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Abundant Nucleus

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Martha L. Gray – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • New MRI Techniques for Imaging Cartilage
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume, 2003
    Co-Authors: Deborah Burstein, Martha L. Gray

    Abstract:

    Because of its ability to image all of the tissues in a diarthrodial joint, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an ever-increasing role in the evaluation, diagnosis, and monitoring of joint disorders. Standard MRI techniques can delineate morphologic abnormalities. Techniques on the horizon offer improved morphologic analysis as well as previously unavailable information about the biochemical composition and functional properties of joint tissues. While research and development efforts are rapidly growing, the current review focuses on techniques that are most advanced and that have demonstrated feasibility in basic science and clinical studies. As such, we report mainly on cartilage imaging but hasten to add that ongoing research efforts offer promise for the imaging of all joint structures. These techniques should improve our ability to understand the healthy joint and the disease process, to provide earlier diagnoses, and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic procedures. With these capabilities, we can more effectively establish strategies to maintain joint health and to identify indications for intervention at an early stage of degeneration.

    We begin with an overview of the basics of MRI to provide the reader with a sense of what is measured and how an MR measurement is made. MRI is possible because nuclei with an odd number of protons and/or an odd number of neutrons have net magnetic moments. The most Abundant Nucleus in biological systems is the hydrogen Nucleus (which, in MR vernacular, is referred to as a proton because hydrogen contains a single proton), making water and fat both observable with MRI. In all of the methods that we will discuss here (and virtually all of the MR imaging done clinically), it is the hydrogen (proton) Nucleus that is being measured; indeed, the term MRI has come to be synonymous with the term proton-MRI (while MR of another Nucleus x …

Deborah Burstein – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • New MRI Techniques for Imaging Cartilage
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume, 2003
    Co-Authors: Deborah Burstein, Martha L. Gray

    Abstract:

    Because of its ability to image all of the tissues in a diarthrodial joint, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an ever-increasing role in the evaluation, diagnosis, and monitoring of joint disorders. Standard MRI techniques can delineate morphologic abnormalities. Techniques on the horizon offer improved morphologic analysis as well as previously unavailable information about the biochemical composition and functional properties of joint tissues. While research and development efforts are rapidly growing, the current review focuses on techniques that are most advanced and that have demonstrated feasibility in basic science and clinical studies. As such, we report mainly on cartilage imaging but hasten to add that ongoing research efforts offer promise for the imaging of all joint structures. These techniques should improve our ability to understand the healthy joint and the disease process, to provide earlier diagnoses, and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic procedures. With these capabilities, we can more effectively establish strategies to maintain joint health and to identify indications for intervention at an early stage of degeneration.

    We begin with an overview of the basics of MRI to provide the reader with a sense of what is measured and how an MR measurement is made. MRI is possible because nuclei with an odd number of protons and/or an odd number of neutrons have net magnetic moments. The most Abundant Nucleus in biological systems is the hydrogen Nucleus (which, in MR vernacular, is referred to as a proton because hydrogen contains a single proton), making water and fat both observable with MRI. In all of the methods that we will discuss here (and virtually all of the MR imaging done clinically), it is the hydrogen (proton) Nucleus that is being measured; indeed, the term MRI has come to be synonymous with the term proton-MRI (while MR of another Nucleus x …

Thomas Brauniger – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • frequency swept pulse sequences for 19f heteronuclear spin decoupling in solid state nmr
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 2010
    Co-Authors: Vinod C Chandran, P K Madhu, Philip Wormald, Thomas Brauniger

    Abstract:

    Heteronuclear spin decoupling pulse sequences in solid-state NMR have mostly been designed and applied for irradiating 1H as the Abundant Nucleus. Here, a systematic comparison of different methods for decoupling 19F in rigid organic solids is presented, with a special emphasis on the recently introduced frequency-swept sequences. An extensive series of NMR experiments at different MAS frequencies was conducted on fluorinated model compounds, in combination with large sets of numerical simulations. From both experiments and simulations it can be concluded that the frequency-swept sequences SWf-TPPM and SWf-SPINAL deliver better and more robust spin decoupling than the original sequences SPINAL and TPPM. Whereas the existence of a large chemical shift anisotropy and isotropic shift dispersion for 19F does compromise the decoupling efficiency, the relative performance hierarchy of the sequences remains unaffected. Therefore, in the context of rigid organic solids under moderate MAS frequencies, the performance trends observed for 19F decoupling are very similar to those observed for 1H decoupling.