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Acceptable Risk Level

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Ricardo R Gonzalez – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • How do transurethral needle ablation of the prostate and transurethral microwave thermotherapy compare with transurethral prostatectomy?
    Current Prostate Reports, 2003
    Co-Authors: Ricardo R Gonzalez, Alexis E. Te
    Abstract:

    Throughout the past decade, several minimally invasive therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have emerged to challenge transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) in efficacy and safety. This review compares high- and lowenergy transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) and transurethral needle ablaablation (TUNA) of the prostate with TURP in clinical efficacy and safety. In reducing BPH symptoms, TUNA and TUMT are, at best, equal to TURP. However, the effects of TUMT and TUNA on objective measures of obstructive uropathy are minimal and less durable compared with TURP. The sole determinant of when and how to treat a patient with BPH is not solely a therapy’s clinical effectiveness. Other multiple factors must be considered, including safety, adverse effects, sexual function, and cost. The role of TUNA and TUMT lies in offering a cost-effective alternative for achieving substantial improvement in quality of life at an Acceptable Risk Level for treatment-associated complications.

  • How do transurethral needle ablation of the prostate and transurethral microwave thermotherapy compare with transurethral prostatectomy
    Current urology reports, 2003
    Co-Authors: Ricardo R Gonzalez
    Abstract:

    Throughout the past decade, several minimally invasive therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have emerged to challenge transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) in efficacy and safety. This review compares high- and lowenergy transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) and transurethral needle ablaablation (TUNA) of the prostate with TURP in clinical efficacy and safety. In reducing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms, TUNA and TUMT are, at best, equal to TURP. However, the effects of TUMT and TUNA on objective measures of obstructive uropathy are minimal and less durable compared with TURP. The sole determinant of when and how to treat a patient with BPH is not solely a therapy’s clinical effectiveness. Other multiple factors must be considered, including safety, adverse effects, sexual function, and cost. The role of TUNA and TUMT lies in offering a cost-effective alternative for achieving substantial improvement in quality of life at an Acceptable Risk Level for treatment-associated complications.

Alexis E. Te – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • How do transurethral needle ablation of the prostate and transurethral microwave thermotherapy compare with transurethral prostatectomy?
    Current Prostate Reports, 2003
    Co-Authors: Ricardo R Gonzalez, Alexis E. Te
    Abstract:

    Throughout the past decade, several minimally invasive therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have emerged to challenge transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) in efficacy and safety. This review compares high- and lowenergy transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) and transurethral needle ablation (TUNA) of the prostate with TURP in clinical efficacy and safety. In reducing BPH symptoms, TUNA and TUMT are, at best, equal to TURP. However, the effects of TUMT and TUNA on objective measures of obstructive uropathy are minimal and less durable compared with TURP. The sole determinant of when and how to treat a patient with BPH is not solely a therapy’s clinical effectiveness. Other multiple factors must be considered, including safety, adverse effects, sexual function, and cost. The role of TUNA and TUMT lies in offering a cost-effective alternative for achieving substantial improvement in quality of life at an Acceptable Risk Level for treatment-associated complications.

Zhenlou Chen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetables near industrial areas of Shanghai, China: Sources, exposure, and cancer Risk.
    Environmental Pollution, 2018
    Co-Authors: Jinpu Jia, Bi Cj, Junfeng Zhang, Xiaopei Jin, Zhenlou Chen
    Abstract:

    Abstract Dietary consumption of contaminated vegetables may contribute to polycyclic aromatic hydrhydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in humans; however, this exposure pathway has not been examined thoroughly. This study aims to characterize the concentrations of PAHs in six types of vegetables grown near industrial facilities in Shanghai, China. We analyzed 16 individual PAHs on the US EPA priority list, and the total concentration in vegetables ranged from 65.7 to 458.0 ng g−1 in the following order: leafy vegetables (romaine lettuce, Chinese cabbcabbage and Shanghai green cabbage) > stem vegetables (lettuce) > seed and pod vegetables (broad bean) > rhizome vegetables (daikon). Vegetable species, wind direction, and local anthropogenic emissions were determinants of PAH concentrations in the edible part of the vegetable. Using isomer ratios and principal compcomponent analysis, PAHs in the vegetables were determined to be mainly from coal and wood combustion. The sources of PAHs in the six types of vegetables varied. Daily ingestion of PAHs due to dietary consumption of these vegetables ranged from 0.71 to 14.06 ng d−1 kg−1, with contributions from Chinese cabbcabbage > broad bean > romaine > Shanghai green cabbage > lettuce > daikon. The daily intake doses adjusted by body weight in children were higher than those in teenagers and adults. Moreover, in adults, higher concentrations of PAHs were found in females than in males. For individuals of different age and gender, the incremental lifetime cancer Risks (ILCRs) from consuming these six vegetables ranged from 4.47 × 10−7 to 6.39 × 10−5. Most were higher than the Acceptable Risk Level of 1 × 10−6. Our findings demonstrate that planting vegetables near industrial facilities may pose potential cancer Risks to those who consume the vegetables.

Torgeir Moan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • development of accidental collapse limit state criteria for offshore structures
    Structural Safety, 2009
    Co-Authors: Torgeir Moan
    Abstract:

    Abstract Experiences with offshore and other structures show that catastrophic accidents often are initiated by human errors that cause accidental actions or abnormal resistance which escalate progressively into undesirable consequences. It is therefore argued that damage tolerance or robustness is a desirable feature of structures to complement other safety measures to achieve an Acceptable Risk Level. Robustness may be achieved by specific Accidental Collapse Limit State (ALS) criteria. A quantitative, semi-probabilistic ALS procedure has been introduced for offshore structures in Norway in terms of a survival check of damaged structural systems. The initial damage is considered to be due to accidental actions corresponding to an annual exceedance probability of 10 −4 or abnormal resistance, e.g. due to fabrication defects. Survival of the damaged structure under relevant actions with environmental actions at an annual exceedance probability of 10 −2 should be demonstrated. The basis for an implementation of this approach is outlined, with a focus on Risk acceptance criteria. The Risk analysis methodology on which this procedure rests, is described with an emphasis on determining the characteristic accidental actions with due account of possible Risk reduction actions. Since the ALS procedure is based on an alternate path approach, methods for predicting the initial accidental damage and the survival of the damaged structure need to account for nonlinear structural behaviour. It is described how the recent development of computational tools facilitates a realistic ALS approach for steel structures.

  • Design of Offshore Structures and Ships for Damage Tolerance
    Marine Systems & Ocean Technology, 2007
    Co-Authors: Torgeir Moan
    Abstract:

    Accident experiences for offshore structures and ships are briefly described. It is argued that an Accidental Collapse Limit State is necessary to complement other safety measures to achieve an Acceptable Risk Level. The basis for the acceptance criteria and their implementation in the codified probabilistic design criteria in NORSOK are outlined, and the need for establishing such criteria for ships is emphasized. The NORSOK requirements are quantitative, i.e. the ALS check is specified as a survival check of a damaged structural system. The damage may be due to accidental actions such as fires, explosions, ship impacts or fabrication defects corresponding to an annual exceedance probability of 10^−4. Survival of the damaged structure under relevant characteristic payloads and environmental actions with an annual exceedance probability of 10^−2, should be demonstrated. Risk analysis methodology to establish relevant accidental conditions is discussed. In these analyses possible Risk reduction by use of sprinkler/inert gas system or fire walls for fires and fenders for collisions, should be accounted for. Methods for predicting accidental damage and survival of the damaged structure are briefly outlined. While in general nonlinear finite element methods need to be applied, simplified methods, e.g. based on plastic mechanisms, are developed and calibrated using more refined methods, to limit the computational effort required. Finally, the trend towards establishing more prescriptive ALS requirements is also observed.

  • ANALYTICAL Risk ASSESSMENT AND Risk CONTROL OF FLOATING PLATFORMS SUBJECTED TO SHIP COLLISIONS AND DROPPED OBJECTS
    All Days, 1993
    Co-Authors: Torgeir Moan, Demir I. Karsan, Terry Wilson
    Abstract:

    This paper presents a method for assessing the impairment Risk of a concrete TLP platform system subjected to impact hazards. Estimation of the probability of impacts due to ship collisions and dropped objects is briefly reviewed, and a probabilistic assessment of the possible associated impact damage, flooding and tether failure is made. These estimates are integrated to obtain the probability of impairment. The Risk may be controlled by adequate structural design of the columns and pontoons, as well as choosing a proper subdivision of the buoyant elements. Design of the flat and curved walls of a concrete North Sea TLP hull with a given compartmentation to resist impact loads to achieve an Acceptable Risk Level with respect to ship collisions and dropped objects, is demonstrated.

Jinpu Jia – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetables near industrial areas of Shanghai, China: Sources, exposure, and cancer Risk.
    Environmental Pollution, 2018
    Co-Authors: Jinpu Jia, Bi Cj, Junfeng Zhang, Xiaopei Jin, Zhenlou Chen
    Abstract:

    Abstract Dietary consumption of contaminated vegetables may contribute to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in humans; however, this exposure pathway has not been examined thoroughly. This study aims to characterize the concentrations of PAHs in six types of vegetables grown near industrial facilities in Shanghai, China. We analyzed 16 individual PAHs on the US EPA priority list, and the total concentration in vegetables ranged from 65.7 to 458.0 ng g−1 in the following order: leafy vegetables (romaine lettuce, Chinese cabbage and Shanghai green cabbage) > stem vegetables (lettuce) > seed and pod vegetables (broad bean) > rhizome vegetables (daikon). Vegetable species, wind direction, and local anthropogenic emissions were determinants of PAH concentrations in the edible part of the vegetable. Using isomer ratios and principal component analysis, PAHs in the vegetables were determined to be mainly from coal and wood combustion. The sources of PAHs in the six types of vegetables varied. Daily ingestion of PAHs due to dietary consumption of these vegetables ranged from 0.71 to 14.06 ng d−1 kg−1, with contributions from Chinese cabbage > broad bean > romaine > Shanghai green cabbage > lettuce > daikon. The daily intake doses adjusted by body weight in children were higher than those in teenagers and adults. Moreover, in adults, higher concentrations of PAHs were found in females than in males. For individuals of different age and gender, the incremental lifetime cancer Risks (ILCRs) from consuming these six vegetables ranged from 4.47 × 10−7 to 6.39 × 10−5. Most were higher than the Acceptable Risk Level of 1 × 10−6. Our findings demonstrate that planting vegetables near industrial facilities may pose potential cancer Risks to those who consume the vegetables.