of Innovation Management, 2012

      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of inside-out open innovation (as opposed to closed innovation) on firm innovation performance. Inside-out open innovation involves the exploitation of existing internal technologies through innovation and commercialization. Design/methodology/approach – Hypotheses are tested empirically using survey data collected from stock-listed companies in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. The data include the complete responses from 141 R&D managers for the period from 2004 to 2008. Findings – The results reveal that companies that emphasize inside-out open innovation are more likely to create radical innovations and tend to sell a greater number of new products. Companies pursuing closed innovation are more likely to exhibit a higher incremental product innovation performance. Research limitations/implications – The cross-sectional data approach and its dependency on the perceptions and experiences of the respondents has its limitations. Future research should extend the focus and concept of this study and explore additional closed and open innovation strategies. Originality/value – The adoption of open innovation in practice has not been examined in depth. This study provides empirical insights into the open innovation approaches in German-speaking countries and, by drawing important conclusions and implications for managers involved in the R&D processes, fills a gap in the innovation management literature.

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    •  
    • Inauen, Matthias

    • Fostering radical innovations with open innovation

    • 3
    •  
    • The impact of outside-in open innovation on innovation performance

      Authors : Matthias Inauen, Andrea Schenker-Wicki

      Source : European Journal of Innovation Management, 2011

      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of an open outside-in innovation management strategy on companies’ innovativeness and innovation performance. Specifically, it focuses on the adoption of the open innovation paradigm in practice and the extent of collaboration with different stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed hypotheses are tested empirically using survey data collected from stock-listed companies in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. The data include the complete responses from 141 R&D managers for the period from 2004 to 2008. Findings – The openness of the outside-in process in R&D management is of crucial importance for achieving high direct and indirect innovation output effects. In particular, openness towards customers, suppliers and universities has a significant positive impact on the different innovation performance measures. Regarding openness towards cross-sector companies, the analysis reveals a significant negative effect on innovation performance. Research limitations/implications – The utilization of cross-sectional data and its dependency on the perceptions and experiences of the respondents has its limitations. Thus, future research should be based on a more longitudinal design that emphasizes quantitative measurement techniques. Originality/value – To date, the adoption of open innovation in practice has not been examined in depth. This study provides empirical insights into the open innovation approaches in German-speaking countries and, by drawing important conclusions for managers involved in the R&D processes, fills a gap in the innovation management literature. Keywords open innovation, Outside-in process, openness, innovation performance, innovation, Stakeholders Paper type Research paper European

      [Search references]

      Fostering radical innovations with open innovation

      Authors : Matthias Inauen, Andrea Schenker-Wicki

      Source : European Journal of Innovation Management, 2012

      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of inside-out open innovation (as opposed to closed innovation) on firm innovation performance. Inside-out open innovation involves the exploitation of existing internal technologies through innovation and commercialization. Design/methodology/approach – Hypotheses are tested empirically using survey data collected from stock-listed companies in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. The data include the complete responses from 141 R&D managers for the period from 2004 to 2008. Findings – The results reveal that companies that emphasize inside-out open innovation are more likely to create radical innovations and tend to sell a greater number of new products. Companies pursuing closed innovation are more likely to exhibit a higher incremental product innovation performance. Research limitations/implications – The cross-sectional data approach and its dependency on the perceptions and experiences of the respondents has its limitations. Future research should extend the focus and concept of this study and explore additional closed and open innovation strategies. Originality/value – The adoption of open innovation in practice has not been examined in depth. This study provides empirical insights into the open innovation approaches in German-speaking countries and, by drawing important conclusions and implications for managers involved in the R&D processes, fills a gap in the innovation management literature.

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    •  
    • Antikainen, Maria J.

    • Motivating and supporting collaboration in open innovation

    • 3
    •  
    • Rewarding in open innovation communities – how to motivate members

      Authors : Maria J. Antikainen, Heli K. Vaataja

      Source : International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 2010

      In order to attract and enhance users’ commitment to participate in online open innovation communities, it is important to know what types of motivators are important for the members. Both monetary and non-monetary rewards can be used for motivating participation. In this study we focus on studying the role of rewarding in online open innovation intermediaries.(...)

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      Supporting collective creativity within open innovation

      Authors : Maria J. Antikainen, Mikko Ahonen, M. Mäkipäa

      Source : EURAM 2007 conference proceedings, May, 2007

      Dynamic and turbulent business environment with constant interventions of new technological, social and management innovations force the companies to seek new ways to bind the existing customers more tightly in the innovation process and at the same time, to attract new customers. The fierce competition of customer attention forces companies to create new attractive value creation methods to distinct from masses. Customizing products and services according to customer preferences might do the job for most of the customers but some advanced and enthusiastic customers want to have even more influence on defining process. open innovation is a new emerging paradigm that includes close collaboration with customers in the innovation process, not just in defining the product features from predefined set of alternatives. Recent studies emphasize the need to support of collective creativity instead of individual creativity. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore what motivates customers to collaborate in the innovation process and how this process can be enhanced by offering appropriate tools. A literature review of motivations to participate in online communities is presented and thereafter certain commercial web-based services supporting community collaboration and brokering are illustrated. These cases are also contrasted with Web 2.0 business models to find out what kinds of information systems and toolkits should be used in different communities with different members’ motivations.

      [Search references]

      Motivating and supporting collaboration in open innovation

      Authors : Maria J. Antikainen, Mikko Ahonen, Marko Mäkipää

      Source : European Journal of Innovation Management, 2010

      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore collaboration in open innovation (OI) communities. The paper focuses on the following two research problems: how can users be motivated to collaborate in OI communities and what kind of tools and methods can support collaboration in OI communities? Design/methodology/approach – The exploratory case study includes three innovation intermediaries originated in three different countries: France, The Netherlands and Finland. The primary data source consists of the open-ended questions posted to the maintainers and users by e-mail. The data include five responses from the maintainers and 12 responses from the users. The secondary source is the internet document review. The classification of the factors in the preliminary framework is derived from reading and rereading the answers of the respondents until the themes started emerging from the data. Thereafter, the data are coded according to the chosen themes. Findings – Results suggest that monetary rewards are not always the best way to motivate contributing users. Instead, contributors appreciate many intangible factors, such as community cooperation, learning new ideas and having entertainment. Contributors also appreciate good support and the right cooperation tools from their service provider. Research limitations/implications – The data are based on three cases and a limited amount of participants. Therefore, it may be that in gathering empirical data from a larger group of cases, some new factors will be found. Practical implications – Companies should provide community members with tools that are easy to use, allowing people to express themselves and share their personal details. It seems to be important that maintainers are involved as visible members of a community, which includes telling about themselves in a more detailed way. Originality/value – This paper is one of the first papers focusing on the collaboration perspective of OI communities.

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    •  
    • West, Joel

    • Getting Clear About Communities in open innovation

    • 3
    •  
    • Challenges of open innovation: the paradox of firm investment in open-source software

      Authors : Joel West, Scott Gallagher

      Source : R&D Management, 2006

      open innovation is a powerful framework encompassing the generation, capture, and employment of intellectual property at the firm level. We identify three fundamental challenges for firms in applying the concept of open innovation: finding creative ways to exploit internal innovation, incorporating external innovation into internal development, and motivating outsiders to supply an ongoing stream of external innovations. This latter challenge involves a paradox, why would firms spend money on R&D efforts if the results of these efforts are available to rival firms? To explore these challenges, we examine the activity of firms in open- source software to support their innovation strategies. Firms involved in open-source software often make investments that will be shared with real and potential rivals. We identify four strategies firms employ – pooled R&D/product development, spinouts, selling complements and attracting donated complements – and discuss how they address the three key challenges of open innovation. We conclude with suggestions for how similar strategies may apply in other industries and offer some possible avenues for future research on open innovation.

      [Search references]

      Patterns of open innovation in open Source Software

      Authors : Joel West, Scott Gallagher

      Source : Open innovation researching a new paradigm, 2006

      In this chapter, we consider how open source addresses what we identify as three management challenges of open innovation: maximizing the use of internal innovation; incorporating external innovation into the firm; and motivating a supply of such external innovation to support the firm. We then classify the strategies taken by companies selling open source software based on their business models, and suggest how this fits into broader issues of open innovation.

      [Search references]

      Getting Clear About Communities in open innovation

      Authors : Joel West, Karim R. Lakhani

      Source : Industry & Innovation, 2008

      Research on open source software, user innovation and open innovation have increasingly emphasized the role of communities in creating, shaping and disseminating innovations. However, the comparability of such studies has been hampered by the lack of a precise definition of the community construct. In this paper we review prior definitions (implicit and explicit) of the community construct, and other suggestions for future research.

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    •  
    • Ramos, Isabel

    • open innovation and the solver community

    • 3
    •  
    • open innovation in SMEs : From Closed Boundaries to Networked Paradigm

      Authors : Hakikur Rahman, Isabel Ramos

      Source : Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 2010

      Successful innovation is a key to business growth. In the realm of technological development, innovation processes have been transformed into various forms, like open innovation, crowd- sourcing innovation, or collaborative innovation. This research would like to focus on open inno- vation processes to reach out to the common stakeholders in the entrepreneurship system through small and medium enterprises. It has been observed that to provide innovative services or prod- ucts to the outer periphery of the customer chain, SMEs play an important role. Hence, focusing innovation for SMEs would lead to a newer dimension of innovation research for better business and economic growth. The research emphasizes on various open innovation strategies for SMEs at the outset by focusing transformation of innovation processes from a closed boundary leading to a networked paradigm, try to provide some overview on a few innovation strategies, and de- velop a business model. The paper also discusses about some challenges and barriers that SMEs are facing in implementing open innovation strategies. Before conclusion, it put forwards issues of future research.

      [Search references]

      open innovation and the solver community

      Authors : Margarida Cardoso, Isabel Ramos

      Source : Proceedings of the ACM 2009 international conference on Supporting group work - GROUP '09, 2009

      This paper solver’s behavior and group factors inducing it. The research is now finishing its first Research seeks to understand how solver’s patterns introduces a doctoral research on open innovation year and exploratory strategies are developed close to open innovation online communities, to prepare a systematic methodological approach.

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    •  
    • Mulder, Martin

    • Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams

    • 3
    •  
    • The Challenges of Collaborative Knowledge Creation in open innovation Teams

      Authors : Elise Du Du Chatenier, Onno S. W. F Omta, J. A.A.M. Verstegen, H. J.A. Biemans, Martin Mulder

      Source : Human Resource Development Review, 2009

      In open innovation teams, people from different organizations work together to develop new products, services, or markets. This organizational diversity can positively influence collaborative knowledge creation but can frustrate and obstruct the process as well. To increase the success rates of open innovation, it is vital to learn how individuals create knowledge in open innovation teams and the problems they face. However, HRD research on this topic is still lacking. This article reviews the literature in HRD, organizational, and learning sci- ences, describing how individuals interact when creating knowledge collabora- tively, and gives an overview of the challenges with collaborative knowledge creation in open innovation teams. The article ends with a discussion and con- clusion, and implications for further research.

      [Search references]

      Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams

      Authors : Elise Du Du Chatenier, Onno S. W. F Omta, J. A.A.M. Verstegen, H. J.A. Biemans, Martin Mulder

      Source : R&D Management, 2010

      In the open innovation management literature, it is widely acknowledged that individuals play a crucial role in collaborative knowledge creation processes. However, the literature tends not to explore the human side of open innovation teams. The present article therefore examines the competencies that professionals need for working in open innovation teams (specific but not necessarily unique to open innovation) and to cope with the challenges they face. A qualitative study consisting of explorative interviews and focus group discussions was conducted, resulting in a competence profile for open innovation professionals. The profile adds a new perspective to the field of open innovation management by focusing on how individuals involved in open innovation teams can enhance open innovation success. It reveals, among other things, how professionals can generate new knowledge, build trust, and deal with low reciprocal commit- ment in open innovation teams. Especially, brokering solutions and being socially competent seem to be important for open innovation professionals. Companies should focus on these competencies when supporting their professionals in open innovation teams.

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    •  
    • Verstegen, J. A.A.M.

    • Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams

    • 3
    •  
    • The Challenges of Collaborative Knowledge Creation in open innovation Teams

      Authors : Elise Du Du Chatenier, Onno S. W. F Omta, J. A.A.M. Verstegen, H. J.A. Biemans, Martin Mulder

      Source : Human Resource Development Review, 2009

      In open innovation teams, people from different organizations work together to develop new products, services, or markets. This organizational diversity can positively influence collaborative knowledge creation but can frustrate and obstruct the process as well. To increase the success rates of open innovation, it is vital to learn how individuals create knowledge in open innovation teams and the problems they face. However, HRD research on this topic is still lacking. This article reviews the literature in HRD, organizational, and learning sci- ences, describing how individuals interact when creating knowledge collabora- tively, and gives an overview of the challenges with collaborative knowledge creation in open innovation teams. The article ends with a discussion and con- clusion, and implications for further research.

      [Search references]

      Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams

      Authors : Elise Du Du Chatenier, Onno S. W. F Omta, J. A.A.M. Verstegen, H. J.A. Biemans, Martin Mulder

      Source : R&D Management, 2010

      In the open innovation management literature, it is widely acknowledged that individuals play a crucial role in collaborative knowledge creation processes. However, the literature tends not to explore the human side of open innovation teams. The present article therefore examines the competencies that professionals need for working in open innovation teams (specific but not necessarily unique to open innovation) and to cope with the challenges they face. A qualitative study consisting of explorative interviews and focus group discussions was conducted, resulting in a competence profile for open innovation professionals. The profile adds a new perspective to the field of open innovation management by focusing on how individuals involved in open innovation teams can enhance open innovation success. It reveals, among other things, how professionals can generate new knowledge, build trust, and deal with low reciprocal commit- ment in open innovation teams. Especially, brokering solutions and being socially competent seem to be important for open innovation professionals. Companies should focus on these competencies when supporting their professionals in open innovation teams.

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    •  
    • Biemans, H. J.A.

    • Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams

    • 3
    •  
    • The Challenges of Collaborative Knowledge Creation in open innovation Teams

      Authors : Elise Du Du Chatenier, Onno S. W. F Omta, J. A.A.M. Verstegen, H. J.A. Biemans, Martin Mulder

      Source : Human Resource Development Review, 2009

      In open innovation teams, people from different organizations work together to develop new products, services, or markets. This organizational diversity can positively influence collaborative knowledge creation but can frustrate and obstruct the process as well. To increase the success rates of open innovation, it is vital to learn how individuals create knowledge in open innovation teams and the problems they face. However, HRD research on this topic is still lacking. This article reviews the literature in HRD, organizational, and learning sci- ences, describing how individuals interact when creating knowledge collabora- tively, and gives an overview of the challenges with collaborative knowledge creation in open innovation teams. The article ends with a discussion and con- clusion, and implications for further research.

      [Search references]

      Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams

      Authors : Elise Du Du Chatenier, Onno S. W. F Omta, J. A.A.M. Verstegen, H. J.A. Biemans, Martin Mulder

      Source : R&D Management, 2010

      In the open innovation management literature, it is widely acknowledged that individuals play a crucial role in collaborative knowledge creation processes. However, the literature tends not to explore the human side of open innovation teams. The present article therefore examines the competencies that professionals need for working in open innovation teams (specific but not necessarily unique to open innovation) and to cope with the challenges they face. A qualitative study consisting of explorative interviews and focus group discussions was conducted, resulting in a competence profile for open innovation professionals. The profile adds a new perspective to the field of open innovation management by focusing on how individuals involved in open innovation teams can enhance open innovation success. It reveals, among other things, how professionals can generate new knowledge, build trust, and deal with low reciprocal commit- ment in open innovation teams. Especially, brokering solutions and being socially competent seem to be important for open innovation professionals. Companies should focus on these competencies when supporting their professionals in open innovation teams.

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    •  
    • Brocco, Michele

    • Team recommendation in open innovation networks

    • 3
    •  
    • Team recommendation in open innovation networks

      Authors : Michele Brocco, Georg Groh

      Source : Proceedings of the third ACM conference on Recommender systems RecSys 09, 2009

      open innovation has become an important new paradigm for incorporating external knowledge and sources in the innovation process of organizations. Besides other discussed arguments the resulting large size of innovator networks suggests that algorithmic ...

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    •  
    • Groh, Georg

    • Team recommendation in open innovation networks

    • 3
    •  
    • Team recommendation in open innovation networks

      Authors : Michele Brocco, Georg Groh

      Source : Proceedings of the third ACM conference on Recommender systems RecSys 09, 2009

      open innovation has become an important new paradigm for incorporating external knowledge and sources in the innovation process of organizations. Besides other discussed arguments the resulting large size of innovator networks suggests that algorithmic ...

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    •  
    • Rahman, Hakikur

    • open innovation in SMEs:

    • 3
    •  
    • open innovation in SMEs : From Closed Boundaries to Networked Paradigm

      Authors : Hakikur Rahman, Isabel Ramos

      Source : Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 2010

      Successful innovation is a key to business growth. In the realm of technological development, innovation processes have been transformed into various forms, like open innovation, crowd- sourcing innovation, or collaborative innovation. This research would like to focus on open inno- vation processes to reach out to the common stakeholders in the entrepreneurship system through small and medium enterprises. It has been observed that to provide innovative services or prod- ucts to the outer periphery of the customer chain, SMEs play an important role. Hence, focusing innovation for SMEs would lead to a newer dimension of innovation research for better business and economic growth. The research emphasizes on various open innovation strategies for SMEs at the outset by focusing transformation of innovation processes from a closed boundary leading to a networked paradigm, try to provide some overview on a few innovation strategies, and de- velop a business model. The paper also discusses about some challenges and barriers that SMEs are facing in implementing open innovation strategies. Before conclusion, it put forwards issues of future research.

      [Search references]

      open innovation in SMEs:

      Authors : Hakikur Rahman

      Source : Issues in Informing Science & Information Technology, 2010

      Successful innovation is a key to business growth. In the realm of technological development, innovation processes have been transformed into various forms, like open innovation, crowd-sourcing innovation, or collaborative innovation. This research would like to focus on open innovation processes to reach out to the common stakeholders in the entrepreneurship system through small and medium enterprises. It has been observed that to provide innovative services or products to the outer periphery of the customer chain, SMEs play an important role. Hence, focusing innovation for SMEs would lead to a newer dimension of innovation research for better business and economic growth. The research emphasizes on various open innovation strategies for SMEs at the outset by focusing transformation of innovation processes from a closed boundary leading to a networked paradigm, try to provide some overview on a few innovation strategies, and develop a business model. The paper also discusses about some challenges and barriers that SMEs are facing in implementing open innovation strategies. Before conclusion, it put forwards issues of future research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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    •  
    • Sakkab, Nabil Y.

    • Implementing open innovation

    • 3
    •  
    • Implementing open innovation

      Authors : Larry Huston, Nabil Y. Sakkab

      Source : Research-Technology Management, 2007

      In "Connect & Develop Complements Research & Develop at P&G" (RTM, March-April 2002), Nabil Sakkab described the company's then new strategy of using corporate intranet and "smart" reporting systems to create what was essentially "a global lunchroom." Since then, P&G has advanced its "connect and develop "strategy for open innovation to a point where a little over 50 percent of its pipeline and products in the market have an external technology or an external C&D connection. This has not been achieved by outsourcing R&D but, its developers say, by "in-sourcing creativity" and by fostering co-invention-based interaction with outside resources, as opposed to the conventional transaction-based orientation. Moreover, they see no reason why smaller companies cannot emulate P&G's experience in developing an R&D building innovation capability based upon this new connections model. ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER

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    •  
    • Huston, Larry

    • Implementing open innovation

    • 3
    •  
    • Implementing open innovation

      Authors : Larry Huston, Nabil Y. Sakkab

      Source : Research-Technology Management, 2007

      In "Connect & Develop Complements Research & Develop at P&G" (RTM, March-April 2002), Nabil Sakkab described the company's then new strategy of using corporate intranet and "smart" reporting systems to create what was essentially "a global lunchroom." Since then, P&G has advanced its "connect and develop "strategy for open innovation to a point where a little over 50 percent of its pipeline and products in the market have an external technology or an external C&D connection. This has not been achieved by outsourcing R&D but, its developers say, by "in-sourcing creativity" and by fostering co-invention-based interaction with outside resources, as opposed to the conventional transaction-based orientation. Moreover, they see no reason why smaller companies cannot emulate P&G's experience in developing an R&D building innovation capability based upon this new connections model. ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER

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    •  
    • Fichter, Klaus

    • innovation Communities: the Role of Networks of Promotors in open innovation

    • 3
    •  
    • innovation Communities: the Role of Networks of Promotors in open innovation

      Authors : Klaus Fichter

      Source : R&D Management, 2009

      Research on open innovation has increasingly emphasised the role of communities in creating, shaping and disseminating innovations. However, the comparability of many studies has been hampered by the lack of a precise definition of the community construct, and the research on open innovation has to date not been well connected to insights from research on the role of transformational leaders and the networking of champions and promotors across organisa- tional boundaries. For this reason, this paper introduces a new construct of ‘innovation communities’ based on promotor theory, which it defines as ‘networks of promotors’. It proposes a comprehensive concept of the quality of interaction in innovation communities, and presents findings of three case studies, which explore the role of promotors and networks of promotors in open innovation. The case studies reveal that such transformational leaders as promotors, and especially their close and informal co-operation across functional and organisational boundaries, play a key role in open innovation. 1. Introduction S timulated by Schumpeter’s (1911/1993, 1947) works on the central role played by the entrepreneur in innovation processes, there has been more than half a century of intensive re- search on the role of key persons in innovation. Since the introduction of the term ‘champion’ by Schon (1963), and the ‘promotor’ concept by Witte (1973), there has been little doubt that the human factor plays an important role in innova- tion (Rothwell, 1994). To date, theoretical and empirical work on ‘informal transformational leaders’ (Howell and Higgins, 1990) has focused on company internal innovation management and has mostly been limited to an intra-organisa- tional perspective. However, the growing need for inter-organisational co-operation for innovation success demand

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    •  
    • Almirall, Esteve

    • Living Labs and open innovation: roles and applicability

    • 3
    •  
    • Living Labs and open innovation: roles and applicability

      Authors : Esteve Almirall, Jonathan Wareham

      Source : The Electronic Journal for …, 2008

      Last decades and especially since the massive generalization of web 2.0, we have assisted to a blossoming of the role of users, either as generators of contents or as direct contributors in the innovation process. However these contributions are better characterized as lacking structure and governance making it difficult to actively build on them in terms of both business process and policy. On the other side, broadening the inflows of companies in the innovation process in order to capture the benefits of globalization posses a massive filtering problem: How to be aware, reach and select the right ideas. This problem, massive per se, becomes even greater if we include user contributions. Living Labs, small organizations that aim to capture users’ insights, prototype and validate solutions in real life contexts, aim to contribute to both problems providing structure and governance to the user involvement and methodologies and organizations to filter and sense user insights. This work aims to situate their contribution in the context of open innovation at micro level and in Systems of innovation at macro level while providing insights on both where are there more effective and where their main limitations lie.

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    •  
    • Wareham, Jonathan

    • Living Labs and open innovation: roles and applicability

    • 3
    •  
    • Living Labs and open innovation: roles and applicability

      Authors : Esteve Almirall, Jonathan Wareham

      Source : The Electronic Journal for …, 2008

      Last decades and especially since the massive generalization of web 2.0, we have assisted to a blossoming of the role of users, either as generators of contents or as direct contributors in the innovation process. However these contributions are better characterized as lacking structure and governance making it difficult to actively build on them in terms of both business process and policy. On the other side, broadening the inflows of companies in the innovation process in order to capture the benefits of globalization posses a massive filtering problem: How to be aware, reach and select the right ideas. This problem, massive per se, becomes even greater if we include user contributions. Living Labs, small organizations that aim to capture users’ insights, prototype and validate solutions in real life contexts, aim to contribute to both problems providing structure and governance to the user involvement and methodologies and organizations to filter and sense user insights. This work aims to situate their contribution in the context of open innovation at micro level and in Systems of innovation at macro level while providing insights on both where are there more effective and where their main limitations lie.

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    •  
    • FRATTINI, FEDERICO

    • Fiat: open innovation in a Downturn (1993–2003)

    • 3
    •  
    • The open innovation Journey: How firms dynamically implement the emerging innovation management paradigm

      Authors : FEDERICO FRATTINI, Davide Chiaroni, Vittorio Chiesa

      Source : Technovation, 2011

      (abstract missing)

      [Search references]

      Fiat: open innovation in a Downturn (1993–2003)

      Authors : Alberto Di Minin, Andrea Piccaluga, FEDERICO FRATTINI

      Source : California Management Review, 2010

      The article discusses how the automobile manufacturer Fiat developed innovative engine technologies during the 1990s, despite a business cycle downturn. It focuses on the innovation management strategy implemented by chief executive officer Gian Carlo Michellone, which is termed the open innovation paradigm. The success of this approach is described, and recommendations on how the open innovation paradigm could be applied to other businesses are presented. It is noted that the success of the open innovation paradigm is dependent on the support of senior executive leadership during adverse economic conditions. INSETS: BOX 1: CRF's Traditional Closed innovation Model;BOX 2: The Success of Mr. Michellone's open innovation Model...;BOX 3: The Partnership with Beghelli and the Early Uniair...;BOX 4: Year 2005--New Challenges, New Management

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    •  
    • Cloodt, M

    • open innovation in value networks

    • 3
    •  
    • open innovation in value networks

      Authors : Wim Vanhaverbeke, M Cloodt

      Source : Open innovation: Researching a new paradigm, 2006

      ... Chapter 13 4 31 October 2005 knowledge sourcing, interorganizational ties and network governance call for an ... the agricultural biotech and analyze how companies establish different value constellations that are enabled by the agricultural biotechnology . The third section ...

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    •  
    • Torkkeli, Marko

    • The “open innovation” paradigm: A contingency perspective

    • 3
    •  
    • ISPIM special issue on open innovation

      Authors : Eelko Huizingh, Marko Torkkeli, Steffen Conn

      Source : Technovation, 2011

      (abstract missing)

      [Search references]

      The “open innovation” paradigm: A contingency perspective

      Authors : Marko Torkkeli, Pekka A. S. Salmi, Carl Joachim Kock

      Source : Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 2009

      The open innovation model is currently being touted as a superior path for achieving long-term success. Rather than relying on their own, limited resources for research and development in the traditional, closed invention system, firms are encouraged to share knowledge across firm boundaries to enhance their innovative potential. Yet, such sharing may also have adverse consequences by reducing the rarity of a firms inventions. This paper accordingly attempts to identify and analyze the parameters that determine whether open or closed types of innovation management are most appropriate for a given firm. Following a contingency perspective, we examine these determinants as various internal and external constraints (situational factors). More specifically, applying concepts related to absorptive capacity, complementary resources, game theory and others, we derive testable propositions and provide case study evidence regarding the value generating properties of open innovation.

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    •  
    • Habicht, Hagen

    • open innovation: Grundlagen, Werkzeuge, Kompetenzentwicklung

    • 3
    •  
    • open innovation Maturity: Ein Reifegradkonzept zum Controlling von open innovation

      Authors : Kathrin M. Möslein, Hagen Habicht

      Source : Controlling - Zeitschrift für Erfolgsorientierte Unternehmenssteuerung, 2011

      Viele Firmen sehen in open innovation (OI) großes Potenzial für langfristigen Erfolg. Ihr Einsatz reicht von der Lösung konkreter innovationsaufgaben über das Screening breiter innovationsfelder bis zum Marketinginstrument. OI kann klassische innovationssysteme sinnvoll ergänzen, oder auch komplett ersetzen. Dennoch: „Viele Unternehmen sind noch nicht bereit, sich auf OI einzulassen, sondern suchen nach einer Art OI Light“ [Interview S3/1]. Diese Erfahrung verdeutlicht, dass Unternehmen sich OI als wertvolles Instrument erst erschließen und entsprechende Kompetenzen entwickeln müssen. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt mit open innovation Maturity einen Controlling? Ansatz vor, mit dem Transparenz und Kompetenzentwicklung gezielt adressiert werden.

      [Search references]

      open innovation: Grundlagen, Werkzeuge, Kompetenzentwicklung

      Authors : Ralf Reichwald, Kathrin M. Möslein, Hagen Habicht

      Source : Information Management & Consulting, 2011

      open innovation gilt als grundlegend neues Paradigma mit enormen Potenzialen für den Einzelnen, für Unternehmen und ganze Volkswirtschaften. Chesbrough stellt diese Form der innovation als neuen Ansatz der Wertschöpfung und als überlegenes innovationsmodell gegenüber geschlossenen innovation dar [1]. Andere betrachten open innovation eher mit Skepsis, sie sehen gar ein Risiko für das geistige Eigentum des Innovators. Was verbirgt sich hinter dem Konzept der open innovation? Welche Werkzeuge stehen Unternehmen für open innovation zur Verfügung? Wie können Unternehmen die nötigen Kompetenzen für open innovation erwerben? Wo liegen die Herausforderungen und Chancen für Unternehmen? Bringt open innovation Wettbewerbsvorteile für das innovierende Unternehmen? Diesen Fragen geht der Beitrag nach.

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    •  
    • Vaataja, Heli K.

    • Rewarding in open innovation communities – how to motivate members

    • 3
    •  
    • Rewarding in open innovation communities – how to motivate members

      Authors : Maria J. Antikainen, Heli K. Vaataja

      Source : International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 2010

      In order to attract and enhance users’ commitment to participate in online open innovation communities, it is important to know what types of motivators are important for the members. Both monetary and non-monetary rewards can be used for motivating participation. In this study we focus on studying the role of rewarding in online open innovation intermediaries.(...)

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    •  
    • Gemünden, Hans Georg

    • Role Models for Radical innovations in Times of open innovation

    • 3
    •  
    • Role Models for Radical innovations in Times of open innovation

      Authors : Hans Georg Gemünden, Katharina Hölzle, Sören Salomo

      Source : Creativity and Innovation Management, 2007

      In this paper, we study the influence of innovator roles in highly innovative ventures. In order to obtain a differentiated picture we take into account the degree of innovativeness as a moderating variable. To test our hypotheses we use a sample of 146 highly innovative new product development projects. We choose a rigorous sampling design and apply state-of-the- art measures for the degree of innovativeness. Furthermore, we apply multi-trait-multi- method methodology (MTMM) to enhance the validity of our study. The results show that innovator roles have a strong influence on innovation success but these influences are posi- tively and negatively moderated by innovativeness. The moderating influences depend on the type of innovativeness. Remarkably, with increasing technological innovativeness innovator roles which create inter-organizational links with the outside world appear to be more impor- tant than intra-organizational linker roles, and support from high-ranked organizational members turns out to have a significant negative effect on project success with higher degrees of technological innovativeness. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed and consequences for innovation research and innovation management are shown.

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    •  
    • Hölzle, Katharina

    • Role Models for Radical innovations in Times of open innovation

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    • Role Models for Radical innovations in Times of open innovation

      Authors : Hans Georg Gemünden, Katharina Hölzle, Sören Salomo

      Source : Creativity and Innovation Management, 2007

      In this paper, we study the influence of innovator roles in highly innovative ventures. In order to obtain a differentiated picture we take into account the degree of innovativeness as a moderating variable. To test our hypotheses we use a sample of 146 highly innovative new product development projects. We choose a rigorous sampling design and apply state-of-the- art measures for the degree of innovativeness. Furthermore, we apply multi-trait-multi- method methodology (MTMM) to enhance the validity of our study. The results show that innovator roles have a strong influence on innovation success but these influences are posi- tively and negatively moderated by innovativeness. The moderating influences depend on the type of innovativeness. Remarkably, with increasing technological innovativeness innovator roles which create inter-organizational links with the outside world appear to be more impor- tant than intra-organizational linker roles, and support from high-ranked organizational members turns out to have a significant negative effect on project success with higher degrees of technological innovativeness. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed and consequences for innovation research and innovation management are shown.

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    • Conte, M

    • Living Labs in open innovation Functional Regions.

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    • Living Labs in open innovation Functional Regions.

      Authors : R Santoro, M Conte

      Source : amicommunitiesnet, 2010

      Einführungsansatz von LL: Regionale und lokale Wirtschaft organisieren Professionelle Communities einrichten LL aufbauen LL Aufbau in 2 Schritten: Set-up und Operation: Vorgänge genau beschrieben

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    • Santoro, R

    • Living Labs in open innovation Functional Regions.

    • 3
    •  
    • Living Labs in open innovation Functional Regions.

      Authors : R Santoro, M Conte

      Source : amicommunitiesnet, 2010

      Einführungsansatz von LL: Regionale und lokale Wirtschaft organisieren Professionelle Communities einrichten LL aufbauen LL Aufbau in 2 Schritten: Set-up und Operation: Vorgänge genau beschrieben

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    • Jarvenpaa, Sirkka L.

    • Paradoxical tensions in open innovation networks

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    • Paradoxical tensions in open innovation networks

      Authors : Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa, Alina Wernick

      Source : European Journal of Innovation Management, 2011

      Purpose – This paper aims to advance the paradox management perspective by applying it to open innovation networks in Finland and argues that paradox management is an important explicit logic to consider in the management of open innovation. Design/methodology approach – Interviews sought the views of diverse network participants, including companies, universities, and government agencies. Findings – The open innovation networks exhibited many of the same tensions discussed in innovation initiatives within organizations, but additional complexities arose from both internal and external factors. Research limitations/implications – The study examined open innovation networks when the collaboration in the networks was still in early phases. Thus, the study does not capture the paradoxes, underlying tensions, and management approaches as they change in later phases. Practical implications – The open innovation networks require the ability to excel in managing a set of paradoxical tensions using a complex repertoire of approaches. open innovation can be seen as an important way to create dynamicity and change, and if managers are able to manage tensions using a complex set of behavioral approaches, they can more likely achieve increased innovation. Originality/value – The open innovation literature recognizes paradoxes but does not address their management directly. This paper deepens the understanding of paradoxical tensions and their management across open innovation networks that take the form of public-private partnerships. Keywordsopeninnovation, innovationnetworks,Paradoxmanagement,Tensions, innovation, Finland Paper type Research paper.

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    • Wernick, Alina

    • Paradoxical tensions in open innovation networks

    • 3
    •  
    • Paradoxical tensions in open innovation networks

      Authors : Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa, Alina Wernick

      Source : European Journal of Innovation Management, 2011

      Purpose – This paper aims to advance the paradox management perspective by applying it to open innovation networks in Finland and argues that paradox management is an important explicit logic to consider in the management of open innovation. Design/methodology approach – Interviews sought the views of diverse network participants, including companies, universities, and government agencies. Findings – The open innovation networks exhibited many of the same tensions discussed in innovation initiatives within organizations, but additional complexities arose from both internal and external factors. Research limitations/implications – The study examined open innovation networks when the collaboration in the networks was still in early phases. Thus, the study does not capture the paradoxes, underlying tensions, and management approaches as they change in later phases. Practical implications – The open innovation networks require the ability to excel in managing a set of paradoxical tensions using a complex repertoire of approaches. open innovation can be seen as an important way to create dynamicity and change, and if managers are able to manage tensions using a complex set of behavioral approaches, they can more likely achieve increased innovation. Originality/value – The open innovation literature recognizes paradoxes but does not address their management directly. This paper deepens the understanding of paradoxical tensions and their management across open innovation networks that take the form of public-private partnerships. Keywordsopeninnovation, innovationnetworks,Paradoxmanagement,Tensions, innovation, Finland Paper type Research paper.

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    • Ferrary, Michel

    • Specialized organizations and ambidextrous clusters in the open innovation paradigm

    • 3
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    • Specialized organizations and ambidextrous clusters in the open innovation paradigm

      Authors : Michel Ferrary

      Source : European Management Journal, 2011

      (abstract missing)

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    • Rao, Govind

    • open innovation in global networks

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    • open innovation in global networks

      Authors : Govind Rao

      Source : PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology / PDA, 2008

      As global competition intensifies and innovation becomes riskier and more costly the business sectro has been internationalising knowlesge-intensive corporate functions, including R&D. At the time, companies are increasingly opening their innovation processes and collaborating on innovation with external partners (suppliers, cistomers, universities, etsc.). This clearly has important implications for policy making, given the important role of innovation in OECD countries' economic growth. This issue has recently been addressed in an OECD projekt on "globalisation and open innovation" undertaken by the OECD Working Party on innovation and Technology Policy (TIP).

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    • Lee, Sungjoo

    • open innovation in SMEs-An intermediated network model

    • 3
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    • open innovation in SMEs-An intermediated network model

      Authors : Sungjoo Lee, Jinwoo Park, Gwangman Park, Byungun Yoon

      Source : Research Policy, 2010

      (abstract missing)

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    • Park, Jinwoo

    • open innovation in SMEs-An intermediated network model

    • 3
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    • open innovation in SMEs-An intermediated network model

      Authors : Sungjoo Lee, Jinwoo Park, Gwangman Park, Byungun Yoon

      Source : Research Policy, 2010

      (abstract missing)

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    • Chiaroni, Davide

    • The open innovation Journey: How firms dynamically implement the emerging i...

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    • The open innovation Journey: How firms dynamically implement the emerging innovation management paradigm

      Authors : FEDERICO FRATTINI, Davide Chiaroni, Vittorio Chiesa

      Source : Technovation, 2011

      (abstract missing)

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    • Gallagher, Scott

    • Patterns of open innovation in open Source Software

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    • Challenges of open innovation: the paradox of firm investment in open-source software

      Authors : Joel West, Scott Gallagher

      Source : R&D Management, 2006

      open innovation is a powerful framework encompassing the generation, capture, and employment of intellectual property at the firm level. We identify three fundamental challenges for firms in applying the concept of open innovation: finding creative ways to exploit internal innovation, incorporating external innovation into internal development, and motivating outsiders to supply an ongoing stream of external innovations. This latter challenge involves a paradox, why would firms spend money on R&D efforts if the results of these efforts are available to rival firms? To explore these challenges, we examine the activity of firms in open- source software to support their innovation strategies. Firms involved in open-source software often make investments that will be shared with real and potential rivals. We identify four strategies firms employ – pooled R&D/product development, spinouts, selling complements and attracting donated complements – and discuss how they address the three key challenges of open innovation. We conclude with suggestions for how similar strategies may apply in other industries and offer some possible avenues for future research on open innovation.

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      Patterns of open innovation in open Source Software

      Authors : Joel West, Scott Gallagher

      Source : Open innovation researching a new paradigm, 2006

      In this chapter, we consider how open source addresses what we identify as three management challenges of open innovation: maximizing the use of internal innovation; incorporating external innovation into the firm; and motivating a supply of such external innovation to support the firm. We then classify the strategies taken by companies selling open source software based on their business models, and suggest how this fits into broader issues of open innovation.

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    • Salmi, Pekka A. S.

    • The “open innovation” paradigm: A contingency perspective

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    • The “open innovation” paradigm: A contingency perspective

      Authors : Marko Torkkeli, Pekka A. S. Salmi, Carl Joachim Kock

      Source : Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 2009

      The open innovation model is currently being touted as a superior path for achieving long-term success. Rather than relying on their own, limited resources for research and development in the traditional, closed invention system, firms are encouraged to share knowledge across firm boundaries to enhance their innovative potential. Yet, such sharing may also have adverse consequences by reducing the rarity of a firms inventions. This paper accordingly attempts to identify and analyze the parameters that determine whether open or closed types of innovation management are most appropriate for a given firm. Following a contingency perspective, we examine these determinants as various internal and external constraints (situational factors). More specifically, applying concepts related to absorptive capacity, complementary resources, game theory and others, we derive testable propositions and provide case study evidence regarding the value generating properties of open innovation.

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    • Slacik, Imke

    • how to implement open innovation

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    • how to implement open innovation

      Authors : Letizia Mortara, Tim Minshall, Johann Napp, Imke Slacik

      Source : The Institute for …, 2009

      Tis report sets out to answer the question: I want to implement open innovation where should I start and what should I do? It provides an overview of existing approaches to OI and outlines how a company can start to implement a strategy to match the organisations needs. Te report will be particularly relevant for CEOs, CTOs and senior managers of R&D and supply chains. It will also be useful for senior managers who have been charged with OI implementation. Te report is the product of two years research within the Cambridge open innovation Network, a network hosted by the Institute for Manufacturing and funded by Unilever and the Cambridge Integrated Knowledge Centre. It illustrates the challenges facing senior managers who are setting out to implement an open innovation strategy in their companies. Te importance of organisational culture, and ways in which the culture can be influenced, has been the key focus of this research. From interviews across various sectors, it was clear that OI means different things to different industries. However, all the companies involved recognised that OI represents an opportunity to improve innovation capability and to confront business challenges. All the contributors to our study showed a great interest in understanding and sharing practice about ways to implement OI in their business.

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    • Napp, Johann

    • how to implement open innovation

    • 3
    •  
    • how to implement open innovation

      Authors : Letizia Mortara, Tim Minshall, Johann Napp, Imke Slacik

      Source : The Institute for …, 2009

      Tis report sets out to answer the question: I want to implement open innovation where should I start and what should I do? It provides an overview of existing approaches to OI and outlines how a company can start to implement a strategy to match the organisations needs. Te report will be particularly relevant for CEOs, CTOs and senior managers of R&D and supply chains. It will also be useful for senior managers who have been charged with OI implementation. Te report is the product of two years research within the Cambridge open innovation Network, a network hosted by the Institute for Manufacturing and funded by Unilever and the Cambridge Integrated Knowledge Centre. It illustrates the challenges facing senior managers who are setting out to implement an open innovation strategy in their companies. Te importance of organisational culture, and ways in which the culture can be influenced, has been the key focus of this research. From interviews across various sectors, it was clear that OI means different things to different industries. However, all the companies involved recognised that OI represents an opportunity to improve innovation capability and to confront business challenges. All the contributors to our study showed a great interest in understanding and sharing practice about ways to implement OI in their business.

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    • Dahlander, Linus

    • Online Communities and open innovation

    • 3
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    • Managing open innovation

      Authors : Linus Dahlander

      Source : Hanbook of Innovation Management, 2011

      Much evidence identifies innovation as the main driver for companies to prosper, grow and sustain a high profitability (e.g. Drucker, 1988; Christensen 1997; Thomke, 2001). This means that the questions that are asked in research no longer revolve around why innovation is important. The focus instead lies on how to innovate and how innovation processes can be managed. A recently proposed and popularized model for the management of innovation is based on the need for companies to open up their innovation processes and combine internally and externally developed technologies to create business value. This notion of open innovation, was first proposed by (Chesbrough 2003a; 2003b) and has quickly gained the interest of both researchers and practitioners, illustrated by a number of special issue publications, dedicated conferences and a rapidly growing body of literature (...)

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      Online Communities and open innovation

      Authors : Linus Dahlander, Francesco Rullani, Lars Frederiksen

      Source : Industry & Innovation, 2008

      How can firms make use of online communities as part of an innovation strategy aimed at leveraging resources and ideas outside the four walls of the enterprise? Online communities are today a widespread phenomenon that takes a variety of forms. Free and open source software is probably the most well-known case, where geographically dispersed individuals collectively develop new software and produce innovation. In 1991 Linus Torvalds founded the Linux kernel, the heart of an operating system with the ability to have a real impact on Microsoft’s market share. Torvalds’ initial ideas led to the building of a community that collectively developed the Linux kernel. From the original incorporation of some 10,000 lines of source code, by 2005 the community had developed more than 6,000,000 lines of code. But online communities are more than simply free and open source software. For instance, social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace, which have memberships of millions, have grown rapidly, allowing individuals to share experiences and socialize with each other. From initially being exclusively for participation by Harvard students, Facebook, according to recent estimates, now has more than 60 million users worldwide. The popular press has been swift to document these successes, and it is tempting to conclude that online communities have great potential. Yet, their diversity, in terms of objectives, typology of organization, production and reasons behind individuals’ use of them, is becoming obvious.

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