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Gregory N Connolly – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • tobacco industry control of Menthol in cigarettes and targeting of adolescents and young adults
    American Journal of Public Health, 2008
    Co-Authors: Jennifer M Kreslake, Geoffrey Ferris Wayne, Hillel R Alpert, Gregory N Connolly

    Abstract:

    Objectives. We examined whether tobacco manufacturers manipulate the Menthol content of cigarettes in an effort to target adolescents and young adults.Methods. We analyzed data from tobacco industry documents describing Menthol product development, results of laboratory testing of US Menthol brands, market research reports, and the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.Results. The tobacco industry attracted new smokers by promoting cigarettes with lower Menthol content, which were popular with adolescents and young adults, and provided cigarettes with higher Menthol content to long-term smokers. Menthol cigarette sales remained stable from 2000 to 2005 in the United States, despite a 22% decline in overall packs sold.Conclusions. Tobacco companies manipulate the sensory characteristics of cigarettes, including Menthol content, thereby facilitating smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. Menthol brands that have used this strategy have been the most successful in attracting youth and young adult…

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  • the Menthol smoker tobacco industry research on consumer sensory perception of Menthol cigarettes and its role in smoking behavior
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2008
    Co-Authors: Jennifer M Kreslake, Geoffrey Ferris Wayne, Gregory N Connolly

    Abstract:

    The use of Menthol in cigarettes is actively promoted by the tobacco industry for its perceived sensory benefits, and smokers of Menthol cigarettes commonly differ from nonMenthol smokers in markers of smoking behavior and addiction. In this study, we analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to describe the relationships between sensory perception and the attitudes, preferences, and patterns of cigarette use among Menthol smokers. Two unique types of Menthol smoker emerged from this analysis: those who cannot tolerate the harshness and irritation associated with smoking nonMenthol cigarettes, and those who seek out the specific Menthol flavor and associated physical sensation. Among the first segment of Menthol smokers, Menthol reduces negative sensory characteristics associated with smoking. This segment of smokers may include a large proportion of occasional smokers or young people, as well as smokers who have “traded down” to a less strong cigarette because of perceived harshness or negative health effects. Some established Menthol smokers, on the other hand, appear to be tolerant of and even actively seek stronger sensory attributes, including higher Menthol levels. Smokers of these “stronger” Menthols have traditionally been disproportionately Black and male. Some beginning or occasional smokers may adopt Menthols for their mild properties and to cover up the taste of tobacco, but then develop a stronger desire for the Menthol taste over time. Future research measuring smoking behavior and evaluating cessation outcomes of Menthol smokers should consider the duration of Menthol use and differentiate smokers according to their reasons for using Menthols.

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Michael K Cummings – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • what would Menthol smokers do if Menthol in cigarettes were banned behavioral intentions and simulated demand
    Addiction, 2012
    Co-Authors: Richard J Oconnor, Lawrence P Carter, Michael K Cummings, Maansi Bansaltravers

    Abstract:

    Aims  The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of Menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on Menthol cigarettes.

    Design  Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.

    Setting  United States, 2010.

    Participants  A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.

    Measurements  Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if Menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for Menthol and non-Menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.

    Findings  Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked Menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on Menthol cigarettes, 35% of current Menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would ‘find a way to buy a Menthol brand’. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit Menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for Menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-Menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.

    Conclusions  Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of Menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned.

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David B Abrams – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Menthol and non-Menthol smoking: the impact of prices and smoke-free air laws.
    Addiction (Abingdon England), 2020
    Co-Authors: John A Tauras, Frank J Chaloupka, Andrea C Villanti, Raymond Niaura, Donna Vallone, David Levy, David B Abrams

    Abstract:

    To examine the relationship between Menthol and non-Menthol prices and smoke-free air laws and the choice between Menthol and non-Menthol cigarettes among current smokers.
    Data were extracted from the nationally representative (USA) 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. A total of 57,383 adult smokers (aged 18+) were examined.
    A regression model was used to estimate the probability of being a Menthol smoker conditional on being a current smoker who had a distinct preference for either non-Menthol or Menthol cigarettes. Cigarette prices, smoke-free air laws and socio-economic and demographic characteristics were examined as covariates.
    The prices of Menthol and non-Menthol cigarettes were associated with the choice between Menthol and non-Menthol cigarettes. However, smokers did not find Menthol and non-Menthol cigarettes to be close substitutes for one another. Non-Menthol cigarettes were found to be less of a substitute for Menthol cigarettes than vice versa. Young adults and African Americans were less responsive to prices with respect to switching between Menthol and non-Menthol cigarettes than were older adults and non-African Americans, respectively.
    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is grappling with the issue of whether or not to ban Menthol cigarettes. The findings from this study suggest that smokers do not find Menthol and non-Menthol cigarettes to be close substitutes. The strong preference for Mentholated cigarettes may serve as a lever to reduce smoking prevalence when combined with increased access to effective cessation treatments.
    © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

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  • changes in the prevalence and correlates of Menthol cigarette use in the usa 2004 2014
    Tobacco Control, 2016
    Co-Authors: Andrea C Villanti, Cristine D Delnevo, David B Abrams, Paul Mowery, Raymond Niaura, Gary A Giovino

    Abstract:

    Introduction National data from 2004 to 2010 showed that despite decreases in non-Menthol cigarette use prevalence, Menthol cigarette use prevalence remained constant in adolescents and adults and increased in young adults. The purpose of the current study was to extend these analyses through 2014. Methods We estimated the prevalence of Menthol cigarette smoking in the USA during 2004–2014 using annual cross-sectional data on persons aged ≥12 years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Self-reported Menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively Menthol or non-Menthol were adjusted based on retail sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. Results Although overall smoking prevalence has decreased, the proportion of past 30-day cigarette smokers using Menthol cigarettes was higher (39%) in 2012–2014 compared to 2008–2010 (35%). Youth smokers remain the most likely group to use Menthol cigarettes compared to all other age groups. Menthol cigarette prevalence has increased in white, Asian and Hispanic smokers since 2010. Menthol cigarette prevalence exceeded non-Menthol cigarette prevalence in youth and young adult smokers in 2014. Among smokers, Menthol cigarette use was positively correlated with co-use of cigars. Menthol cigarette and smokeless tobacco co-use also increased from 2004 to 2014. Conclusions The youngest smokers are most likely to use Menthol cigarettes. Among smokers, increases in overall Menthol cigarette use and Menthol cigarette use in whites, Asians and Hispanics since 2010 are of concern. There is tremendous urgency to limit the impact of Menthol cigarettes on public health, particularly the health of youth and young adults.

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  • differential trends in cigarette smoking in the usa is Menthol slowing progress
    Tobacco Control, 2015
    Co-Authors: Gary A Giovino, David B Abrams, Andrea C Villanti, Donna Vallone, Paul Mowery, Varadan Sevilimedu, Raymond Niaura

    Abstract:

    Introduction Mentholated cigarettes are at least as dangerous to an individual9s health as non-Mentholated varieties. The addition of Menthol to cigarettes reduces perceived harshness of smoke, which can facilitate initiation. Here, we examine correlates of Menthol use, national trends in smoking Menthol and non-Menthol cigarettes, and brand preferences over time. Methods We estimated Menthol cigarette use during 2004–2010 using annual data on persons ≥12 years old from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We adjusted self-reported Menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively Menthol or non-Menthol, based on sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. Results Among cigarette smokers, Menthol cigarette use was more common among 12–17 year olds (56.7%) and 18–25 year olds (45.0%) than among older persons (range 30.5% to 34.7%). In a multivariable analysis, Menthol use was associated with being younger, female and of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. Among all adolescents, the percentage who smoked non-Menthol cigarettes decreased from 2004–2010, while Menthol smoking rates remained constant; among all young adults, the percentage who smoked non-Menthol cigarettes also declined, while Menthol smoking rates increased. The use of Camel Menthol and Marlboro Menthol increased among adolescent and young adult smokers, particularly non-Hispanic Caucasians, during the study period. Conclusions Young people are heavy consumers of Mentholated cigarettes. Progress in reducing youth smoking has likely been attenuated by the sale and marketing of Mentholated cigarettes, including emerging varieties of established youth brands. This study should inform the Food and Drug Administration regarding the potential public health impact of a Menthol ban.

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