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S. Bjørnson – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • effects of temperature on larval development alkaloid production and microsporidiosis in the two spotted lady beetle Adalia bipunctata l coleoptera coccinellidae
    Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 2020
    Co-Authors: T. Steele, R.d. Singer, S. Bjørnson

    Abstract:

    Abstract Nosema Adaliae, a microsporidian pathogen described from the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L., delays larval development when A. bipunctata is reared under laboratory conditions at 25 °C. In nature, lady beetles often experience a wide range of environmental temperatures, but little is known regarding the effects of microsporidian pathogens on lady beetles when they are reared at higher and lower temperatures. In this study, the effects of elevated rearing temperatures and microsporidiosis were observed on larval development time and mortality, sex ratios, alkaloid content (adaline and adalinine), and adult morphometrics. Uninfected larvae (24 h-old) were provided either an uninfected or N. Adaliae-infected conspecific egg and subsequently reared at three temperatures (25 °C, 27.5 °C or 30 °C). After the egg was eaten, larvae were provided a diet of green peach aphids and their development was recorded daily. Following eclosion, a subsample of adults were photographed for microscopic measurements and reflex-fluid was collected for alkaloid analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Afterwards, all individuals were examined to determine the number that had become infected, and the same subsample was used to assess the severity of infection. Development time was delayed significantly for larvae that consumed a N. Adaliae-infected egg, and infected larvae took significantly longer to develop at 25 °C than at 27.5 °C or 30 °C. No differences were observed for larval mortality or sex ratios. The relative proportion of adaline increased when larvae were reared at 30 °C, but adaline concentration was not affected by the pathogen, N. Adaliae. Adults reared at 25 °C had larger body measurements when compared to those reared at 27.5 °C and 30 °C. Overall, adults that had eaten a N. Adaliae-infected A. bipunctata egg as larvae had similar body measurements to those that ate an uninfected egg. When comparing male and female measurements, a significant interaction between infection status, temperature and sex was observed for elytra length and head capsule width only. These measurements were similar for uninfected and N. Adaliae-infected females across all temperatures. However, when reared at 25 °C, uninfected males had significantly smaller elytra and head capsules than did infected males; but when reared at 30 °C, no significant difference was observed for these measurements. Both percent infection and average spore count decreased at 27.5 °C and 30 °C. These results suggest that temperatures above 25 °C have a mitigating effect against N. Adaliae in A. bipunctata.

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  • Effects of food availability on microsporidiosis and alkaloid production in the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L.
    Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 2020
    Co-Authors: T. Steele, R.d. Singer, S. Bjørnson

    Abstract:

    The effects of food availability and infection with the microsporidium Nosema Adaliae on alkaloid production in the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L., was examined. Alkaloid production (relative percent adaline in reflex-fluid) and pathogen load (spore counts) were quantified for both uninfected and N. Adaliae-infected A. bipunctata. Alkaloid content was significantly higher for beetles fed irregularly than for those fed daily. For beetles infected with N. Adaliae, spore counts were significantly higher for those fed irregularly compared to those fed daily. These results suggest that adaline content in reflex-fluid is influenced by infection and that irregular food supply increases pathogen load.

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  • effects of microsporidiosis and food availability on the two spotted lady beetle Adalia bipunctata l and convergent lady beetle hippodamia convergens guerin meneville
    Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 2019
    Co-Authors: T. Steele, S. Bjørnson

    Abstract:

    Abstract Two species of microsporidia have been described from lady beetles that are commercially available for biological control: Nosema Adaliae from the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L., and Tubulinosema hippodamiae from the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville. These pathogens delay larval development under controlled conditions, but little is known regarding the effects that microsporidia cause when their hosts are subjected to stressful conditions that are often experienced in nature. In this study, the combined effects of microsporidiosis (N. Adaliae on A. bipunctata and T. hippodamiae on H. convergens) and irregular food availability were observed on host fitness (larval development and mortality, sex ratios, and adult morphometrics). For each beetle species, 24 h-old larvae were provided either an uninfected or microsporidia-infected conspecific egg. After the egg was eaten, some larvae were provided an abundance of aphids daily, whereas others were provided aphids on an irregular basis. Development was delayed significantly for larvae that consumed a microsporidia-infected egg, and for those fed irregularly. For A. bipunctata, a significant interaction was observed between infection status and food availability. This suggests that N. Adaliae-infected A. bipunctata larvae that have an irregular supply of aphids undergo further developmental delays than those with a generous food supply. This interaction was not observed for T. hippodamiae-infected H. convergens. For both species, larval mortality and sex ratios did not differ significantly, regardless of infection status or food availability. Adults that were fed daily as larvae were significantly larger than those fed irregularly. However, the elytra of N. Adaliae-infected A. bipunctata were significantly larger than the elytra of their uninfected cohorts, and T. hippodamiae-infected H. convergens had wider pronota and head capsules than uninfected H. convergens. Because N. Adaliae and T. hippodamiae prolong larval development of their respective hosts under controlled conditions, one would expect these pathogens to cause more profound effects when their hosts experience stressful conditions. The results from this study indicate that this was the case for A. bipunctata, but not for H. convergens.

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T. Steele – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • effects of temperature on larval development alkaloid production and microsporidiosis in the two spotted lady beetle Adalia bipunctata l coleoptera coccinellidae
    Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 2020
    Co-Authors: T. Steele, R.d. Singer, S. Bjørnson

    Abstract:

    Abstract Nosema Adaliae, a microsporidian pathogen described from the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L., delays larval development when A. bipunctata is reared under laboratory conditions at 25 °C. In nature, lady beetles often experience a wide range of environmental temperatures, but little is known regarding the effects of microsporidian pathogens on lady beetles when they are reared at higher and lower temperatures. In this study, the effects of elevated rearing temperatures and microsporidiosis were observed on larval development time and mortality, sex ratios, alkaloid content (adaline and adalinine), and adult morphometrics. Uninfected larvae (24 h-old) were provided either an uninfected or N. Adaliae-infected conspecific egg and subsequently reared at three temperatures (25 °C, 27.5 °C or 30 °C). After the egg was eaten, larvae were provided a diet of green peach aphids and their development was recorded daily. Following eclosion, a subsample of adults were photographed for microscopic measurements and reflex-fluid was collected for alkaloid analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Afterwards, all individuals were examined to determine the number that had become infected, and the same subsample was used to assess the severity of infection. Development time was delayed significantly for larvae that consumed a N. Adaliae-infected egg, and infected larvae took significantly longer to develop at 25 °C than at 27.5 °C or 30 °C. No differences were observed for larval mortality or sex ratios. The relative proportion of adaline increased when larvae were reared at 30 °C, but adaline concentration was not affected by the pathogen, N. Adaliae. Adults reared at 25 °C had larger body measurements when compared to those reared at 27.5 °C and 30 °C. Overall, adults that had eaten a N. Adaliae-infected A. bipunctata egg as larvae had similar body measurements to those that ate an uninfected egg. When comparing male and female measurements, a significant interaction between infection status, temperature and sex was observed for elytra length and head capsule width only. These measurements were similar for uninfected and N. Adaliae-infected females across all temperatures. However, when reared at 25 °C, uninfected males had significantly smaller elytra and head capsules than did infected males; but when reared at 30 °C, no significant difference was observed for these measurements. Both percent infection and average spore count decreased at 27.5 °C and 30 °C. These results suggest that temperatures above 25 °C have a mitigating effect against N. Adaliae in A. bipunctata.

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  • Effects of food availability on microsporidiosis and alkaloid production in the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L.
    Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 2020
    Co-Authors: T. Steele, R.d. Singer, S. Bjørnson

    Abstract:

    The effects of food availability and infection with the microsporidium Nosema Adaliae on alkaloid production in the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L., was examined. Alkaloid production (relative percent adaline in reflex-fluid) and pathogen load (spore counts) were quantified for both uninfected and N. Adaliae-infected A. bipunctata. Alkaloid content was significantly higher for beetles fed irregularly than for those fed daily. For beetles infected with N. Adaliae, spore counts were significantly higher for those fed irregularly compared to those fed daily. These results suggest that adaline content in reflex-fluid is influenced by infection and that irregular food supply increases pathogen load.

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  • effects of microsporidiosis and food availability on the two spotted lady beetle Adalia bipunctata l and convergent lady beetle hippodamia convergens guerin meneville
    Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 2019
    Co-Authors: T. Steele, S. Bjørnson

    Abstract:

    Abstract Two species of microsporidia have been described from lady beetles that are commercially available for biological control: Nosema Adaliae from the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L., and Tubulinosema hippodamiae from the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville. These pathogens delay larval development under controlled conditions, but little is known regarding the effects that microsporidia cause when their hosts are subjected to stressful conditions that are often experienced in nature. In this study, the combined effects of microsporidiosis (N. Adaliae on A. bipunctata and T. hippodamiae on H. convergens) and irregular food availability were observed on host fitness (larval development and mortality, sex ratios, and adult morphometrics). For each beetle species, 24 h-old larvae were provided either an uninfected or microsporidia-infected conspecific egg. After the egg was eaten, some larvae were provided an abundance of aphids daily, whereas others were provided aphids on an irregular basis. Development was delayed significantly for larvae that consumed a microsporidia-infected egg, and for those fed irregularly. For A. bipunctata, a significant interaction was observed between infection status and food availability. This suggests that N. Adaliae-infected A. bipunctata larvae that have an irregular supply of aphids undergo further developmental delays than those with a generous food supply. This interaction was not observed for T. hippodamiae-infected H. convergens. For both species, larval mortality and sex ratios did not differ significantly, regardless of infection status or food availability. Adults that were fed daily as larvae were significantly larger than those fed irregularly. However, the elytra of N. Adaliae-infected A. bipunctata were significantly larger than the elytra of their uninfected cohorts, and T. hippodamiae-infected H. convergens had wider pronota and head capsules than uninfected H. convergens. Because N. Adaliae and T. hippodamiae prolong larval development of their respective hosts under controlled conditions, one would expect these pathogens to cause more profound effects when their hosts experience stressful conditions. The results from this study indicate that this was the case for A. bipunctata, but not for H. convergens.

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P O'donald – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Non-random mating in Adalia bipunctata (the two-spot ladybird). II. Further tests for female mating preference
    Heredity, 1992
    Co-Authors: P W E Kearns, I P M Tomlinson, C J Veltman, P O'donald

    Abstract:

    Tests for non-random mating in laboratory stocks of Adalia bipunctata showed that female two-spot ladybirds from ‘isofemale lines’, which had formerly mated preferentially with melanic males, now mated at random. In an attempt to obtain new stocks in which females mated preferentially, we isolated ‘isofemale lines’ from a natural population at Keele, but we found no evidence of females mating preferentially within these stocks. We did, however, observe two interesting phenomena, not previously reported from Keele populations of Adalia bipunctata , or from laboratory stocks derived from the Keele population. Firstly, much of the variation in male mating success, which we observed, could be explained by the date on which the mating tests were carried out. Secondly, there was significant heterogeneity in sex ratios among some of the stocks. We discuss the potential importance of both these phenomena when designing experiments and interpreting data regarding non-random mating in Adalia bipunctata .

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  • Non-random mating in Adalia bipunctata (the two-spot ladybird). III. New evidence of genetic preference
    Heredity, 1992
    Co-Authors: P O'donald, Michael E. N. Majerus

    Abstract:

    Non-random mating in Adalia bipunctata (the two-spot ladybird). III. New evidence of genetic preference

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  • Non-random mating in Adalia bipunctata (the two-spot ladybird). II. Further tests for female mating preference
    Heredity, 1992
    Co-Authors: P W E Kearns, I P M Tomlinson, C J Veltman, P O'donald

    Abstract:

    Non-random mating in Adalia bipunctata (the two-spot ladybird). II. Further tests for female mating preference

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