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Acceptable Safety Level

The Experts below are selected from a list of 108 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Desiderio Passali – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Stationery injuries in the upper aerodigestive system: Results from the Susy Safe Project
    International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Francesca Foltran, Paola Berchialla, Dario Gregori, Anne Pitkäranta, Ivo Šlapák, Janka Jakubíková, Luisa Bellussi, Desiderio Passali

    Abstract:

    A B S T R A C T Rationale and aim: Foreign body (FB) injuries are a relatively frequent event in young children. Clinical picture can be evidently affected from different variables. Among those size, shape, type and FB location cover an important issue. Increased attempts have been made in order to encourage normative interventions for products devoted to children’s care and entertainment, reaching Acceptable Safety Level; on the contrary, fewer efforts have been devoted to investigate the risk associated to objects that – even if not expressly created for children – are easy accessed by children, like stationery. The aim of the present study is to characterize the risk of complications and prolonged hospitalization due to stationery items according to age and gender of patients, FB characteristics and FB location, circumstances of the accident, as emerging from the Susy Safe Registry. Methods: From 2005 to 2010 case were collected from 70 centers in 32 different countries. Details on the injuries, identified by means of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes listed on hospital discharge records, were gathered through a standardized case report form, that provides a full set of information on injuries, with specific details on age and gender of the child, location, shape, volume, consistency and ellipticity of the foreign body, behavioral aspects linked to the injury, like the supervision of the parents or the activity concomitant to the accident, any complication occurred, length of hospitalization. Results: In the years 2005–2010 a total of 17,205 FB injuries in children aged 0–14 years were registered in Susy Safe Database. Among them 425 (2.5%) were due to a stationery item. The majority of FBs were retrieved in the nose (179, meaning 42.1%) and in the ears (176, 41.4%) only 5 cases were observed in children younger than 1 year, while most of the cases, 80.6%, were recorded in children older than 3 years. 193 patients (45.4%) were female, while 232 (54.6%) were male. Adult supervision was indicated in 212 cases. In 143 of these accidents the adult was present (33.6% of the whole group). The most frequent stationery retrieved was rubber, counting for 209 cases (49.2%). According to the FBs types, mostly all cases reported a 3D volume and a rigid or semirigid consistency (49.3%). Looking to the outcomes, 31 (7%) children needed hospitalization and complications were seen in 38 children (8.9%). No significant associations were seen between the outcomes and the FBs’ characteristics, excluded those between the consistency of the FB (rigid) and the necessity of hospitalization and the shape (2D) and the presence of complication. Conclusions: Injuries are events that in many cases can be prevented with appropriate strategies. Passive environmental strategies, including product modification by manufacturers, are the most effective. However, regulation regarding small parts of potentially dangerous objects covers products addressed to

  • Stationery injuries in the upper aerodigestive system: results from the Susy Safe Project.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Francesca Foltran, Paola Berchialla, Dario Gregori, Anne Pitkäranta, Ivo Šlapák, Janka Jakubíková, Luisa Bellussi, Desiderio Passali

    Abstract:

    Foreign body (FB) injuries are a relatively frequent event in young children. Clinical picture can be evidently affected from different variables. Among those size, shape, type and FB location cover an important issue. Increased attempts have been made in order to encourage normative interventions for products devoted to children’s care and entertainment, reaching Acceptable Safety Level; on the contrary, fewer efforts have been devoted to investigate the risk associated to objects that–even if not expressly created for children–are easy accessed by children, like stationery. The aim of the present study is to characterize the risk of complications and prolonged hospitalization due to stationery items according to age and gender of patients, FB characteristics and FB location, circumstances of the accident, as emerging from the Susy Safe Registry.
    From 2005 to 2010 case were collected from 70 centers in 32 different countries. Details on the injuries, identified by means of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes listed on hospital discharge records, were gathered through a standardized case report form, that provides a full set of information on injuries, with specific details on age and gender of the child, location, shape, volume, consistency and ellipticity of the foreign body, behavioral aspects linked to the injury, like the supervision of the parents or the activity concomitant to the accident, any complication occurred, length of hospitalization.
    In the years 2005-2010 a total of 17,205 FB injuries in children aged 0-14 years were registered in Susy Safe Database. Among them 425 (2.5%) were due to a stationery item. The majority of FBs were retrieved in the nose (179, meaning 42.1%) and in the ears (176, 41.4%) only 5 cases were observed in children younger than 1 year, while most of the cases, 80.6%, were recorded in children older than 3 years. 193 patients (45.4%) were female, while 232 (54.6%) were male. Adult supervision was indicated in 212 cases. In 143 of these accidents the adult was present (33.6% of the whole group). The most frequent stationery retrieved was rubber, counting for 209 cases (49.2%). According to the FBs types, mostly all cases reported a 3D volume and a rigid or semirigid consistency (49.3%). Looking to the outcomes, 31 (7%) children needed hospitalization and complications were seen in 38 children (8.9%). No significant associations were seen between the outcomes and the FBs’ characteristics, excluded those between the consistency of the FB (rigid) and the necessity of hospitalization and the shape (2D) and the presence of complication.
    Injuries are events that in many cases can be prevented with appropriate strategies. Passive environmental strategies, including product modification by manufacturers, are the most effective. However, regulation regarding small parts of potentially dangerous objects covers products addressed to children use but objects not projected for children, such as stationary items, are excluded. Our study testifies that stationary is involved in a non-negligible percentage of FB injuries, mainly due to insertion in the ears. Frequently, injuries happen under adult supervision. These results confirm the fact that when passive preventive strategies are not practical, active strategies that promote behavior change are necessary and information about this issue should be included in all visits to family pediatricians.
    Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Karl H. Frank – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • OPTIMAL INSPECTION OF FRACTURE-CRITICAL STEEL TRAPEZOIDAL GIRDERS
    , 2003
    Co-Authors: H-y Chung, L Manuel, Karl H. Frank

    Abstract:

    A reliability-based procedure for inspection scheduling of steel bridges is proposed to yield the optimal (most economical) inspection strategy that meets an Acceptable Safety Level through the planned service life. Two fatigue reliability formulations that can be applied for most details in steel bridges are presented. For details classified according to AASHTO fatigue categories, a limit state function related to the number of stress cycles to failure based on Miner’s rule is used to evaluate the fatigue reliability; for details not classified according to AASHTO fatigue categories, a limit state function related to crack size and growth rate is used to evaluate the fatigue reliability. The inspection scheduling problem is modeled as an optimization problem with an objective function that includes the total expected cost of inspection, repair, and failure formulated using an event tree approach, appropriate constraints on the interval between inspections, and a specified minimally Acceptable (target) structural reliability. An optimal inspection-scheduling plan can thus be developed for any specified fatigue details or fracture-critical sections in steel bridges. Examples presented demonstrate the advantage of the reliability-based optimal inspection scheduling in cost saving and structural reliability control over alternative inspection plans.

  • Reliability-based optimal inspection for fracture-critical steel bridge members
    Transportation Research Record, 2003
    Co-Authors: H-y Chung, L Manuel, Karl H. Frank

    Abstract:

    To prevent fatigue failure of members in steel bridges, one usually needs to perform frequent periodic bridge inspections and employ detailed inspection methods. This is especially true for fracture-critical members or details. Carrying out these inspections puts a large burden on a transportation agency’s bridge maintenance budget. A systematic reliability-based method for inspection scheduling is proposed to yield the most economical inspection strategy for steel bridges that, at the same time, guarantees an Acceptable Safety Level through the planned service life. A methodology is presented for evaluating the fatigue reliability of a specified detail classified according to AASHTO fatigue categories. A Miner’s rule approach is used to evaluate the fatigue reliability. The inspection scheduling problem is modeled as an optimization problem with a well-defined objective function that includes the total expected cost of inspection, repair, and failure formulated on the basis of an event tree framework and appropriate constraints in inspection intervals and minimum (target) structural reliability. An optimal inspection-scheduling plan can thus be obtained for any specified fatigue details (fracture-critical details) in steel bridges. Examples presented demonstrate the advantage of the reliability-based optimal inspection scheduling in cost saving and structural reliability control over alternative periodic inspection plans. Two numerical examples for a steel bridge in Texas are presented to demonstrate the proposed reliability-based optimal inspection scheduling.

J Harding – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Turbo-Kreisverkehr in Baden-Baden – Teil 2: Verkehrs- und sicherheitstechnische Untersuchung / Roundabout with addition of inner lanes in Baden-Baden – part 2: Operational and Safety analysis
    , 2008
    Co-Authors: W Brilon, J Harding

    Abstract:

    Der Teil 2 des Berichts zum Thema “Turbinenartiger Kreisverkehrsplatz in Baden-Baden” fasst die verkehrs- und sicherheitstechnischen Erfahrungen zusammen, die an der Anlage seit der Inbetriebnahme gesammelt wurden. Grundsaetzlich kann als Ergebnis der Untersuchung festgehalten werden, dass sich der Kreisverkehr bewaehrt hat. Die Erwartungshaltung hinsichtlich der Leistungsfaehigkeit bestaetigt sich. Auch die Untersuchung der Verkehrssicherheit ergibt keine generellen Bedenken gegen diese Knotenpunktform. Insgesamt steht somit fuer Einsatzbedingungen, wie sie in Baden-Baden vorliegen, eine leistungsfaehige und im Vergleich zu anderen Anlagen nicht als unsicher zu bezeichnende Ausbauform fuer Kreisverkehrsplaetze zur Verfuegung. Siehe auch Teil 1 des Beitrags, ITRD-Nummer D363384. ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH: Part 2 of the paper outlining the experience with the first Turbo-Roundabout in Germany (Baden-Baden) summarises the results from the operational and Safety analysis that was conducted for the first 18 months of operation since May 2006. Overall it can be stated that the roundabout proved to be a success. The analysis confirmed the expectations in terms of capacity and traffic operation. Also, the Safety record of the intersection reveals no fundamental drawbacks. Thus, the new roundabout design represents a valuable alternative for operational conditions as they can be found in Baden-Baden with high capacity and an Acceptable Safety Level. (A) See also part 1 of this paper, ITRD number D363384.