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Michael A. Celia – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • measuring methane emissions from Abandoned and active oil and gas Wells in west virginia
    Science of The Total Environment, 2019
    Co-Authors: Stuart N Riddick, Mary Kang, Denise L Mauzerall, Michael A. Celia, Kara Bressler, Christopher Chu, Caleb D Gum
    Abstract:

    Abstract Recent studies have reported methane (CH4) emissions from Abandoned and active oil and gas infrastructure across the United States, where measured emissions show regional variability. To investigate similar phenomena in West Virginia, we measure and characterize emissions from Abandoned and active conventional oil and gas Wells. In addition, we reconcile divergent regional CH4 emissions estimates by comparing our West Virginia emissions estimates with those from other states in the United States. We find the CH4 emission factors from 112 plugged and 147 unplugged Wells in West Virginia are 0.1 g CH4 h−1 and 3.2 g CH4 h−1, respectively. The highest emitting unplugged Abandoned Wells in WV are those most recently Abandoned, with the mean emission of Wells Abandoned between 1993 and 2015 of 16 g CH4 h−1 compared to the mean of those Abandoned before 1993 of 3 × 10−3 g CH4 h−1. Using field observations at a historic mining area as a proxy for state-wide drilling activity in the late 19th/early 20th century, we estimate the number of Abandoned Wells in WV at between 60,000 and 760,000 Wells. Methane emission factors from active conventional Wells were estimated at 138 g CH4 h−1. We did not find an emission pattern relating to age of Wells or operator for active Wells, however, the CH4 emission factor for active conventional Wells was 7.5 times larger than the emission factor used by the EPA for conventional oil and gas Wells. Our results suggest that well emission factors for active and Abandoned Wells can vary within the same geologic formation and may be affected by differences in state regulations. Therefore, accounting for state-level variations is critical for accuracy in greenhouse gas emissions inventories, which are used to guide emissions reduction strategies.

  • Estimates of CO2 leakage along Abandoned Wells constrained by new data
    International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2019
    Co-Authors: Tom J.w. Postma, Karl W. Bandilla, Michael A. Celia
    Abstract:

    Abstract The viability of carbon capture and geological storage (CCS) projects depends in part on the risk that injected CO2 or displaced pore fluid will leak out of the target formation into surrounding formations or to the surface. Abandoned oil and gas Wells, of which millions exist both throughout the United States and globally, form a potential conduit for this leakage. Recently, specific field measurements have been made to quantify the range of effective permeabilities that can be expected in Abandoned Wells, enabling us to, for the first time, combine field-scale numerical simulations of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers with real data on effective permeabilities of leaky Wells. Using a previously developed semi-analytical reservoir simulator that can accommodate an arbitrary sequence of alternating aquifers and aquicludes, as well as an arbitrary number of leaky Wells, we investigated how the amount of CO2 that leaks out of the target formation depends on the spatial density of nearby Abandoned Wells and their effective permeability. Furthermore, we assess the influence that variations in pressure and temperature found between geological targets have on this dependency. We find that the observed differences in leakage between geological targets are controlled almost exclusively by differences in density of CO2 at the local subsurface conditions, causing the CO2 plume to contact a different number of Wells when injecting at the same constant mass rate. We quantitatively assess the results obtained from our numerical experiments by combining them with the permeability data that have recently become available, typical spatial densities of Abandoned Wells, and performance requirements put forward in the literature. Our results indicate that leakage of CO2 through Abandoned Wells is unlikely to be a major limitation in storage security of CCS projects.

  • Identification and characterization of high methane-emitting Abandoned oil and gas Wells
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2016
    Co-Authors: Mary Kang, Denise L Mauzerall, Michael A. Celia, Yuheng Chen, Shanna Christian, Markus Bill, Alana R. Miller, Mark E Conrad, Thomas H Darrah, Robert B. Jackson
    Abstract:

    Recent measurements of methane emissions from Abandoned oil/gas Wells show that these Wells can be a substantial source of methane to the atmosphere, particularly from a small proportion of high-emitting Wells. However, identifying high emitters remains a challenge. We couple 163 well measurements of methane flow rates; ethane, propane, and n-butane concentrations; isotopes of methane; and noble gas concentrations from 88 Wells in Pennsylvania with synthesized data from historical documents, field investigations, and state databases. Using our databases, we (i) improve estimates of the number of Abandoned Wells in Pennsylvania; (ii) characterize key attributes that accompany high emitters, including depth, type, plugging status, and coal area designation; and (iii) estimate attribute-specific and overall methane emissions from Abandoned Wells. High emitters are best predicted as unplugged gas Wells and plugged/vented gas Wells in coal areas and appear to be unrelated to the presence of underground natural gas storage areas or unconventional oil/gas production. Repeat measurements over 2 years show that flow rates of high emitters are sustained through time. Our attribute-based methane emission data and our comprehensive estimate of 470,000–750,000 Abandoned Wells in Pennsylvania result in estimated state-wide emissions of 0.04–0.07 Mt (1012 g) CH4 per year. This estimate represents 5–8% of annual anthropogenic methane emissions in Pennsylvania. Our methodology combining new field measurements with data mining of previously unavailable well attributes and numbers of Wells can be used to improve methane emission estimates and prioritize cost-effective mitigation strategies for Pennsylvania and beyond.

Mohan D. Gupte – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • A malaria outbreak in Naxalbari, Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, 2005: weaknesses in disease control, important risk factors.
    Malaria Journal, 2009
    Co-Authors: Puran K. Sharma, Ramakrishnan Ramanchandran, Yvan Hutin, Raju Sharma, Mohan D. Gupte
    Abstract:

    An outbreak of malaria in Naxalbari, West Bengal, India, in 2005 was investigated to understand determinants and propose control measures. Malaria cases were slide-confirmed. Methods included calculation of annual blood examination rates (ABER, number of slides examined/population), collection of water specimens from potential vector-breeding sites, sorting of villages in categories depending on the number of Abandoned Wells within two kilometers radius and review of the DDT spray coverage. Cases were compared with matched neighbourhood controls in terms of personal protection using matched odds ratios (MOR). 7,303 cases and 17 deaths were reported between April 2005 and March 2006 with a peak during October rains (Attack rate: 50 per 1,000, case fatality: 0.2%). The attack rate increased according to the number of Abandoned Wells within 2 kilometres radius (P < 0.0001, Chi-square for trend). Abandoned Wells were Anopheles breeding sites. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to sleep outdoors (MOR: 3.8) and less likely to use of mosquito nets and repellents (MOR: 0.3 and 0.1, respectively). DDT spray coverage and ABER were 39% and 3.5%, below the recommended 85% and 10%, respectively. Overall, this outbreak resulted from weaknesses in malaria control measures and a combination of factors, including vector breeding, low implementation of personal protection and weak case detection.

  • A malaria outbreak in Naxalbari, Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, 2005: weaknesses in disease control, important risk factors.
    Malaria Journal, 2009
    Co-Authors: Puran K. Sharma, Ramakrishnan Ramanchandran, Yvan Hutin, Raju Sharma, Mohan D. Gupte
    Abstract:

    An outbreak of malaria in Naxalbari, West Bengal, India, in 2005 was investigated to understand determinants and propose control measures. Malaria cases were slide-confirmed. Methods included calculation of annual blood examination rates (ABER, number of slides examined/population), collection of water specimens from potential vector-breeding sites, sorting of villages in categories depending on the number of Abandoned Wells within two kilometers radius and review of the DDT spray coverage. Cases were compared with matched neighbourhood controls in terms of personal protection using matched odds ratios (MOR). 7,303 cases and 17 deaths were reported between April 2005 and March 2006 with a peak during October rains (Attack rate: 50 per 1,000, case fatality: 0.2%). The attack rate increased according to the number of Abandoned Wells within 2 kilometres radius (P < 0.0001, Chi-square for trend). Abandoned Wells were Anopheles breeding sites. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to sleep outdoors (MOR: 3.8) and less likely to use of mosquito nets and repellents (MOR: 0.3 and 0.1, respectively). DDT spray coverage and ABER were 39% and 3.5%, below the recommended 85% and 10%, respectively. Overall, this outbreak resulted from weaknesses in malaria control measures and a combination of factors, including vector breeding, low implementation of personal protection and weak case detection.

Natalie J. Pekney – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Historic and Modern Approaches for the Discovery of Abandoned Wells for Methane Emissions Mitigation in Oil Creek State Park, Pennsylvania
    Environmental Management, 2021
    Co-Authors: Patricia M.b. Saint-vincent, Garret Veloski, James I. Sams, Matthew D. Reeder, Mumbi Mundia-howe, Natalie J. Pekney
    Abstract:

    Hundreds of oil Wells were drilled along Oil Creek in Pennsylvania in the mid-1800s, birthing the modern oil industry. No longer in operation, many Wells are now classified as Abandoned, and, due to their age, their locations are either unknown or inaccurately recorded. These historic-well sites present environmental, safety, and economic concerns in the form of possible methane leaks and physical hazards. Airborne magnetic and LiDAR surveys were conducted in the Pioneer Run watershed in Oil Creek State Park to find Abandoned Wells in a historically significant but physically challenging location. Wells were drilled in this area prior to modern geolocation and legal documentation. Although a large number of old Wells were Abandoned summarily without remediation of the site, much of the land area within Oil Creek State Park is now covered in trees and dense underbrush, which can obscure wellheads. The thick vegetation and steep terrain limited the possibility of ground-based surveys to easily find well sites for methane emissions studies. The data from remote sensing surveys were used to corroborate potential well locations from historic maps and photographs. Potential well sites were verified in a ground-based field survey and monitored for methane emissions. Two historic photographs documenting oil activity in the late 1800s were georeferenced using a combination of magnetic and LiDAR data. LiDAR data, which were more useful in georeferencing and in field verification, identified 290 field locations in the Pioneer Run watershed, 86% of which were possible well sites. Sixty-two percent of the ground-verified Wells remained unplugged and comprised the majority of leaking Wells. The mean methane emissions factor for unplugged Wells was 0.027 ± 0.099 kg/day, lower than other Appalachian Basin methane emissions estimates. LiDAR was used for the first time, in combination with an airborne magnetic survey, to reveal underground oil industry features and inform well identification and remediation efforts in difficult-to-navigate regions. In the oldest oil fields, where well casing has been removed or wood conductor casing was installed, historic photographs provide additional lines of evidence for oil Wells where ground disturbances have concealed surface features. Identification of well sites is necessary for mitigation efforts, as unplugged Wells emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  • Historic and modern approaches for discovery of Abandoned Wells for methane emissions mitigation in Oil Creek State Park, Pennsylvania.
    Journal of environmental management, 2020
    Co-Authors: Patricia M.b. Saint-vincent, Garret Veloski, James I. Sams, Matthew D. Reeder, Mumbi Mundia-howe, Natalie J. Pekney
    Abstract:

    Abstract Background Hundreds of oil Wells were drilled along Oil Creek in Pennsylvania in the mid-1800s, birthing the modern oil industry. No longer in operation, many Wells are now classified as Abandoned, and, due to their age, their locations are either unknown or inaccurately recorded. These historic well sites present environmental, safety, and economic concerns in the form of possible methane leaks and physical hazards. Methods Airborne magnetic and LiDAR surveys were conducted in the Pioneer Run watershed in Oil Creek State Park to find Abandoned Wells in a historically significant but physically challenging location. Wells were drilled in this area prior to modern geolocation and legal documentation. Although a large number of old Wells were Abandoned summarily without remediation of the site, much of the land area within Oil Creek State Park is now covered in trees and dense underbrush, which can obscure wellheads. The thick vegetation and steep terrain limited the possibility of ground-based surveys to easily find well sites for methane emissions studies. The data from remote sensing surveys were used to corroborate potential well locations from historic maps and photographs. Potential well sites were verified in a ground-based field survey and monitored for methane emissions. Results Two historic photographs documenting oil activity in the late 1800s were georeferenced using a combination of magnetic and LiDAR data. LiDAR data, which were more useful in georeferencing and in field verification, identified 290 field locations in the Pioneer Run watershed, 86% of which were possible well sites. Sixty-two percent of the ground-verified Wells remained unplugged and comprised the majority of leaking Wells. The mean methane emissions factor for unplugged Wells was 0.027 ± 0.099 kg/day, lower than other Appalachian Basin methane emissions estimates. Conclusions LiDAR was used for the first time, in combination with an airborne magnetic survey, to reveal underground oil industry features and inform well identification and remediation efforts in difficult-to-navigate regions. In the oldest oil fields, where well casing has been removed or wood conductor casing was installed, historic photographs provide additional lines of evidence for oil Wells where ground disturbances have concealed surface features. Identification of well sites is necessary for mitigation efforts, as unplugged Wells emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  • Measurement of methane emissions from Abandoned oil and gas Wells in Hillman State Park, Pennsylvania
    Carbon Management, 2018
    Co-Authors: Natalie J. Pekney, J. Rodney Diehl, David Ruehl, James Sams, Garret Veloski, Adit Patel, Charles Schmidt, Thomas Card
    Abstract:

    Abandoned oil and gas Wells, improperly plugged or unplugged, present a risk to current and future oil and gas development because they provide a potential pathway for unwanted gas and fluid migration to the surface. The appropriate emission factor for gaseous emissions from these Wells is uncertain, as a limited number of studies have reported Abandoned Wells as a methane emissions source. A helicopter-based survey that mapped methane concentration and located Wells by detecting magnetic anomalies was conducted in Hillman State Park in southwestern Pennsylvania. Although well finding via aerial survey was successful, elevated methane concentrations due to emissions from Wells in the survey area were not detected by helicopter as Abandoned Wells were likely too small a source of methane to detect from elevations that helicopters fly at (tens of meters). Measurement of methane emission rates from 31 Wells were collected using several techniques that are compared and evaluated for their effectiveness: Hi Flow sampler, field-portable flame ionization detector, infrared camera, dynamic flux chamber and bag sampling. Nine of the 31 Wells were buried; average methane flux for these Wells was not statistically different from the background. Mass flow rate from the remaining 22 Wells ranged from non-detection (less than 0.09 kg CH4/day) to 4.18 kg CH4/day with a mean of 0.70 kg/well/day (median of 0.24 kg CH4/day/well) and a sample standard of error of 0.21 kg CH4/well/day. This emission factor, while not intended for exclusive use in developing a methane emissions inventory for Abandoned oil and gas Wells, contributes to the growing amount of methane emissions data for this source category. The results from the aerial survey, ground-based well location verification and emissions measurements, and the evaluation of measurement approaches described here, provide a comprehensive characterization of Abandoned Wells in one field that can inform future measurement studies.