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2-Chlorobenzoic Acid

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Fabio Fava – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Soya lecithin effects on the aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in an artificially contaminated soil.
    Biotechnology and bioengineering, 2001
    Co-Authors: Fabio Fava, Diana Di Gioia
    Abstract:

    The effects of the phytogenic surfactant soya lecithin (SL) on the aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spiked into a synthetic soil were studied. Soil was spiked with both biphenyl (4 g/kg) and Fenclor 42 (1,000 mg/kg) and treated in aerobic batch slurry-phase microcosms (17.5% w/v). Microcosms were prepared either with or without the exogenous aerobic PCB-dechlorinating bacterial co-culture ECO3 (inoculum:10(8) CFU/mL). In some inoculated microcosms, SL was added at 15 or 30 g/kg. Indigenous bacteria having the capability of metabolizing biphenyl and 2-Chlorobenzoic Acid were found to develop in the microcosms during the experiment, and were responsible for the significant PCB biodegradation and dechlorination observed in the uninoculated controls. The addition of ECO3 bacteria resulted in only a slight PCB biodegradation increase. In the presence of SL, a higher availability of biphenyl– and chlorobenzoic Acid-degrading bacteria and higher PCB biodegradation and dechlorination yields were observed; the effects increased proportionally with the concentration of the applied SL. A significant decrease of soil ecotoxicity was also revealed in SL-supplemented microcosms. At both concentrations, SL was found to be a good carbon source for both the indigenous and ECO3 bacteria, as well as a product capable of enhancing the PCB bioavailability in the microcosms.

  • Characterization of catechol- and chlorocatechol-degrading activity in the ortho-chlorinated benzoic Acid-degrading Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain
    Research in microbiology, 1998
    Co-Authors: Diana Di Gioia, Fabio Fava, F. Baldoni, Leonardo Marchetti
    Abstract:

    Pyrocatechase activity was studied in the Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain, which is capable of growing on 2-Chlorobenzoic and 2,5-dichlorobenzoic Acid, giving rise to catechol and 4-chlorocatechol, respectively, as intermediate metabolites. The CPE2 crude extract was found to metabolize both catechol and 4-chlorocatechol. Enzymatic as well as phenotypic studies performed both on this strain and on a mutant strain lacking the chlorocatechol-degrading genes were consistent with the presence of two catechol-cleaving enzymes, one active mainly against catechol (pyrocatechase I) and the other with broader substrate specificity (pyrocatechase II). The latter enzyme also appeared to be induced when CPE2 cells were grown on 2-Chlorobenzoic Acid, thus contributing to catechol metabolism, in addition to pyrocatechase I. Despite the presence of a large plasmid in CPE2 cells, the chlorocatechol-degrading genes, highly homologous to the cls operon, were located on the chromosome. The selection at relatively high frequency of mutant strains with altered growth capabilities and which lacked the chlorocatechol-degrading genes suggests a transposon-like character for these catabolic genes in the CPE2 strain.

  • 2‐Chlorobenzoic Acid and 2,5‐dichlorobenzoic Acid metabolism by crude extracts of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain
    Letters in applied microbiology, 1996
    Co-Authors: Fabio Fava, F. Baldoni, Leonardo Marchetti
    Abstract:

    Crude extracts of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain, which is capable of growing on 2-Chlorobenzoic Acid (2-CBA) and 2,5-dichlorobenzoic Acid (2,5-dCBA) in the absence of other carbon sources, were found to be capable of bioconverting 2-CBA and 2,5-dCBA to catechol and 4-chlorocatechol, respectively, by a reaction requiring molecular oxygen and exogenous NADH. Extracts obtained from 2-CBA-grown cells in the presence of 2-CBA and from 2,5-dCBA-grown cells in the presence of 2,5-dCBA were found to have activities similarly influenced by the assay parameters pH, temperature, and by concentration of oxygen, protein, Fe2+, FAD and NADH in the assay medium. In addition, the activity of the two crude extracts in the presence of 2-CBA or 2,5-dCBA was described by very similar Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters. These observations led to the speculation that a unique broad-spectrum chlorobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase catalyses the 2-CBA and 2,5-dCBA metabolism both in 2-CBA- and 2,5-dCBA-grown CPE2 cells.

Leonardo Marchetti – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Characterization of catechol- and chlorocatechol-degrading activity in the ortho-chlorinated benzoic Acid-degrading Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain
    Research in microbiology, 1998
    Co-Authors: Diana Di Gioia, Fabio Fava, F. Baldoni, Leonardo Marchetti
    Abstract:

    Pyrocatechase activity was studied in the Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain, which is capable of growing on 2-Chlorobenzoic and 2,5-dichlorobenzoic Acid, giving rise to catechol and 4-chlorocatechol, respectively, as intermediate metabolites. The CPE2 crude extract was found to metabolize both catechol and 4-chlorocatechol. Enzymatic as well as phenotypic studies performed both on this strain and on a mutant strain lacking the chlorocatechol-degrading genes were consistent with the presence of two catechol-cleaving enzymes, one active mainly against catechol (pyrocatechase I) and the other with broader substrate specificity (pyrocatechase II). The latter enzyme also appeared to be induced when CPE2 cells were grown on 2-Chlorobenzoic Acid, thus contributing to catechol metabolism, in addition to pyrocatechase I. Despite the presence of a large plasmid in CPE2 cells, the chlorocatechol-degrading genes, highly homologous to the cls operon, were located on the chromosome. The selection at relatively high frequency of mutant strains with altered growth capabilities and which lacked the chlorocatechol-degrading genes suggests a transposon-like character for these catabolic genes in the CPE2 strain.

  • 2‐Chlorobenzoic Acid and 2,5‐dichlorobenzoic Acid metabolism by crude extracts of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain
    Letters in applied microbiology, 1996
    Co-Authors: Fabio Fava, F. Baldoni, Leonardo Marchetti
    Abstract:

    Crude extracts of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain, which is capable of growing on 2-Chlorobenzoic Acid (2-CBA) and 2,5-dichlorobenzoic Acid (2,5-dCBA) in the absence of other carbon sources, were found to be capable of bioconverting 2-CBA and 2,5-dCBA to catechol and 4-chlorocatechol, respectively, by a reaction requiring molecular oxygen and exogenous NADH. Extracts obtained from 2-CBA-grown cells in the presence of 2-CBA and from 2,5-dCBA-grown cells in the presence of 2,5-dCBA were found to have activities similarly influenced by the assay parameters pH, temperature, and by concentration of oxygen, protein, Fe2+, FAD and NADH in the assay medium. In addition, the activity of the two crude extracts in the presence of 2-CBA or 2,5-dCBA was described by very similar Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters. These observations led to the speculation that a unique broad-spectrum chlorobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase catalyses the 2-CBA and 2,5-dCBA metabolism both in 2-CBA- and 2,5-dCBA-grown CPE2 cells.

Diana Di Gioia – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Soya lecithin effects on the aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in an artificially contaminated soil.
    Biotechnology and bioengineering, 2001
    Co-Authors: Fabio Fava, Diana Di Gioia
    Abstract:

    The effects of the phytogenic surfactant soya lecithin (SL) on the aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spiked into a synthetic soil were studied. Soil was spiked with both biphenyl (4 g/kg) and Fenclor 42 (1,000 mg/kg) and treated in aerobic batch slurry-phase microcosms (17.5% w/v). Microcosms were prepared either with or without the exogenous aerobic PCB-dechlorinating bacterial co-culture ECO3 (inoculum:10(8) CFU/mL). In some inoculated microcosms, SL was added at 15 or 30 g/kg. Indigenous bacteria having the capability of metabolizing biphenyl and 2-Chlorobenzoic Acid were found to develop in the microcosms during the experiment, and were responsible for the significant PCB biodegradation and dechlorination observed in the uninoculated controls. The addition of ECO3 bacteria resulted in only a slight PCB biodegradation increase. In the presence of SL, a higher availability of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoic Acid-degrading bacteria and higher PCB biodegradation and dechlorination yields were observed; the effects increased proportionally with the concentration of the applied SL. A significant decrease of soil ecotoxicity was also revealed in SL-supplemented microcosms. At both concentrations, SL was found to be a good carbon source for both the indigenous and ECO3 bacteria, as well as a product capable of enhancing the PCB bioavailability in the microcosms.

  • Characterization of catechol- and chlorocatechol-degrading activity in the ortho-chlorinated benzoic Acid-degrading Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain
    Research in microbiology, 1998
    Co-Authors: Diana Di Gioia, Fabio Fava, F. Baldoni, Leonardo Marchetti
    Abstract:

    Pyrocatechase activity was studied in the Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain, which is capable of growing on 2-Chlorobenzoic and 2,5-dichlorobenzoic Acid, giving rise to catechol and 4-chlorocatechol, respectively, as intermediate metabolites. The CPE2 crude extract was found to metabolize both catechol and 4-chlorocatechol. Enzymatic as well as phenotypic studies performed both on this strain and on a mutant strain lacking the chlorocatechol-degrading genes were consistent with the presence of two catechol-cleaving enzymes, one active mainly against catechol (pyrocatechase I) and the other with broader substrate specificity (pyrocatechase II). The latter enzyme also appeared to be induced when CPE2 cells were grown on 2-Chlorobenzoic Acid, thus contributing to catechol metabolism, in addition to pyrocatechase I. Despite the presence of a large plasmid in CPE2 cells, the chlorocatechol-degrading genes, highly homologous to the cls operon, were located on the chromosome. The selection at relatively high frequency of mutant strains with altered growth capabilities and which lacked the chlorocatechol-degrading genes suggests a transposon-like character for these catabolic genes in the CPE2 strain.