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Toshiki Nagayama – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Excitatory connections of nonspiking interneurones in the terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the crayfish
    Journal of comparative physiology. A Neuroethology sensory neural and behavioral physiology, 2015
    Co-Authors: H. Namba, Toshiki Nagayama
    Abstract:

    The output effects of the nonspiking interneurones in the crayfish terminal Abdominal Ganglion upon the uropod motor neurones were characterized using simultaneous intracellular recordings. Inhibitory interactions from nonspiking interneurones to the uropod motor neurones were one-way and chemically mediated. The depolarization of the motor neurones with current injection increased the amplitude of the nonspiking interneurone-mediated hyperpolarization, while hyperpolarization of the motor neurone decreased it. By contrast, excitatory interactions from the nonspiking interneurones to the motor neurones were not mediated via chemical synaptic transmissions. These excitatory connections with the slow motor neurones were one-way while connections with fast motor neurones were bidirectional. Nonspiking interneurone-mediated membrane depodepolarization of the motor neurones was not affected by the passage of hyperpolarizing current. Each motor neurone spike elicited a time-locked EPSP in the nonspiking interneurones with very short delay (0.2 ms) that suggested electrical coupling between nonspiking interneurones and motor neurones. Nonspiking interneurones directly control the organization of slow motor neurone activity, while they appear to regulate the background activity of the fast motor neurones. A single nonspiking interneurone is possible to inhibit some inter and/or motor neurones via direct chemical synapses and simultaneously excite other neurones via electrical synapses.

  • GABAergic and glutamatergic inhibition of nonspiking local interneurons in the terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the crayfish.
    Journal of experimental zoology. Part A Comparative experimental biology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Toshiki Nagayama
    Abstract:

    Nonspiking local interneurons in the terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii receive inhibitory inputs from mainly glutamatergic spiking local interneurons and GABAergic nonspiking interneurons. In this study, the inhibitory responses of nonspiking interneurons to local application of glutamate and GABA into the neuropil were compared. Glutamate and GABA injection mediated the hyperpolarization of the nonspiking interneurons with an increase in membrane conductance. The glutamate-mediated membrane hyperpolarization was reversed by injection of 1 or 2 nA hyperpolarizing current. By contrast, more than 3 nA hyperpolarizing current was frequently necessary to reverse the GABA-mediated hyperpolarization. Bath application of a chloride channel blocker, 50 microM picrotoxin (PTX), reduced the glutamate-mediated hyperpolarization, but had no effect on the GABA-mediated hyperpolarization. The GABA-mediated hyperpolarization was not consistently affected by bath application of low chloride solution. These results suggest that the glutamate-mediated inhibition was related to the gating of a Cl(-) conductance, while the GABA-mediated inhibition was not. Electrical stimstimulation of sensory afferents innervating the exopodite elicited ipsps in uropod opener motor neurons. These sensory-evoked ipsps were also PTX-insensitive, suggesting GABAergic nonspiking interneurons could be the predominant premotor elements in organizing the uropod motor control system.

  • Distribution of glutamatergic immunoreactive neurons in the terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the crayfish
    The Journal of comparative neurology, 2004
    Co-Authors: Toshiki Nagayama, Hitoshi Aonuma, Ken-ichi Kimura, Makoto Araki, Philip L. Newland
    Abstract:

    Using an antiserum directed against glutamate, we have analyzed the distribution of glutamate-like immunoreactive neurons in the terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Approximately 160 central neurons (157 8; mean SEM, n 8) showed positive glutamate-like immunoreactivity, which represents approximately 25% of the total number of neurons in the terminal Ganglion. Using a combination of intracellular staining with the marker Lucifer yellow and immunocytochemical staining has shown that most excitatory motor neurons are glutamatergic and that glutamate acts as an excitatory transmitter at peripheral neuromuscular junctions. Seven of 10 identified spiking local interneurons and only 2 of 19 identified ascending interneurons, showed positive immunoreactivity. Our observation that inhibitory spiking interneurons were immunopositive, whereas excitatory ascending interneurons were immunonegative, indicates that glutamate is likely to act as an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system. Local pressure injection of L-glutamate into the neuropil of the Ganglion caused a hyperpolarization of the membrane potentials of many interneurons. -Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic posterolateral nonspiking interneurons and the bilateral nonspiking interneuron LDS showed no glutamate-like immunoreactivity, whereas nonGABAergic anterolateral III nonspiking interneurons showed glutamate-like immunoreactivity. Thus, not only GABA but also glutamate are used in parallel as inhibitory neurotransmitters at central synapses. J. Comp. Neurol. 474:123–135, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Angela B. Lange – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Tsukasa Gotow – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • physiology of simple photoreceptors in the Abdominal Ganglion of onchidium
    BVAI'07 Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Advances in brain vision and artificial intelligence, 2007
    Co-Authors: Takako Nishi, Kyoko Shimotsu, Tsukasa Gotow
    Abstract:

    Simple photoreceptors without microvilli or cilia, the photorescponsive neurons, designated as A-P-1, Es-1, Ip-2, and Ip-1, exist in the Abdominal Ganglion of sea slug Onchidium. Of these, A-P-1 and Es-1 respond to light with a depolarizing receptor potential, caused by the closing of light-dependent, cGMP-gated K+ channels, whereas Ip-2 and Ip-1 are hyperpolarized by light, owing to the opening of the same K+ channels. Studies show the first demonstration of a new type of cGMP cascade, in which Ip-2 and Ip-1 cells are hyperpolarized when light activates GC through a Go-type G-protein. This new cascade thus contrasts with the well-known phototransduction cGMP cascade mediated by a Gt-type G-protein, seen in rods and cones as well as A-P-1 and Es-1 cells. Studies also suggest that the Onchidium simple photoreceptors and vertebrate simple photoreceptors, called ipRGCs, might be different from the conventional eye photoreceptors, which function as the pattern vision system and that they may be involved in a new sensory modality, the non-visual photoreceptive system, which functions as encoding of ambient light intensities, instead of spatial and temporal resolution. Finally, it is suggested that the Onchidium simple photoreceptors operate in the general regulation by light and dark of synaptic transmission of sensory inputs and subsequent behavioral responses.

  • BVAI – Physiology of simple photoreceptors in the Abdominal Ganglion of Onchidium
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2007
    Co-Authors: Takako Nishi, Kyoko Shimotsu, Tsukasa Gotow
    Abstract:

    Simple photoreceptors without microvilli or cilia, the photorescponsive neurons, designated as A-P-1, Es-1, Ip-2, and Ip-1, exist in the Abdominal Ganglion of sea slug Onchidium. Of these, A-P-1 and Es-1 respond to light with a depolarizing receptor potential, caused by the closing of light-dependent, cGMP-gated K+ channels, whereas Ip-2 and Ip-1 are hyperpolarized by light, owing to the opening of the same K+ channels. Studies show the first demonstration of a new type of cGMP cascade, in which Ip-2 and Ip-1 cells are hyperpolarized when light activates GC through a Go-type G-protein. This new cascade thus contrasts with the well-known phototransduction cGMP cascade mediated by a Gt-type G-protein, seen in rods and cones as well as A-P-1 and Es-1 cells. Studies also suggest that the Onchidium simple photoreceptors and vertebrate simple photoreceptors, called ipRGCs, might be different from the conventional eye photoreceptors, which function as the pattern vision system and that they may be involved in a new sensory modality, the non-visual photoreceptive system, which functions as encoding of ambient light intensities, instead of spatial and temporal resolution. Finally, it is suggested that the Onchidium simple photoreceptors operate in the general regulation by light and dark of synaptic transmission of sensory inputs and subsequent behavioral responses.

Giovanni Facciponte – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • CONTROL OF THE MOTOR PATTERN GENERATOR IN THE VIITH Abdominal Ganglion OF LOCUSTA : DESCENDING NEURAL INHIBITION AND COORDINATION WITH THE OVIPOSITION HOLE DIGGING CENTRAL PATTERN GENERATOR
    Journal of Insect Physiology, 1996
    Co-Authors: Giovanni Facciponte, Angela B. Lange
    Abstract:

    Abstract The control of a motor pattern generator in the VIIth Abdominal Ganglion of Locusta was examined. Sucrose gap block of ventral nerve cord neural activity in non-egg-laying locusts, anterior to the VIIth Abdominal Ganglion, initiated the rhythmic neural activity in the oviducal nerves which is produced by this motor pattern generator. Removal of the sucrose gap block resulted in the cessation of the pattern. Extracellular stimulation of the nerve cord caused the inhibition of the rhythmic neural activity in preparations in which the pattern was initiated by transection of the ventral nerve cord. Taken together, these results confirm that the main control of the central pattern generator in the VIIth Abdominal Ganglion is by descending neural inhibition. Using serial transections of the ventral nerve cord, the source of the inhibition was localized to the brain, suboesophageal Ganglion and thoracic ganglia. In addition to being controlled by descending neural inhibition, the motor pattern generator in the VIIth Abdominal Ganglion was also found to be coordinated with the oviposition digging central pattern generator in the VIIIth Abdominal Ganglion. The data suggest that communication with the digging central pattern generator may be important in view of the fact that the outputs of these distinct pattern generators are highly coordinated.

  • Characterization of a novel central pattern generator located in the VIIth Abdominal Ganglion of Locusta
    Journal of Insect Physiology, 1992
    Co-Authors: Giovanni Facciponte, Angela B. Lange
    Abstract:

    Abstract The neural activity recorded at the oviducal nerves of semi-intact non-egg-laying locusts and disturbed egg-laying locusts has been examined. A rhythmic motor pattern comprising predominantly three discernible sizes of action potentials could be recorded from disturbed egg-layers but not from non-egg-layers. The larger and smaller action potentials burst in a coordinated way which were mutually exclusive to the medium-sized action potential. The medium-sized action potential was found to produce typical electromyographic responses at the innervated regions of the oviduct while the larger and smaller action potentials produced similar responses at the external ventral protractor of the VIIth Abdominal segment. The minimal neural substrate required to produce this rhythmic motor pattern resides entirely in the VIIth Abdominal Ganglion as shown by transections. The data presented suggests that a central pattern generator controlling the reciprocal contractions of the innervated regions of the oviduct and the external ventral protractors of the VIIth Abdominal segment is located in the VIIth Abdominal Ganglion and is controlled by descending neural inhibition. Possible functions of this central pattern generator are discussed.

Philip L. Newland – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Distribution of glutamatergic immunoreactive neurons in the terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the crayfish
    The Journal of comparative neurology, 2004
    Co-Authors: Toshiki Nagayama, Hitoshi Aonuma, Ken-ichi Kimura, Makoto Araki, Philip L. Newland
    Abstract:

    Using an antiserum directed against glutamate, we have analyzed the distribution of glutamate-like immunoreactive neurons in the terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Approximately 160 central neurons (157 8; mean SEM, n 8) showed positive glutamate-like immunoreactivity, which represents approximately 25% of the total number of neurons in the terminal Ganglion. Using a combination of intracellular staining with the marker Lucifer yellow and immunocytochemical staining has shown that most excitatory motor neurons are glutamatergic and that glutamate acts as an excitatory transmitter at peripheral neuromuscular junctions. Seven of 10 identified spiking local interneurons and only 2 of 19 identified ascending interneurons, showed positive immunoreactivity. Our observation that inhibitory spiking interneurons were immunopositive, whereas excitatory ascending interneurons were immunonegative, indicates that glutamate is likely to act as an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system. Local pressure injection of L-glutamate into the neuropil of the Ganglion caused a hyperpolarization of the membrane potentials of many interneurons. -Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic posterolateral nonspiking interneurons and the bilateral nonspiking interneuron LDS showed no glutamate-like immunoreactivity, whereas nonGABAergic anterolateral III nonspiking interneurons showed glutamate-like immunoreactivity. Thus, not only GABA but also glutamate are used in parallel as inhibitory neurotransmitters at central synapses. J. Comp. Neurol. 474:123–135, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry in the terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the crayfish.
    Cell and tissue research, 2001
    Co-Authors: Hansjürgen Schuppe, Hitoshi Aonuma, Philip L. Newland
    Abstract:

    Nitric oxide (NO) has an important modulatory role on the processing of sensory signals in vertebrates and invertebrates. In this investigation we studied the potential sources of NO in the terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, using NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry, with NADPHd acting as a marker for NO synthase (NOS). In the terminal Ganglion a mean of 27 strongly labelled NADPHd-positive cell bodies were found, and of these 8% occurred in three regions located in antero-lateral, central and posterior parts of the Ganglion. Ventral and antero-ventral commissures as well as specific dorsal and ventral areas of the dendritic neuropil showed positive staining. Intense labelling was seen in the ventro-medial tract, and in the connective between the terminal Ganglion and the 5th Abdominal Ganglion. In addition, some motor neurones and neurones with branches in the sensory commissures were NADPHd positive. Our finding that NADPHd-positive cells occur in consistent patterns in the terminal Abdominal Ganglion implies that NO may have a role in mechanosensory processing in the crayfish.

  • Distribution of NADPH-diaphorase-positive ascending interneurones in the crayfish terminal Abdominal Ganglion
    Cell and tissue research, 2001
    Co-Authors: Hansjürgen Schuppe, Hitoshi Aonuma, Philip L. Newland
    Abstract:

    Previous neuropharmacological studies have described the presence of a nitric oxide-cGMP signalling pathway in the crayfish Abdominal nervous system. In this study we have analysed the distribution of putative nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing ascending interneurones in the crayfish terminal Abdominal Ganglion using NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry. Ascending intersegmental interneurones were stained intracellularly using the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow and the ganglia containing the stained interneurones subsequently processed for NADPHd activity. Fluorescence persisted throughout histochemical processing. These double-labelling experiments showed that 12 of 18 identified ascending interneurones were NADPHd positive. Thus many ascending interneurones that process mechanosensory signals in the terminal Ganglion may contain NOS, and are themselves likely sources of NO which is known to modulate their synaptic inputs. Three clear relationships emerged from our analysis between the effects of NO on the synaptic inputs of interneurones, their output properties and their staining for NADPH-diaphorase. First were class 1 interneurones with no local outputs in the terminal Ganglion, the NE type interneurones, which had sensory inputs that were enhanced by NO and were NADPHd positive. Second were class 1 interneurones with local and intersegmental output effects that had sensory inputs that were also enhanced by NO but were NADPHd negative. Third were class 2 interneurones with local and intersegmental outputs that had synaptic inputs that were depressed by the action of NO but were NADPHd positive. These results suggest that NO could selectively enhance specific synaptic connections and sensory processing pathways in local circuits.