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Abnormal Feces

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Aurélien Grellet – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Influence of Breed Size, Age, Fecal Quality, and Enteropathogen Shedding on Fecal Calprotectin and Immunoglobulin A Concentrations in Puppies During the Weaning Period
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2016
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Romy M. Heilmann, Bruno Polack, Alexandre Feugier, Corine Boucraut-baralon, Didier Grandjean, Niels Grützner, Jan S. Suchodolski, J. M. Steiner, Sylvie Chastant-maillard
    Abstract:

    BackgroundFecal calprotectin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are markers of intestinal inflammation and immunity in adult dogs. HypothesisFecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations in puppies are not influenced by fecal moisture in puppies but by enteropathogen shedding. AnimalsThree hundred and twenty-four puppies. MethodsFecal consistency was assessed by gross examination. Fecal moisture was evaluated before and after lyophilization. Canine parvovirus and coronavirus were detected in Feces by qPCR and qRT-PCR respectively. Giardia intestinalis antigen was quantified by ELISA. The standard McMaster flotation technique was used to detect eggs and oocysts in Feces. Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations were quantified by in-house radioimmunoassays. ResultsFor each marker (IgA and calprotectin), a strong positive correlation was observed between concentration in fresh Feces and concentration in fecal dry matter. 75.6% of the puppies were found to be infected by at 1 of the enteropathogens evaluated. Fecal calprotectin concentration was significantly influenced by age (P = .001), with higher concentrations in younger puppies, but not by viral (P = .863) or parasitic infection (P = .791). Fecal IgA concentration was significantly influenced by enteropathogen shedding (P = .01), with a lower fecal IgA concentration in puppies shedding at 1 enteropathogen compared to puppies without any enteropathogen shedding, but not by age. ConclusionsFecal calprotectin and IgA are of no diagnostic value to detect presence of enteropathogens in clinically healthy puppies or puppies with Abnormal Feces, but could help to better understand the maturation of digestive tract.

  • risk factors of weaning diarrhea in puppies housed in breeding kennels
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2014
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Alexandre Feugier, Didier Grandjean, Sylvie Chastantmaillard, Coralie Robin, Cassandre Boogaerts, Corine Boucrautbaralon, Bruno Polack
    Abstract:

    Abstract Diarrhea represents one of the most frequent disorders in dogs. In puppies, degradation of Feces quality is associated with a reduced daily weight gain and an increased risk of death. Prevention of diarrhea in puppies requires a global approach encompassing enteropathogens, environment and management practices especially when housed in groups. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of enteropathogens in puppies in breeding kennels and to identify risk factors of diarrhea. Two hundred and sixty six puppies (between 5 and 14 weeks of age) from 29 French breeding kennels were included. For each kennel, data about environment, management of the kennel and puppies’ characteristics (age, sex and breed) were collected. For each puppy, fecal consistency and fecal excretion of enteropathogens (viruses and parasites) was evaluated. At least one enteropathogen was identified in 77.1% of puppies and 24.8% of puppies presented Abnormal Feces. The main risk factor of weaning diarrhea was fecal excretion of canine parvovirus type 2 (odds ratio = 5; confidence interval 95%: 1.7–14.7). A targeted sanitary and medical prophylaxis against canine parvovirus type 2 should be implemented to decrease risk of weaning diarrhea.

  • prevalence risk factors of infection and molecular characterization of trichomonads in puppies from french breeding kennels
    Veterinary Parasitology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Alexandre Feugier, Didier Grandjean, Corine Boucrautbaralon, Laurine Vandewynckel, Amandine Cian, Dionigia Meloni, Eric Viscogliosi
    Abstract:

    Abstract The trichomonad species Tritrichomonas fetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis were recently identified in the Feces of dogs with diarrhea. However the prevalence and pathogenicity of these parasites in the canine population still remained poorly resolved. Therefore the aim of the present study was (1) to determine the prevalence of trichomonads infecting puppies living in French breeding kennels, (2) to confirm the predominance of P. hominis in dogs, (3) to investigate the genetic diversity of P. hominis isolates identified in the French canine population and (4) to evaluate the risk factors for infection by P. hominis and the influence of the parasite on Feces consistency. A total of 215 both diarrheic and non-diarrheic puppies from 25 French breeding kennels were included in this epidemiological survey. Fecal samples from each puppy were examined for 6 gastrointestinal pathogens: parvovirus type 2 (CPV2), coronavirus, Toxocara canicanis, Cystoisospora ohioensis-complex, Cystoisospora canis, and Giardia intestinalis. A part of each collected stool was also tested for the presence of motile trichomonads by microscopy after culturing. The prevalence of trichomonad infection was 15.8% (34/215) among puppies and 20% (5/25) among breeding kennels. DNA from 26 of the 34 positive samples was successfully amplified using a trichomonad-specific primer pair. Analysis of the sequences of PCR products indicated that P. hominis was the only trichomonad infecting the canine population. All the puppies infected with P. hominis belonged to large breed dogs. Moreover, puppies from large breeding kennels, excreting a high level of G. intestinalis and/or excreting a high level of C. canis oocysts showed a higher probability of being positive for P. hominis infection. Univariate analysis also revealed an increased risk for P. hominis infection in puppies with Abnormal Feces. However, in a multivariate analysis, CPV2 was the only gastrointestinal pathogen associated with Abnormal Feces. Since enteropathogens were commonly found in dogs infected by P. hominis, the pathogenic potential of this trichomonad species remained uncertain and has to be further evaluated by experimental infection studies.

Alexandre Feugier – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Influence of Breed Size, Age, Fecal Quality, and Enteropathogen Shedding on Fecal Calprotectin and Immunoglobulin A Concentrations in Puppies During the Weaning Period
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2016
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Romy M. Heilmann, Bruno Polack, Alexandre Feugier, Corine Boucraut-baralon, Didier Grandjean, Niels Grützner, Jan S. Suchodolski, J. M. Steiner, Sylvie Chastant-maillard
    Abstract:

    BackgroundFecal calprotectin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are markers of intestinal inflammation and immunity in adult dogs. HypothesisFecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations in puppies are not influenced by fecal moisture in puppies but by enteropathogen shedding. AnimalsThree hundred and twenty-four puppies. MethodsFecal consistency was assessed by gross examination. Fecal moisture was evaluated before and after lyophilization. Canine parvovirus and coronavirus were detected in Feces by qPCR and qRT-PCR respectively. Giardia intestinalis antigen was quantified by ELISA. The standard McMaster flotation technique was used to detect eggs and oocysts in Feces. Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations were quantified by in-house radioimmunoassays. ResultsFor each marker (IgA and calprotectin), a strong positive correlation was observed between concentration in fresh Feces and concentration in fecal dry matter. 75.6% of the puppies were found to be infected by at 1 of the enteropathogens evaluated. Fecal calprotectin concentration was significantly influenced by age (P = .001), with higher concentrations in younger puppies, but not by viral (P = .863) or parasitic infection (P = .791). Fecal IgA concentration was significantly influenced by enteropathogen shedding (P = .01), with a lower fecal IgA concentration in puppies shedding at 1 enteropathogen compared to puppies without any enteropathogen shedding, but not by age. ConclusionsFecal calprotectin and IgA are of no diagnostic value to detect presence of enteropathogens in clinically healthy puppies or puppies with Abnormal Feces, but could help to better understand the maturation of digestive tract.

  • risk factors of weaning diarrhea in puppies housed in breeding kennels
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2014
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Alexandre Feugier, Didier Grandjean, Sylvie Chastantmaillard, Coralie Robin, Cassandre Boogaerts, Corine Boucrautbaralon, Bruno Polack
    Abstract:

    Abstract Diarrhea represents one of the most frequent disorders in dogs. In puppies, degradation of Feces quality is associated with a reduced daily weight gain and an increased risk of death. Prevention of diarrhea in puppies requires a global approach encompassing enteropathogens, environment and management practices especially when housed in groups. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of enteropathogens in puppies in breeding kennels and to identify risk factors of diarrhea. Two hundred and sixty six puppies (between 5 and 14 weeks of age) from 29 French breeding kennels were included. For each kennel, data about environment, management of the kennel and puppies’ characteristics (age, sex and breed) were collected. For each puppy, fecal consistency and fecal excretion of enteropathogens (viruses and parasites) was evaluated. At least one enteropathogen was identified in 77.1% of puppies and 24.8% of puppies presented Abnormal Feces. The main risk factor of weaning diarrhea was fecal excretion of canine parvovirus type 2 (odds ratio = 5; confidence interval 95%: 1.7–14.7). A targeted sanitary and medical prophylaxis against canine parvovirus type 2 should be implemented to decrease risk of weaning diarrhea.

  • prevalence risk factors of infection and molecular characterization of trichomonads in puppies from french breeding kennels
    Veterinary Parasitology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Alexandre Feugier, Didier Grandjean, Corine Boucrautbaralon, Laurine Vandewynckel, Amandine Cian, Dionigia Meloni, Eric Viscogliosi
    Abstract:

    Abstract The trichomonad species Tritrichomonas fetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis were recently identified in the Feces of dogs with diarrhea. However the prevalence and pathogenicity of these parasites in the canine population still remained poorly resolved. Therefore the aim of the present study was (1) to determine the prevalence of trichomonads infecting puppies living in French breeding kennels, (2) to confirm the predominance of P. hominis in dogs, (3) to investigate the genetic diversity of P. hominis isolates identified in the French canine population and (4) to evaluate the risk factors for infection by P. hominis and the influence of the parasite on Feces consistency. A total of 215 both diarrheic and non-diarrheic puppies from 25 French breeding kennels were included in this epidemiological survey. Fecal samples from each puppy were examined for 6 gastrointestinal pathogens: parvovirus type 2 (CPV2), coronavirus, Toxocara canis, Cystoisospora ohioensis-complex, Cystoisospora canis, and Giardia intestinalis. A part of each collected stool was also tested for the presence of motile trichomonads by microscopy after culturing. The prevalence of trichomonad infection was 15.8% (34/215) among puppies and 20% (5/25) among breeding kennels. DNA from 26 of the 34 positive samples was successfully amplified using a trichomonad-specific primer pair. Analysis of the sequences of PCR products indicated that P. hominis was the only trichomonad infecting the canine population. All the puppies infected with P. hominis belonged to large breed dogs. Moreover, puppies from large breeding kennels, excreting a high level of G. intestinalis and/or excreting a high level of C. canis oocysts showed a higher probability of being positive for P. hominis infection. Univariate analysis also revealed an increased risk for P. hominis infection in puppies with Abnormal Feces. However, in a multivariate analysis, CPV2 was the only gastrointestinal pathogen associated with Abnormal Feces. Since enteropathogens were commonly found in dogs infected by P. hominis, the pathogenic potential of this trichomonad species remained uncertain and has to be further evaluated by experimental infection studies.

Didier Grandjean – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Influence of Breed Size, Age, Fecal Quality, and Enteropathogen Shedding on Fecal Calprotectin and Immunoglobulin A Concentrations in Puppies During the Weaning Period
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2016
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Romy M. Heilmann, Bruno Polack, Alexandre Feugier, Corine Boucraut-baralon, Didier Grandjean, Niels Grützner, Jan S. Suchodolski, J. M. Steiner, Sylvie Chastant-maillard
    Abstract:

    BackgroundFecal calprotectin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are markers of intestinal inflammation and immunity in adult dogs. HypothesisFecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations in puppies are not influenced by fecal moisture in puppies but by enteropathogen shedding. AnimalsThree hundred and twenty-four puppies. MethodsFecal consistency was assessed by gross examination. Fecal moisture was evaluated before and after lyophilization. Canine parvovirus and coronavirus were detected in Feces by qPCR and qRT-PCR respectively. Giardia intestinalis antigen was quantified by ELISA. The standard McMaster flotation technique was used to detect eggs and oocysts in Feces. Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations were quantified by in-house radioimmunoassays. ResultsFor each marker (IgA and calprotectin), a strong positive correlation was observed between concentration in fresh Feces and concentration in fecal dry matter. 75.6% of the puppies were found to be infected by at 1 of the enteropathogens evaluated. Fecal calprotectin concentration was significantly influenced by age (P = .001), with higher concentrations in younger puppies, but not by viral (P = .863) or parasitic infection (P = .791). Fecal IgA concentration was significantly influenced by enteropathogen shedding (P = .01), with a lower fecal IgA concentration in puppies shedding at 1 enteropathogen compared to puppies without any enteropathogen shedding, but not by age. ConclusionsFecal calprotectin and IgA are of no diagnostic value to detect presence of enteropathogens in clinically healthy puppies or puppies with Abnormal Feces, but could help to better understand the maturation of digestive tract.

  • risk factors of weaning diarrhea in puppies housed in breeding kennels
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2014
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Alexandre Feugier, Didier Grandjean, Sylvie Chastantmaillard, Coralie Robin, Cassandre Boogaerts, Corine Boucrautbaralon, Bruno Polack
    Abstract:

    Abstract Diarrhea represents one of the most frequent disorders in dogs. In puppies, degradation of Feces quality is associated with a reduced daily weight gain and an increased risk of death. Prevention of diarrhea in puppies requires a global approach encompassing enteropathogens, environment and management practices especially when housed in groups. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of enteropathogens in puppies in breeding kennels and to identify risk factors of diarrhea. Two hundred and sixty six puppies (between 5 and 14 weeks of age) from 29 French breeding kennels were included. For each kennel, data about environment, management of the kennel and puppies’ characteristics (age, sex and breed) were collected. For each puppy, fecal consistency and fecal excretion of enteropathogens (viruses and parasites) was evaluated. At least one enteropathogen was identified in 77.1% of puppies and 24.8% of puppies presented Abnormal Feces. The main risk factor of weaning diarrhea was fecal excretion of canine parvovirus type 2 (odds ratio = 5; confidence interval 95%: 1.7–14.7). A targeted sanitary and medical prophylaxis against canine parvovirus type 2 should be implemented to decrease risk of weaning diarrhea.

  • prevalence risk factors of infection and molecular characterization of trichomonads in puppies from french breeding kennels
    Veterinary Parasitology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Alexandre Feugier, Didier Grandjean, Corine Boucrautbaralon, Laurine Vandewynckel, Amandine Cian, Dionigia Meloni, Eric Viscogliosi
    Abstract:

    Abstract The trichomonad species Tritrichomonas fetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis were recently identified in the Feces of dogs with diarrhea. However the prevalence and pathogenicity of these parasites in the canine population still remained poorly resolved. Therefore the aim of the present study was (1) to determine the prevalence of trichomonads infecting puppies living in French breeding kennels, (2) to confirm the predominance of P. hominis in dogs, (3) to investigate the genetic diversity of P. hominis isolates identified in the French canine population and (4) to evaluate the risk factors for infection by P. hominis and the influence of the parasite on Feces consistency. A total of 215 both diarrheic and non-diarrheic puppies from 25 French breeding kennels were included in this epidemiological survey. Fecal samples from each puppy were examined for 6 gastrointestinal pathogens: parvovirus type 2 (CPV2), coronavirus, Toxocara canis, Cystoisospora ohioensis-complex, Cystoisospora canis, and Giardia intestinalis. A part of each collected stool was also tested for the presence of motile trichomonads by microscopy after culturing. The prevalence of trichomonad infection was 15.8% (34/215) among puppies and 20% (5/25) among breeding kennels. DNA from 26 of the 34 positive samples was successfully amplified using a trichomonad-specific primer pair. Analysis of the sequences of PCR products indicated that P. hominis was the only trichomonad infecting the canine population. All the puppies infected with P. hominis belonged to large breed dogs. Moreover, puppies from large breeding kennels, excreting a high level of G. intestinalis and/or excreting a high level of C. canis oocysts showed a higher probability of being positive for P. hominis infection. Univariate analysis also revealed an increased risk for P. hominis infection in puppies with Abnormal Feces. However, in a multivariate analysis, CPV2 was the only gastrointestinal pathogen associated with Abnormal Feces. Since enteropathogens were commonly found in dogs infected by P. hominis, the pathogenic potential of this trichomonad species remained uncertain and has to be further evaluated by experimental infection studies.

Bruno Polack – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Influence of Breed Size, Age, Fecal Quality, and Enteropathogen Shedding on Fecal Calprotectin and Immunoglobulin A Concentrations in Puppies During the Weaning Period
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2016
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Romy M. Heilmann, Bruno Polack, Alexandre Feugier, Corine Boucraut-baralon, Didier Grandjean, Niels Grützner, Jan S. Suchodolski, J. M. Steiner, Sylvie Chastant-maillard
    Abstract:

    BackgroundFecal calprotectin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are markers of intestinal inflammation and immunity in adult dogs. HypothesisFecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations in puppies are not influenced by fecal moisture in puppies but by enteropathogen shedding. AnimalsThree hundred and twenty-four puppies. MethodsFecal consistency was assessed by gross examination. Fecal moisture was evaluated before and after lyophilization. Canine parvovirus and coronavirus were detected in Feces by qPCR and qRT-PCR respectively. Giardia intestinalis antigen was quantified by ELISA. The standard McMaster flotation technique was used to detect eggs and oocysts in Feces. Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations were quantified by in-house radioimmunoassays. ResultsFor each marker (IgA and calprotectin), a strong positive correlation was observed between concentration in fresh Feces and concentration in fecal dry matter. 75.6% of the puppies were found to be infected by at 1 of the enteropathogens evaluated. Fecal calprotectin concentration was significantly influenced by age (P = .001), with higher concentrations in younger puppies, but not by viral (P = .863) or parasitic infection (P = .791). Fecal IgA concentration was significantly influenced by enteropathogen shedding (P = .01), with a lower fecal IgA concentration in puppies shedding at 1 enteropathogen compared to puppies without any enteropathogen shedding, but not by age. ConclusionsFecal calprotectin and IgA are of no diagnostic value to detect presence of enteropathogens in clinically healthy puppies or puppies with Abnormal Feces, but could help to better understand the maturation of digestive tract.

  • risk factors of weaning diarrhea in puppies housed in breeding kennels
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2014
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Alexandre Feugier, Didier Grandjean, Sylvie Chastantmaillard, Coralie Robin, Cassandre Boogaerts, Corine Boucrautbaralon, Bruno Polack
    Abstract:

    Abstract Diarrhea represents one of the most frequent disorders in dogs. In puppies, degradation of Feces quality is associated with a reduced daily weight gain and an increased risk of death. Prevention of diarrhea in puppies requires a global approach encompassing enteropathogens, environment and management practices especially when housed in groups. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of enteropathogens in puppies in breeding kennels and to identify risk factors of diarrhea. Two hundred and sixty six puppies (between 5 and 14 weeks of age) from 29 French breeding kennels were included. For each kennel, data about environment, management of the kennel and puppies’ characteristics (age, sex and breed) were collected. For each puppy, fecal consistency and fecal excretion of enteropathogens (viruses and parasites) was evaluated. At least one enteropathogen was identified in 77.1% of puppies and 24.8% of puppies presented Abnormal Feces. The main risk factor of weaning diarrhea was fecal excretion of canine parvovirus type 2 (odds ratio = 5; confidence interval 95%: 1.7–14.7). A targeted sanitary and medical prophylaxis against canine parvovirus type 2 should be implemented to decrease risk of weaning diarrhea.

Corine Boucrautbaralon – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • risk factors of weaning diarrhea in puppies housed in breeding kennels
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2014
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Alexandre Feugier, Didier Grandjean, Sylvie Chastantmaillard, Coralie Robin, Cassandre Boogaerts, Corine Boucrautbaralon, Bruno Polack
    Abstract:

    Abstract Diarrhea represents one of the most frequent disorders in dogs. In puppies, degradation of Feces quality is associated with a reduced daily weight gain and an increased risk of death. Prevention of diarrhea in puppies requires a global approach encompassing enteropathogens, environment and management practices especially when housed in groups. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of enteropathogens in puppies in breeding kennels and to identify risk factors of diarrhea. Two hundred and sixty six puppies (between 5 and 14 weeks of age) from 29 French breeding kennels were included. For each kennel, data about environment, management of the kennel and puppies’ characteristics (age, sex and breed) were collected. For each puppy, fecal consistency and fecal excretion of enteropathogens (viruses and parasites) was evaluated. At least one enteropathogen was identified in 77.1% of puppies and 24.8% of puppies presented Abnormal Feces. The main risk factor of weaning diarrhea was fecal excretion of canine parvovirus type 2 (odds ratio = 5; confidence interval 95%: 1.7–14.7). A targeted sanitary and medical prophylaxis against canine parvovirus type 2 should be implemented to decrease risk of weaning diarrhea.

  • prevalence risk factors of infection and molecular characterization of trichomonads in puppies from french breeding kennels
    Veterinary Parasitology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Aurélien Grellet, Alexandre Feugier, Didier Grandjean, Corine Boucrautbaralon, Laurine Vandewynckel, Amandine Cian, Dionigia Meloni, Eric Viscogliosi
    Abstract:

    Abstract The trichomonad species Tritrichomonas fetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis were recently identified in the Feces of dogs with diarrhea. However the prevalence and pathogenicity of these parasites in the canine population still remained poorly resolved. Therefore the aim of the present study was (1) to determine the prevalence of trichomonads infecting puppies living in French breeding kennels, (2) to confirm the predominance of P. hominis in dogs, (3) to investigate the genetic diversity of P. hominis isolates identified in the French canine population and (4) to evaluate the risk factors for infection by P. hominis and the influence of the parasite on Feces consistency. A total of 215 both diarrheic and non-diarrheic puppies from 25 French breeding kennels were included in this epidemiological survey. Fecal samples from each puppy were examined for 6 gastrointestinal pathogens: parvovirus type 2 (CPV2), coronavirus, Toxocara canis, Cystoisospora ohioensis-complex, Cystoisospora canis, and Giardia intestinalis. A part of each collected stool was also tested for the presence of motile trichomonads by microscopy after culturing. The prevalence of trichomonad infection was 15.8% (34/215) among puppies and 20% (5/25) among breeding kennels. DNA from 26 of the 34 positive samples was successfully amplified using a trichomonad-specific primer pair. Analysis of the sequences of PCR products indicated that P. hominis was the only trichomonad infecting the canine population. All the puppies infected with P. hominis belonged to large breed dogs. Moreover, puppies from large breeding kennels, excreting a high level of G. intestinalis and/or excreting a high level of C. canis oocysts showed a higher probability of being positive for P. hominis infection. Univariate analysis also revealed an increased risk for P. hominis infection in puppies with Abnormal Feces. However, in a multivariate analysis, CPV2 was the only gastrointestinal pathogen associated with Abnormal Feces. Since enteropathogens were commonly found in dogs infected by P. hominis, the pathogenic potential of this trichomonad species remained uncertain and has to be further evaluated by experimental infection studies.