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Raw Material

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Raw Material - Free Register to Access Experts & Abstracts

Xiangzhi Li - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • environmental assessment of sewage sludge as secondary Raw Material in cement production a case study in china
    Waste Management, 2011
    Co-Authors: Jinglan Hong, Xiangzhi Li
    Abstract:

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of sewage sludge as secondary Raw Material in cement production. To confirm and add credibility to the study, uncertainty analysis was conducted. Results showed the impact generated from respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, global warming, and non-renewable energy categories had an important contribution to overall environmental impact, due to energy, clinker, and limestone production stages. Also, uncertainty analysis results showed the technology of sewage sludge as secondary Raw Material in cement production had little or no effect on changing the overall environmental potential impact generated from general cement production. Accordingly, using the technology of sewage sludge as secondary Raw Material in cement production is a good choice for reducing the pressure on the environment from dramatically increased sludge disposal. In addition, increasing electricity recovery rate, choosing natural gas fired electricity generation technology, and optimizing the Raw Material consumption in clinker production are highly recommended to reduce the adverse effects on the environment.

Jason E. Dickens - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Enabling Robust and Rapid Raw Material Identification and Release by Handheld Raman Spectroscopy
    Pda Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Thomas E. Matthews, Christine Coffman, Dave Kolwyck, Dan Hill, Jason E. Dickens
    Abstract:

    A fast, reproducible, non-destructive method is desired to confirm Raw Material identification in real-time upon receipt within a warehouse environment. Current practices in pharmaceutical manufacturing often employs compendia methods for Raw Material identification tests, which require sample preparation prior to time consuming chemical analysis and often employ subjective spectral comparisons. We have developed, qualified and validated a rapid objective identity method (“Rapid ID”) by Raman spectroscopy using the Bruker BRAVO handheld Raman spectrometer for forty-six (46) common Raw Materials used in upstream and downstream biopharmaceutical cell culture based processes. Materials in the Raman identification library include amino acids and other solid neat organic chemicals, liquid organics, polyatomic salts, polymers, emulsifiers, peptides, aqueous solutions and buffers. Selection of reference spectra and hit quality index limit(s) was based upon a comprehensive spectral survey across multiple suppliers and lots to account for normal cause spectral variation. Method repeatability and reproducibility, selectivity, and robustness against various operational and environmental factors (e.g., instrumental variance, Material packaging, and thermal effects) were evaluated. Benefits of a handheld Raman Rapid ID approach include significant time reduction of Raw Material quality release from weeks to minutes, enhanced objectivity, and robust data integrity via autonomous electronic reporting. Additionally, routine collection of rich spectroscopic data on Raw Materials can be leveraged to support further continuous improvement initiatives, including routine monitoring of method performance, continuous improvement of the library, proactively detecting shifts in Raw Material properties and providing data for investigations focused on Raw Materials. Rapid ID methods are consistent with the move toward the principles of Pharma 4.0: high automated processes with continuous process verification and a holistic control strategy.

  • Biopharmaceutical Raw Material variation and control
    Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 2018
    Co-Authors: Jason E. Dickens, Thomas E. Matthews, Dave Kolwyck, Sarwat F. Khattak, Kelly Wiltberger
    Abstract:

    The current paradigm for Raw Material control in the biopharmaceutical industry remains a combination of compendial tests, function-based test and engineering controls. Moreover, ad hoc scale-down process studies remain the de facto approach to understand Raw Material variation challenges. The biopharmaceutical industry, however, continues to experience the impact of Raw Material variation are current approaches are insufficient to assess key Raw Material attributes. Here we review the current state of Raw Material variation and its biopharmaceutical impact along with analytical methods optimized for Raw Material characterization. A systematic Raw Material characterization and control strategy is then outlined as an integrated approach to address cell culture Raw Material variation challenges. This comprehensive long-term approach can be applied throughout the biopharmaceutical manufacturing process and across further modalities such as small molecules, proteins, and other cellular therapies.

Jinglan Hong - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • environmental assessment of sewage sludge as secondary Raw Material in cement production a case study in china
    Waste Management, 2011
    Co-Authors: Jinglan Hong, Xiangzhi Li
    Abstract:

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of sewage sludge as secondary Raw Material in cement production. To confirm and add credibility to the study, uncertainty analysis was conducted. Results showed the impact generated from respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, global warming, and non-renewable energy categories had an important contribution to overall environmental impact, due to energy, clinker, and limestone production stages. Also, uncertainty analysis results showed the technology of sewage sludge as secondary Raw Material in cement production had little or no effect on changing the overall environmental potential impact generated from general cement production. Accordingly, using the technology of sewage sludge as secondary Raw Material in cement production is a good choice for reducing the pressure on the environment from dramatically increased sludge disposal. In addition, increasing electricity recovery rate, choosing natural gas fired electricity generation technology, and optimizing the Raw Material consumption in clinker production are highly recommended to reduce the adverse effects on the environment.

Christoph Helbig - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • a company oriented model for the assessment of Raw Material supply risks environmental impact and social implications
    Journal of Cleaner Production, 2018
    Co-Authors: Christoph Kolotzek, Christoph Helbig, Andrea Thorenz, Armin Reller, Axel Tuma
    Abstract:

    Abstract Since manufacturers are the main drivers in the selection of the Materials used in their products, they have a special responsibility for investigating the accompanying sustainability aspects. The recently increased attention they pay to these issues is motivated not only by a sense of social responsibility, but also by pressure from customers and competitors. In particular, the three dimensions of sustainability – based on the triple bottom line of economic, environmental and social criteria – are of growing importance for sustainable supply chain management. Raw Materials and their supply chains are often at the focus of attention, since manufacturers may need to diversify them for their products. Appropriate assessment models then become essential. Although Raw Material assessments and Raw Material-focused decision support schemes have recently been applied more often in the corporate context, several aspects such as indicator selection, weighting or social assessment are rarely considered. As a result, a comprehensive, sustainability-oriented Raw Material assessment and decision support scheme in the corporate context is not available in the scientific literature. In the design of such a scheme, four questions arise: First, how should a corporate-oriented Raw Material assessment model be structured? Second, how can all three sustainability dimensions be taken into account? Third, how can the application of Raw Material assessments in a corporate-oriented decision-making process increase the sustainability level of a company? And fourth, does a methodically structured Raw Material assessment model have advantages over existing models? To answer these questions, we have developed a model which takes into account state-of-the-art sustainability assessments as well as recent developments in the field of criticality analysis, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and social life cycle assessment (SLCA). With partners from both academia and industry we identify relevant quantitative indicators for structuring the assessment model and for calculating corresponding indicator weightings, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). To demonstrate the applicability of the assessment model for decision support and its benefits for companies in identifying potential hotspots in Raw Material supply chains, we present a case study that includes decision support for selecting capacitor technologies. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the robustness of the assessments. In short, this article presents a sustainability-oriented Raw Material assessment and decision support model and proposes how it should be applied in a corporate context.

  • how to evaluate Raw Material supply risks an overview
    Resources Policy, 2013
    Co-Authors: Benjamin Achzet, Christoph Helbig
    Abstract:

    Some strategic Raw Materials do have an extremely unsecure supply situation. Several working groups around the world have made criticality assessments for metallic Raw Materials to analyze the driving impact factors for this instability. However, the influences on Raw Material availability are manifold and therefore criticality assessment methods are very heterogeneous. Here we give an overview about the differences and similarities of supply risk evaluation in 15 criticality assessment methods. We take the example of Indium, which has been rated in 60% of these criticality studies, and show which data base is used for supply risk evaluation. Our results show a lack of consensus about which indicators give reliable information for Raw Material supply risk and how these indicators should be aggregated. We anticipate our essay to be a starting point for more justified indicator selection and weighting in criticality assessments.

Alejandro Josa - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Comparative LCA of sewage sludge valorisation as both fuel and Raw Material substitute in clinker production
    Journal of Cleaner Production, 2013
    Co-Authors: Cesar Valderrama, Ricard Granados, Carles M. Gasol, José Luis Cortina, Manel Guillem, Alejandro Josa
    Abstract:

    A life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of urban sewage sludge use as alternative fuel or Raw Material in clinker production was carried out. In order to quantify in detail the overall environmental impact of both scenarios, the sewage sludge treatment process and the transport to cement facilities for both alternatives were considered. The substitution ratio of fuel (petcoke) and Raw Material (limestone) was fixed between 5 and 15% according to the cement production plant limitations. Both scenarios show CO2 savings when compared to the clinker production without substitution. The mid-point and end-point analysis were favourable to the fuel substitution with savings ranging from 3 to 7% compared to the Raw Material substitution and also to base case without substitution. The influence of the amount of sewage sludge used for both scenarios indicates that fuel substitution reduced the CO2 emissions when the amount of substitution is increased, while other mid-point and end-point categories were proportionally favourable to the fuel substitution scenario. Additionally, the influence of the substituted Material characteristics showed that low heating value (fuel substitution) and CaO addition in lime stabilized sludge (Raw Material substitution) are critical parameters in terms of environmental impact in clinker production. The fuel substitution represents a significant environmental improvement compared to the Raw Material substitution scenario and clinker production without substitution.