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Study Design

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Study Design - Free Register to Access Experts & Abstracts

Kate A. Levin - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Study Design VII. Randomised controlled trials.
    Evidence-based Dentistry, 2007
    Co-Authors: Kate A. Levin
    Abstract:

    Previously in this series, I have given an overview of the main types of Study Design and the techniques used to minimise the likelihood of obtaining biased results. In this article I describe more fully randomised controlled trials, their uses, advantages and limitations.

  • Study Design VI - Ecological Studies
    Evidence-based Dentistry, 2006
    Co-Authors: Kate A. Levin
    Abstract:

    Previously in this series I have given an overview of the main types of Study Design and the techniques used to minimise biased results. In this article I describe more fully ecological studies, their uses, advantages and limitations.

  • Study Design V. Case-control studies.
    Evidence-based Dentistry, 2006
    Co-Authors: Kate A. Levin
    Abstract:

    Previously in this series I have given an overview of the main types of Study Design and the techniques used to minimise biased results. In this article I describe more fully case control studies, their uses, advantages and limitations.

  • Study Design IV. Cohort studies.
    Evidence-based Dentistry, 2006
    Co-Authors: Kate A. Levin
    Abstract:

    Previously in this series I have given an overview of the main types of Study Design and the techniques used to minimise biased results. In this article I describe more fully cohort studies, their uses, advantages and limitations.

  • Study Design III: Cross-sectional studies
    Evidence-based Dentistry, 2006
    Co-Authors: Kate A. Levin
    Abstract:

    In this series, I previously gave an overview of the main types of Study Design and the techniques used to minimise biased results. Here, I describe cross-sectional studies, their uses, advantages and limitations.

Robin Room - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Yehuda Carmeli - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the case case control Study Design addressing the limitations of risk factor studies for antimicrobial resistance
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Keith S Kaye, Anthony D Harris, Matthew H Samore, Yehuda Carmeli
    Abstract:

    Objective: There are significant limitations of the standard case-control Study Design for identifying risk factors for resistant organisms. The objective of this Study was to develop a Study Design to overcome these limitations. Design: Theoretical analysis of different types of Study Designs that can be used in risk factor studies for resistant organisms. Results: We developed the case-case-control Study Design, which uses two separate case-control analyses within a single Study. The first analysis compares patients infected with resistant bacteria (resistant cases) with control-patients without infection caused by the target organism, who are therefore representative of the source population; and the second analysis compares patients infected with the susceptible phenotype of the target organism (susceptible cases) with the same controlpatients without infection caused by the target organism. These two analyses provide risk models for (1) isolation of the resistant phenotype of the target organism as compared with the source population and (2) isolation of the susceptible phenotype of the organism as compared with the source population. When these two risk models are compared and contrasted, risk factors specifically associated with isolation of the resistant phenotype can be identified. Conclusions: The case-case-control Study Design is an effective method for identifying risk factors for antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. Although the case-case-control Study Design has limitations, it is, in our opinion, more informative and less flawed than the standard case-control Study Design.

Hai Morgenstern - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Principles of Study Design in environmental epidemiology
    Environmental Health Perspectives, 1993
    Co-Authors: Hai Morgenstern
    Abstract:

    This paper discusses the principles of Study Design and related methodologic issues in environmental epidemiology. Emphasis is given to studies aimed at evaluating causal hypotheses regarding exposures to suspected health hazards. Following background sections on the quantitative objectives and methods of population-based research, we present the major types of observational Designs used in environmental epidemiology: first, the three basic Designs involving the individual as the unit of analysis (i.e., cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies) and a brief discussion of genetic studies for assessing gene-environment interactions; second, various ecologic Designs involving the group or region as the unit of analysis. Ecologic Designs are given special emphasis in this paper because of our lack of resources or inability to accurately measure environmental exposures in large numbers of individuals. The paper concludes with a section highlighting current Design issues in environmental epidemiology and several recommendations for future work.

RJ Lilford - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • An epistemology of patient safety research: a framework for Study Design and interpretation. Part 2. Study Design.
    Qual Saf Health Care, 2008
    Co-Authors: RJ Lilford
    Abstract:

    This is the second in a four-part series of articles detailing the epistemology of patient safety research. This article concentrates on issues of Study Design. It first considers the range of Designs that may be used in the evaluation of patient safety interventions, highlighting the circumstances in which each is appropriate. The paper then provides details about an innovative Study Design, the stepped wedge, which may be particularly appropriate in the context of patient safety interventions, since these are expected to do more good than harm. The unit of allocation in patient safety research is also considered, since many interventions need to be delivered at cluster or service level. The paper also discusses the need to ensure the masking of patients, caregivers, observers and analysts wherever possible to minimise information biases and the Hawthorne effect. The difficulties associated with masking in patient safety research are described and suggestions given on how these can be ameliorated. The paper finally considers the role of Study Design in increasing confidence in the generalisability of Study results over time and place. The extent to which findings can be generalised over time and place should be considered as part of an evaluation, for example by undertaking qualitative or quantitative measures of fidelity, attitudes or subgroup effects.