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Radosav Palic – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
in vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts of four Achillea species the composition of Achillea clavennae l asteraceae extractJournal of Ethnopharmacology, 2005Co-Authors: Gordana Stojanovic, Niko S Radulovic, Toshihiro Hashimoto, Radosav PalicAbstract:
Abstract The extracts of aerial parts of Achillea clavennae, Achillea holosericea, Achillea lingulata and Achillea millefolium (hexane:ether:methanol = 1:1:1) have been tested for antimicrobial activity in a disk diffusion assay against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteritidis) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans). Extracts of all four species possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. The composition of the extract of Achillea clavennae, which showed the strongest activity, was investigated and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectral means (1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR and MS). The extract yielded alkanes, fatty acids, monoterpenes, guaiane sesquiterpenes (rupicolin A and B, 1-deoxy-1α-peroxy-rupicolin A and B), and flavonoids (apigenin and centaureidin). This study confirms the ethnopharmacological use of plants from this genus and places Achillea clavennae L. on the same level as the recognized Achillea millefolium.
Sara Marchesan Oliveira – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
anxiolytic like effects of acute and chronic treatment with Achillea millefolium l extractJournal of Ethnopharmacology, 2012Co-Authors: Irineia Paulina Baretta, Regiane Americo Felizardo, Vanessa Favero Bimbato, Maisa Goncalves Jorge Dos Santos, Candida Aparecida Leite Kassuya, Arquimedes Gasparotto, Cassia Regina Silva, Sara Marchesan OliveiraAbstract:
Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), known as yarrow (“mil folhas”), has been used as folk medicine for gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, anxiety, and insomnia. Aim To evaluate the potential anxiolytic-like effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium L. in animal models. Methods The present study evaluated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of Achillea millefolium L. in mice subjected to the elevated plus-maze, marble-burying, and open-field tests. Additionally, the GABAA/benzodiazepine (BDZ) mediation of the effects of Achillea millefolium was evaluated by pretreatment with the noncompetitive GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin and the BDZ antagonist flumazenil and by [3H]-flunitrazepam binding to the BDZ site on the GABAA receptor. Results Achillea millefolium exerted anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze and marble-burying test after acute and chronic (25 days) administration at doses that did not alter locomotor activity. This behavioral profile was similar to diazepam. The effects of Achillea millefolium in the elevated plus-maze were not altered by picrotoxin pretreatment but were partially blocked by flumazenil. Furthermore, Achillea millefolium did not induce any changes in [3H]-flunitrazepam binding. Conclusion The results indicate that the orally administered hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium L. exerted anxiolytic-like effects that likely were not mediated by GABAA/BDZ neurotransmission and did not present tolerance after short-term, repeated administration.
Friedrich Ehrendorfer – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
multidisciplinary studies on Achillea sensu lato compositae anthemideae new data on systematics and phylogeographyWilldenowia, 2006Co-Authors: Friedrich EhrendorferAbstract:
Abstract Ehrendorfer, F. & Guo, Y.-P.: Multidisciplinary studies on Achillea sensu lato (Compositae-Anthemideae): new data on systematics and phylogeography. — Willdenowia 36 (Special Issue): 69–87. — ISSN 0511-9618; © 2006 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. doi:10.3372/wi.36.36105 (available via http://dx.doi.org/) On the basis of extended DNA sequences (nrITS, cptrnL-F) and other new evidence present knowledge on the differentiation of the northern hemisphere Compositae-Anthemideae genus Achillea in time and space is surveyed. Evidence is presented for a wide circumscription of the genus with 110–140 species. This includes the former unispecific genera Otanthus and Leucocyclus, which have originated from ancestors of the basalmost clade of Achillea, the xerophytic A. sect. Babounya s.l. (incl. sect. Arthrolepis and Santolinoideae). Maps show the predominantly SW Asian distribution of the section and its derivative, A. (sect. Otanthus) maritima, a psammophyte of the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. Through taxa from …
phylogeny and systematics of Achillea asteraceae anthemideae inferred from nrits and plastid trnl f dna sequencesTaxon, 2004Co-Authors: Friedrich Ehrendorfer, Rosabelle SamuelAbstract:
The N Hemisphere genus Achillea includes about 130 perennial and allogamous species, is centered in SE Europe/SW Asia, and exhibits a complex phyletic structure due to excessive hybridization and polyploidy. About half ofthe species and five of the six traditional sections together with several outgroup genera were studied using nrITS and plastid trnL-F DNA sequences. In spite of some discordance, these markers were shown by Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Inference to be suitable for revealing relationships with generic allies and for distinguishing the main lineages within Achillea. With the inclusion of Otanthus (and possibly Leucocyclus) Achillea s.1. becomes monophyletic and appears as sister to Anacyclus. A basal clade is formed by the xerophytes of Achillea sections Babounya and Santolinoideae in SW Asia together with the Mediterranean coastal Otanthus. Achillea sect. Ptarmica s.l. has to be divided into the meso- to hygrophytic herbs of A. sect. Ptarmica s.s. in the N Hemisphere and the mountain species of A. sect. Anthemoideae. The latter differentiated in the mountains from NW Anatolia to the Pyrenees, possibly originating from ancestors related to the extant A. ligustica. Finally, taxa of sect. Achillea s.l. (to be merged with A. sect. Filipendulinae) radiated from a center in SE Europe, occupied very different open habitats, and reached an extensive distribution with the very polymorphic polyploid and reticulate complex A. millefolium agg. Here and in other groups of Achillea, various instances of conflicting evidence from nrITS, plastid trnL-F, and morphology point to hybridization and lineage sorting. This means that reticulate evolution is not only involved in recent radiations but must have been active already in the early diversification of the genus.