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Lisa Flowers – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Home study course: fall 2007.
    Journal of lower genital tract disease, 2007
    Co-Authors: Kevin J. Mitchell, Lisa Flowers

    Abstract:

    The Home Study Course is intended for the practicing colposcopist or practitioner who is seeking to develop or enhance his/her colposcopic skills. The goal of the course is to present colposcopic cases that are unusual or instructive in terms of appearance, presentation, or management or that demonstrate new and important knowledge in the area of colposcopy or pathology. Participants may benefit from reading and studying the material or from testing their knowledge by answering the questions.
    The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The ASCCP designates this education activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit . Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. The ASCCP also designates their educational activity for 1 Category 1 credit hour of the ASCCP’s Program for Continuing Professional Development. Credit is available for those who choose to apply. The Home Study Course is planned and produced in accordance with the ACCME’s Essential Areas and Elements.
    The clinical history and images in the Home Study Course may represent an actual case, but not always. To improve educational quality, some gross, cytological, or histological images may come from photographic libraries. Good teaching cases are often difficult to obtain, and we encourage our readers to submit cases with high-quality images to the Home Study Course editor or executive editor to consider for publication. Lastly, faculty must disclose any significant financial interest or relationship with proprietary entities that may have a direct relationship to the subject matter. For this course, the authors had the following relationships to report: Kevin J. Mitchell, MD: Digene Corporation: speaker: honorarium; stockholder; Cytyc Corporation: stockholder; 3m Corporation: phase 2 drug testing, research funding. Lisa Flowers, MD: No such relationship to report.

  • Home study course: spring 2007.
    Journal of lower genital tract disease, 2007
    Co-Authors: Kevin J. Mitchell, Lisa Flowers

    Abstract:

    The Home Study Course is intended for the practicing colposcopist or practitioner who is seeking to develop or enhance his/her colposcopic skills. The goal of the course is to present colposcopic cases that are unusual or instructive in terms of appearance, presentation, or management, or that demonstrate new and important knowledge in the area of colposcopy or pathology. Participants may benefit from reading and studying the material or from testing their knowledge by answering the questions.
    The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The ASCCP designates this education activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category I Credit trade mark. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. The ASCCP also designates their educational activity for 1 Category 1 credit hour of the ASCCP’s Program for Continuing Professional Development. Credit is available for those who choose to apply. The Home Study Course is planned and produced in accordance with the ACCME’s Essential Areas and Elements.
    The clinical history and images in the Home Study Course may represent an actual case, but not always. To improve educational quality, some gross, cytological, or histological images may come from photographic libraries. Good teaching cases are often difficult to obtain, and we encourage our readers to submit cases with high-quality images to the Home Study Course editor or executive editor to consider for publication. Lastly, faculty must disclose any significant financial interest or relationship with proprietary entities that may have a direct relationship to the subject matter. For this course, the authors had the following relationships to report: Kevin J. Mitchell, MD: Digene Corporation: Speaker: Honorarium; Stockholder Cytyc Corporation: Stockholder 3m Corporation: Phase 2 Drug Testing: Research funding. Lisa Flowers, MD: No such relationship to report
    Cytology and histology courtesy of Dennis O’Connor, MD.

Kevin J. Mitchell – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Home study course: fall 2007.
    Journal of lower genital tract disease, 2007
    Co-Authors: Kevin J. Mitchell, Lisa Flowers

    Abstract:

    The Home Study Course is intended for the practicing colposcopist or practitioner who is seeking to develop or enhance his/her colposcopic skills. The goal of the course is to present colposcopic cases that are unusual or instructive in terms of appearance, presentation, or management or that demonstrate new and important knowledge in the area of colposcopy or pathology. Participants may benefit from reading and studying the material or from testing their knowledge by answering the questions.
    The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The ASCCP designates this education activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit . Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. The ASCCP also designates their educational activity for 1 Category 1 credit hour of the ASCCP’s Program for Continuing Professional Development. Credit is available for those who choose to apply. The Home Study Course is planned and produced in accordance with the ACCME’s Essential Areas and Elements.
    The clinical history and images in the Home Study Course may represent an actual case, but not always. To improve educational quality, some gross, cytological, or histological images may come from photographic libraries. Good teaching cases are often difficult to obtain, and we encourage our readers to submit cases with high-quality images to the Home Study Course editor or executive editor to consider for publication. Lastly, faculty must disclose any significant financial interest or relationship with proprietary entities that may have a direct relationship to the subject matter. For this course, the authors had the following relationships to report: Kevin J. Mitchell, MD: Digene Corporation: speaker: honorarium; stockholder; Cytyc Corporation: stockholder; 3m Corporation: phase 2 drug testing, research funding. Lisa Flowers, MD: No such relationship to report.

  • Home study course: spring 2007.
    Journal of lower genital tract disease, 2007
    Co-Authors: Kevin J. Mitchell, Lisa Flowers

    Abstract:

    The Home Study Course is intended for the practicing colposcopist or practitioner who is seeking to develop or enhance his/her colposcopic skills. The goal of the course is to present colposcopic cases that are unusual or instructive in terms of appearance, presentation, or management, or that demonstrate new and important knowledge in the area of colposcopy or pathology. Participants may benefit from reading and studying the material or from testing their knowledge by answering the questions.
    The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The ASCCP designates this education activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category I Credit trade mark. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. The ASCCP also designates their educational activity for 1 Category 1 credit hour of the ASCCP’s Program for Continuing Professional Development. Credit is available for those who choose to apply. The Home Study Course is planned and produced in accordance with the ACCME’s Essential Areas and Elements.
    The clinical history and images in the Home Study Course may represent an actual case, but not always. To improve educational quality, some gross, cytological, or histological images may come from photographic libraries. Good teaching cases are often difficult to obtain, and we encourage our readers to submit cases with high-quality images to the Home Study Course editor or executive editor to consider for publication. Lastly, faculty must disclose any significant financial interest or relationship with proprietary entities that may have a direct relationship to the subject matter. For this course, the authors had the following relationships to report: Kevin J. Mitchell, MD: Digene Corporation: Speaker: Honorarium; Stockholder Cytyc Corporation: Stockholder 3m Corporation: Phase 2 Drug Testing: Research funding. Lisa Flowers, MD: No such relationship to report
    Cytology and histology courtesy of Dennis O’Connor, MD.

Bo Tang – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Elimination of the formation of biofilm in industrial pipes using enzyme cleaning technique.
    MethodsX, 2014
    Co-Authors: Bo Tang, Qiuya Gu, Xiaobin Yu

    Abstract:

    Currently, there is a growing demand in how to eliminate the biofilm formed in industrial pipelines, especially in food, fermentation, and water treatment industry. However, the traditional techniques for CIP (cleaning in place) are usually ineffective, superficial, halfway, and do not clean or sterilize microbes located in the inner layers of the biofilm. A recent strategy for removing the biofilm in pipes is employing enzymes to clean it in the circulating water system under an optimal condition. However, how to operate and control the whole cleaning process is difficult. Here, we will introduce the strategy of enzyme cleaning to make it more appropriated and effective.

    • A modification of CIP method is proposed for higher efficiency by using N-acetylmuramide glycanohydrolase as catalysts whose optimal pH and temperature is 10 ± 1 and 45 ± 2 °C, respectively.
    • The initial efficiency of enzyme cleaning was evaluated by testing the content of ATP in water sample using Clean-Trace™ (3m Corporation).
    • Lastly, the terminal water was tested with SLYM-BART™ (HACH Corporation) to find out whether there were biofilm-forming bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Lakretz et al. (2011) [1]), Pseudomonas fluorescens (O’Toole and Kolter (1998) [2]), iron bacterium, etc.

    Method details
    In the water treatment process, traditional CIP techniques can usually remove or sterilize microbes on the surface of pipes. Taking the advantages of low cost and low energy consumption, these strategies were universally used in food, fermentation, and water treatment industry [1,3]. However, when the biofilm forms in pipelines, the traditional methods would not be available to eliminate it completely [2]. By contrast, the strategy of using muramidase to remove the biofilm in pipes is more effective and in-depth. The comparison of effectiveness between the traditional CIP and enzyme cleaning technique is shown in Fig. 1 and Table 1.

    Fig. 1

    Comparison of effectiveness between the traditional CIP and enzyme cleaning technique.

    Table 1

    Comparison of the effectiveness between enzyme cleaning technique and traditional CIP methods.

    Preparation of material
    In this new strategy, N-acetylmuramide glycanohydrolase is introduced as the critical enzyme which will react with the polymeric matrix of the biofilm, reduce its adherence and make the biofilm detach from the surface. In this study, the optimal pH and temperature for reaction is 10 ± 1 and 45 ± 2 °C, respectively. The temperature of 45 ± 2 °C is used throughout the whole application procedure. The material was processed in the following manner.

  • Elimination of the formation of biofilm in industrial pipes using enzyme cleaning technique.
    MethodsX, 2014
    Co-Authors: Xiaobo Liu, Bo Tang

    Abstract:

    Currently, there is a growing demand in how to eliminate the biofilm formed in industrial pipelines, especially in food, fermentation, and water treatment industry. However, the traditional techniques for CIP (cleaning in place) are usually ineffective, superficial, halfway, and do not clean or sterilize microbes located in the inner layers of the biofilm. A recent strategy for removing the biofilm in pipes is employing enzymes to clean it in the circulating water system under an optimal condition. However, how to operate and control the whole cleaning process is difficult. Here, we will introduce the strategy of enzyme cleaning to make it more appropriated and effective.•A modification of CIP method is proposed for higher efficiency by using N-acetylmuramide glycanohydrolase as catalysts whose optimal pH and temperature is 10 ± 1 and 45 ± 2 °C, respectively.•The initial efficiency of enzyme cleaning was evaluated by testing the content of ATP in water sample using Clean-Trace™ (3m Corporation).•Lastly, the terminal water was tested with SLYM-BART™ (HACH Corporation) to find out whether there were biofilm-forming bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Lakretz et al. (2011) [1]), Pseudomonas fluorescens (O’Toole and Kolter (1998) [2]), iron bacterium, etc.