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Accidental Activation

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William T. Garrard – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Discovery, regulation, and action of the major apoptotic nucleases DFF40/CAD and endonuclease G.
    Journal of cellular biochemistry, 2005
    Co-Authors: Piotr Widlak, William T. Garrard
    Abstract:

    Toward the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries, clever in vitro biochemical complementation experiments and genetic screens from the laboratories of Xiaodong Wang, Shigekazu Nagata, and Ding Xue led to the discovery of two major apoptotic nucleases, termed DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) or caspase-activated DNase (CAD) and endonuclease G (Endo G). Both endonucleases attack chromatin to yield 3′-hydroxyl groups and 5′-phosphate residues, first at the level of 50–300 kb cleavage products and next at the level of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, but these nucleases possess completely different cellular locations in normal cells and are regulated in vastly different ways. In non-apoptotic cells, DFF exists in the nucleus as a heterodimer, composed of a 45 kD chaperone and inhibitor subunit (DFF45) [also called inhibitor of CAD (ICAD-L)] and a 40 kD latent nuclease subunit (DFF40/CAD). Apoptotic Activation of caspase-3 or -7 results in the cleavage of DFF45/ICAD and release of active DFF40/CAD nuclease. DFF40’s nuclease activity is further activated by specific chromosomal proteins, such as histone H1, HMGB1/2, and topoisomerase II. DFF is regulated by multiple pre- and post-Activation fail-safe steps, which include the requirements for DFF45/ICAD, Hsp70, and Hsp40 proteins to mediate appropriate folding during translation to generate a potentially activatable nuclease, and the synthesis in stoichiometric excess of the inhibitors (DFF45/35; ICAD-S/L). By contrast, Endo G resides in the mitochondrial intermembrane space in normal cells, and is released into the nucleus upon apoptotic disruption of mitochondrial membrane permeability in association with co-activators such as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Understanding further regulatory check-points involved in safeguarding non-apoptotic cells against Accidental Activation of these nucleases remain as future challenges, as well as designing ways to selectively activate these nucleases in tumor cells. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • discovery regulation and action of the major apoptotic nucleases dff40 cad and endonuclease g
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 2005
    Co-Authors: Piotr Widlak, William T. Garrard
    Abstract:

    Toward the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries, clever in vitro biochemical complementation experiments and genetic screens from the laboratories of Xiaodong Wang, Shigekazu Nagata, and Ding Xue led to the discovery of two major apoptotic nucleases, termed DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) or caspase-activated DNase (CAD) and endonuclease G (Endo G). Both endonucleases attack chromatin to yield 3′-hydroxyl groups and 5′-phosphate residues, first at the level of 50–300 kb cleavage products and next at the level of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, but these nucleases possess completely different cellular locations in normal cells and are regulated in vastly different ways. In non-apoptotic cells, DFF exists in the nucleus as a heterodimer, composed of a 45 kD chaperone and inhibitor subunit (DFF45) [also called inhibitor of CAD (ICAD-L)] and a 40 kD latent nuclease subunit (DFF40/CAD). Apoptotic Activation of caspase-3 or -7 results in the cleavage of DFF45/ICAD and release of active DFF40/CAD nuclease. DFF40’s nuclease activity is further activated by specific chromosomal proteins, such as histone H1, HMGB1/2, and topoisomerase II. DFF is regulated by multiple pre- and post-Activation fail-safe steps, which include the requirements for DFF45/ICAD, Hsp70, and Hsp40 proteins to mediate appropriate folding during translation to generate a potentially activatable nuclease, and the synthesis in stoichiometric excess of the inhibitors (DFF45/35; ICAD-S/L). By contrast, Endo G resides in the mitochondrial intermembrane space in normal cells, and is released into the nucleus upon apoptotic disruption of mitochondrial membrane permeability in association with co-activators such as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Understanding further regulatory check-points involved in safeguarding non-apoptotic cells against Accidental Activation of these nucleases remain as future challenges, as well as designing ways to selectively activate these nucleases in tumor cells. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • Subunit Structures and Stoichiometries of Human DNA Fragmentation Factor Proteins before and after Induction of Apoptosis
    The Journal of biological chemistry, 2003
    Co-Authors: Piotr Widlak, Joanna Lanuszewska, Robert B. Cary, William T. Garrard
    Abstract:

    DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is one of the major endonucleases responsible for internucleosomal DNA cleavage during apoptosis. Understanding the regulatory checkpoints involved in safeguarding non-apoptotic cells against Accidental Activation of this nuclease is as important as elucidating its Activation mechanisms during apoptosis. Here we address these issues by determining DFF native subunit structures and stoichiometries in human cells before and after induction of apoptosis using the technique of native pore-exclusion limit electrophoresis in combination with Western analyses. For comparison, we employed similar techniques with recombinant proteins in conjunction with atomic force microscopy. Before induction of apoptosis, the expression of DFF subunits varied widely among the cell types studied, and the chaperone/inhibitor subunits DFF45 and DFF35 unexpectedly existed primarily as monomers in vast excess of the latent nuclease subunit, DFF40, which was stoichiometrically associated with DFF45 to form heterodimers. DFF35 was exclusively cytoplasmic as a monomer. Nuclease Activation upon caspase-3 cleavage of DFF45/DFF35 was accompanied by DFF40 homo-oligomer formation, with a tetramer being the smallest unit. Interestingly, intact DFF45 can inhibit nuclease activity by associating with these homo-oligomers without mediating their disassembly. We conclude that DFF nuclease is regulated by multiple pre- and post-Activation fail-safe steps.

Piotr Widlak – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Discovery, regulation, and action of the major apoptotic nucleases DFF40/CAD and endonuclease G.
    Journal of cellular biochemistry, 2005
    Co-Authors: Piotr Widlak, William T. Garrard
    Abstract:

    Toward the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries, clever in vitro biochemical complementation experiments and genetic screens from the laboratories of Xiaodong Wang, Shigekazu Nagata, and Ding Xue led to the discovery of two major apoptotic nucleases, termed DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) or caspase-activated DNase (CAD) and endonuclease G (Endo G). Both endonucleases attack chromatin to yield 3′-hydroxyl groups and 5′-phosphate residues, first at the level of 50–300 kb cleavage products and next at the level of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, but these nucleases possess completely different cellular locations in normal cells and are regulated in vastly different ways. In non-apoptotic cells, DFF exists in the nucleus as a heterodimer, composed of a 45 kD chaperone and inhibitor subunit (DFF45) [also called inhibitor of CAD (ICAD-L)] and a 40 kD latent nuclease subunit (DFF40/CAD). Apoptotic Activation of caspase-3 or -7 results in the cleavage of DFF45/ICAD and release of active DFF40/CAD nuclease. DFF40’s nuclease activity is further activated by specific chromosomal proteins, such as histone H1, HMGB1/2, and topoisomerase II. DFF is regulated by multiple pre- and post-Activation fail-safe steps, which include the requirements for DFF45/ICAD, Hsp70, and Hsp40 proteins to mediate appropriate folding during translation to generate a potentially activatable nuclease, and the synthesis in stoichiometric excess of the inhibitors (DFF45/35; ICAD-S/L). By contrast, Endo G resides in the mitochondrial intermembrane space in normal cells, and is released into the nucleus upon apoptotic disruption of mitochondrial membrane permeability in association with co-activators such as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Understanding further regulatory check-points involved in safeguarding non-apoptotic cells against Accidental Activation of these nucleases remain as future challenges, as well as designing ways to selectively activate these nucleases in tumor cells. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • discovery regulation and action of the major apoptotic nucleases dff40 cad and endonuclease g
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 2005
    Co-Authors: Piotr Widlak, William T. Garrard
    Abstract:

    Toward the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries, clever in vitro biochemical complementation experiments and genetic screens from the laboratories of Xiaodong Wang, Shigekazu Nagata, and Ding Xue led to the discovery of two major apoptotic nucleases, termed DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) or caspase-activated DNase (CAD) and endonuclease G (Endo G). Both endonucleases attack chromatin to yield 3′-hydroxyl groups and 5′-phosphate residues, first at the level of 50–300 kb cleavage products and next at the level of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, but these nucleases possess completely different cellular locations in normal cells and are regulated in vastly different ways. In non-apoptotic cells, DFF exists in the nucleus as a heterodimer, composed of a 45 kD chaperone and inhibitor subunit (DFF45) [also called inhibitor of CAD (ICAD-L)] and a 40 kD latent nuclease subunit (DFF40/CAD). Apoptotic Activation of caspase-3 or -7 results in the cleavage of DFF45/ICAD and release of active DFF40/CAD nuclease. DFF40’s nuclease activity is further activated by specific chromosomal proteins, such as histone H1, HMGB1/2, and topoisomerase II. DFF is regulated by multiple pre- and post-Activation fail-safe steps, which include the requirements for DFF45/ICAD, Hsp70, and Hsp40 proteins to mediate appropriate folding during translation to generate a potentially activatable nuclease, and the synthesis in stoichiometric excess of the inhibitors (DFF45/35; ICAD-S/L). By contrast, Endo G resides in the mitochondrial intermembrane space in normal cells, and is released into the nucleus upon apoptotic disruption of mitochondrial membrane permeability in association with co-activators such as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Understanding further regulatory check-points involved in safeguarding non-apoptotic cells against Accidental Activation of these nucleases remain as future challenges, as well as designing ways to selectively activate these nucleases in tumor cells. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • Subunit Structures and Stoichiometries of Human DNA Fragmentation Factor Proteins before and after Induction of Apoptosis
    The Journal of biological chemistry, 2003
    Co-Authors: Piotr Widlak, Joanna Lanuszewska, Robert B. Cary, William T. Garrard
    Abstract:

    DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is one of the major endonucleases responsible for internucleosomal DNA cleavage during apoptosis. Understanding the regulatory checkpoints involved in safeguarding non-apoptotic cells against Accidental Activation of this nuclease is as important as elucidating its Activation mechanisms during apoptosis. Here we address these issues by determining DFF native subunit structures and stoichiometries in human cells before and after induction of apoptosis using the technique of native pore-exclusion limit electrophoresis in combination with Western analyses. For comparison, we employed similar techniques with recombinant proteins in conjunction with atomic force microscopy. Before induction of apoptosis, the expression of DFF subunits varied widely among the cell types studied, and the chaperone/inhibitor subunits DFF45 and DFF35 unexpectedly existed primarily as monomers in vast excess of the latent nuclease subunit, DFF40, which was stoichiometrically associated with DFF45 to form heterodimers. DFF35 was exclusively cytoplasmic as a monomer. Nuclease Activation upon caspase-3 cleavage of DFF45/DFF35 was accompanied by DFF40 homo-oligomer formation, with a tetramer being the smallest unit. Interestingly, intact DFF45 can inhibit nuclease activity by associating with these homo-oligomers without mediating their disassembly. We conclude that DFF nuclease is regulated by multiple pre- and post-Activation fail-safe steps.

Toshiyuki Shimizu – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Structural insights into ligand recognition and regulation of nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors
    Current opinion in structural biology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Toshiyuki Shimizu
    Abstract:

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate the innate immune system in response to invading pathogens. Although nucleic acids are one of the principal TLR ligands, they are not inherently pathogen-specific and, thus, carry the risk of triggering autoimmunity. There are multiple unique regulatory mechanisms aimed at preventing Accidental Activation of nucleic acid-sensing TLRs. Recent structural studies revealed that different nucleic acid-sensing TLRs have specific modes of recognizing nucleic acids as ligands regulated by diverse regulation mechanism both at the receptor and ligand levels. This review summarizes structural knowledge on the ligand recognition and regulation mechanism by nucleic acid-sensing TLRs.