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Acetic Acid Bacteria

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José Manuel Guillamón – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Population dynamics of Acetic Acid Bacteria during traditional wine vinegar production.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Carlos Vegas, Carla Jara, Ángel González, José Manuel Guillamón, María Jesús Torija, Montse Poblet, Estibaliz Mateo, Albert Mas
    Abstract:

    Abstract The population dynamics of Acetic Acid Bacteria in traditional vinegar production was determined in two independent vinegar plants at both the species and strain level. The effect of barrels made of four different woods upon the population dynamics was also determined. Acetic Acid Bacteria were isolated on solid media and the species were identified by RFLP-PCR of 16S rRNA genes and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while strains were typed by ERIC-PCR and (GTG) 5 -rep-PCR. The most widely isolated species was Acetobacter pasteurianus , which accounted for 100% of all the isolates during most of the acetification. Gluconacetobacter europaeus only appeared at any notable level at the end of the process in oak barrels from one vinegar plant. The various A. pasteurianus strains showed a clear succession as the concentration of Acetic Acid increased. In both vinegar plants the relative dominance of different strains was modified as the concentrations of Acetic Acid increased, and strain diversity tended to reduce at the end of the process.

  • Acetic Acid Bacteria
    Biology of Microorganisms on Grapes in Must and in Wine, 2009
    Co-Authors: José Manuel Guillamón, Albert Mas
    Abstract:

    Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) are considered one of the most common wine spoilage microorganisms and a threat for the oenologists. Their ability to transform most of the sugars and alcohols into organic Acids produces easily the transformation of glucose into gluconic Acid in damaged grapes and ethanol or glycerol into Acetic Acid or dihydroxyacetone in wines. As a result of their strictly aerobic metabolism and high dependence to oxygen, Acetic Acid Bacteria population is highly reduced during the must fermentation, with only few strains able to survive. However, wine aeration and oxygen exposure during oenological practices after alcoholic fermentation can activate their metabolism and increase their population with risks of Acetic Acid production. Inappropriate long-term wine storage and bottling conditions may also activate the Acetic Acid production. Good cellar practices such as high hygiene, microbiological control, oxygen restriction and reduction of porous surfaces reduce considerably the risks of wine spoilage by Acetic Acid Bacteria.

  • Enumeration and detection of Acetic Acid Bacteria by real-time PCR and nested PCR
    FEMS microbiology letters, 2006
    Co-Authors: Ángel González, Albert Mas, M Poblet, N. Hierro, José Manuel Guillamón
    Abstract:

    Acetic Acid Bacteria play a negative role in wine making because they increase the volatile Acidity of wines. They can survive in the various phases of alcoholic fermentation and it is very important to control their presence and ulterior development. The main objective of the present work is to test fast, sensitive and reliable techniques such as real‐time PCR (rt‐PCR) and nested PCR for enumerating and detecting the presence of this Bacterial group without plating. Primers were designed on the basis of the available 16S rRNA gene sequences and tested successfully with reference Acetic Acid Bacteria strains. The usefulness of rt‐PCR was demonstrated by comparing the results with traditional techniques (colony and microscope counting). The results were similar with all the techniques. Optimized rt‐PCR enabled numbers between 107 and 101 cells mL−1 to be enumerated, while nested PCR detected less than 10 cells mL−1. Although this latter technique cannot be used for enumeration, it has several advantages in routine laboratory analysis.

Michael Teuber – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • genetic and restriction analysis of the 16s 23s rdna internal transcribed spacer regions of the Acetic Acid Bacteria
    Fems Microbiology Letters, 2002
    Co-Authors: Janja Trcek, Michael Teuber
    Abstract:

    The 16S–23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions of the Acetic Acid Bacteria were sequenced and evaluated for molecular identification of these Bacteria. All the sequenced spacers contained genes for tRNAIle and tRNAAla, and the antitermination element. The sequences revealed 56.8–78.3% similarity. By PCR amplification of the spacers from 57 strains of Acetic Acid Bacteria, single products of similar sizes were produced. Digestion of the spacers by HaeIII and HpaII restriction enzymes resulted in 12 distinct groups of restriction types. All the restriction profiles obtained after analysis of microbial populations from vinegar matched one of the 12 groups.

  • Genetic and restriction analysis of the 16S–23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions of the Acetic Acid Bacteria
    FEMS microbiology letters, 2002
    Co-Authors: Janja Trcek, Michael Teuber
    Abstract:

    The 16S–23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions of the Acetic Acid Bacteria were sequenced and evaluated for molecular identification of these Bacteria. All the sequenced spacers contained genes for tRNAIle and tRNAAla, and the antitermination element. The sequences revealed 56.8–78.3% similarity. By PCR amplification of the spacers from 57 strains of Acetic Acid Bacteria, single products of similar sizes were produced. Digestion of the spacers by HaeIII and HpaII restriction enzymes resulted in 12 distinct groups of restriction types. All the restriction profiles obtained after analysis of microbial populations from vinegar matched one of the 12 groups.

Ángel González – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Differentiation of Acetic Acid Bacteria based on sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer sequences.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Ángel González
    Abstract:

    The 16S–23S gene internal transcribed spacer sequence of sixty-four strains belonging to different Acetic Acid Bacteria genera were analyzed, and phylogenetic trees were generated for each genera. The topologies of the different trees were in accordance with the 16S rRNA gene trees, although the similarity percentages obtained between the species was shown to be much lower. These values suggest the usefulness of including the 16S–23S gene internal transcribed spacer region as a part of the polyphasic approach required for the further classification of Acetic Acid Bacteria. Furthermore, the region could be a good target for primer and probe design. It has also been validated for use in the identification of unknown samples of this Bacterial group from wine vinegar and fruit condiments.

  • Population dynamics of Acetic Acid Bacteria during traditional wine vinegar production.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Carlos Vegas, Carla Jara, Ángel González, José Manuel Guillamón, María Jesús Torija, Montse Poblet, Estibaliz Mateo, Albert Mas
    Abstract:

    Abstract The population dynamics of Acetic Acid Bacteria in traditional vinegar production was determined in two independent vinegar plants at both the species and strain level. The effect of barrels made of four different woods upon the population dynamics was also determined. Acetic Acid Bacteria were isolated on solid media and the species were identified by RFLP-PCR of 16S rRNA genes and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while strains were typed by ERIC-PCR and (GTG) 5 -rep-PCR. The most widely isolated species was Acetobacter pasteurianus , which accounted for 100% of all the isolates during most of the acetification. Gluconacetobacter europaeus only appeared at any notable level at the end of the process in oak barrels from one vinegar plant. The various A. pasteurianus strains showed a clear succession as the concentration of Acetic Acid increased. In both vinegar plants the relative dominance of different strains was modified as the concentrations of Acetic Acid increased, and strain diversity tended to reduce at the end of the process.

  • Enumeration and detection of Acetic Acid Bacteria by real-time PCR and nested PCR
    FEMS microbiology letters, 2006
    Co-Authors: Ángel González, Albert Mas, M Poblet, N. Hierro, José Manuel Guillamón
    Abstract:

    Acetic Acid Bacteria play a negative role in wine making because they increase the volatile Acidity of wines. They can survive in the various phases of alcoholic fermentation and it is very important to control their presence and ulterior development. The main objective of the present work is to test fast, sensitive and reliable techniques such as real‐time PCR (rt‐PCR) and nested PCR for enumerating and detecting the presence of this Bacterial group without plating. Primers were designed on the basis of the available 16S rRNA gene sequences and tested successfully with reference Acetic Acid Bacteria strains. The usefulness of rt‐PCR was demonstrated by comparing the results with traditional techniques (colony and microscope counting). The results were similar with all the techniques. Optimized rt‐PCR enabled numbers between 107 and 101 cells mL−1 to be enumerated, while nested PCR detected less than 10 cells mL−1. Although this latter technique cannot be used for enumeration, it has several advantages in routine laboratory analysis.