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Acid-Base Balance

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Martine Leblanc – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Acid–base Balance in acute renal failure and renal replacement therapy
    Best practice & research. Clinical anaesthesiology, 2004
    Co-Authors: Martine Leblanc

    The approach to acid–base Balance based on the concept of strong ions, initially proposed by Stewart, is briefly overviewed. The anion gap and the strong anion gap are both discussed. Comments are made on the strong ion difference of fluids administered to patients and their impact on acid–base status will be commented. Renal failure patients have an altered acid–base Balance; most commonly, a mixed type of metabolic acidosis (hyperchloraemic, and of a high anion gap) is observed. The consequences of renal metabolic acidosis are described. Finally, the impact of renal replacement therapy on acid–base Balance is exposed; different modalities of renal replacement are considered in regard to their alkalinizing performance.

F. Jagos – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Randomized trial of different intraabdominal pressures and Acid-Base Balance alterations during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
    Surgical endoscopy, 2003
    Co-Authors: R. Sefr, K. Puszkailer, F. Jagos

    Background: Experimental and clinical studies document risks of Acid-Base Balance alterations toward acidosis and hypercapnia during intraperitoneal carbon dioxide insufflation. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different insufflation pressures on arterial blood gas changes and Acid-Base alterations during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and immediately postoperatively. Methods: Thirty patients were randomized to receive either 10 or 15 mmHg insufflation pressure. Anesthesia was standardized for both groups. The following parameters of Acid-Base Balance were recorded: pH, pCO 2 , pO 2 , base excess (BE), HCO 3 . Suitable data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide caused a decrease in pH toward acidosis that was either respiratory or mixed in origin. There were no statistically significant differences in acid–base Balance alterations between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum causes alterations of the Acid-Base Balance, mostly of respiratory or mixed type. Lowering of the insufflation pressure from 15 to 10 mmHg does not contribute to the elimination of acid–base Balance alterations during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Claudio Ronco – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

J.-l. Riond – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Animal nutrition and Acid-Base Balance
    European journal of nutrition, 2001
    Co-Authors: J.-l. Riond

    In domestic animals, Acid-Base Balance may be influenced by nutrition. The major research effort in this area has been made on the prevention of hypocalcemic postparturient paresis in dairy cows. This disorder is caused by the sudden increase of calcium secretion into the colostrum. The manipulation of the dietary cation-anion difference makes it possible to maintain the cows in metabolic acidosis during the critical period that precedes calving, presumably via a mechanism that involves the strong ion difference in the extracellular fluid. As a consequence the mobilization of calcium is enhanced and the incidence of the disorder is decreased. Conversely, a dietary induced metabolic alkalosis leads to a more severe degree of hypocalcemia and the incidence of the disease is increased. The underlying mechanisms of the prevention are only partially understood. Nevertheless, this preventive method is already widely applied in practice. Nutrition effects on Acid-Base Balance also influence growth and food intake in higher vertebrates and fish. As a consequence, the incidence of developmental orthopedic diseases in fast-growing domestic animal species may be affected. Also, the bone mineral content of athletic horses may be influenced by dietary induced modification of the Acid-Base status. The mineral loss due to metabolic acidosis may lead to an increase in the incidence of stress fractures. This overview should give insight into relevant aspects of nutrition and Acid-Base Balance in domestic animal species.

Sharon Edwards – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Pathophysiology of acid base Balance: The theory practice relationship
    Intensive & critical care nursing, 2007
    Co-Authors: Sharon Edwards

    There are many disorders/diseases that lead to changes in acid base Balance. These conditions are not rare or uncommon in clinical practice, but everyday occurrences on the ward or in critical care. Conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (bronchitis or emphasaemia), diabetic ketoacidosis, renal disease or failure, any type of shock (sepsis, anaphylaxis, neurogenic, cardiogenic, hypovolaemia), stress or anxiety which can lead to hyperventilation, and some drugs (sedatives, opioids) leading to reduced ventilation. In addition, some symptoms of disease can cause vomiting and diarrhoea, which effects acid base Balance. It is imperative that critical care nurses are aware of changes that occur in relation to altered physiology, leading to an understanding of the changes in patients’ condition that are observed, and why the administration of some immediate therapies such as oxygen is imperative.