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Scott A Kelly – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • phenotypic plasticity molecular mechanisms and Adaptive Significance
    Comprehensive Physiology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Scott A Kelly, Tami M Panhuis, Andrew M Stoehr
    Abstract:

    Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments, as the modification of developmental events by the environment, or as the ability of an individual organism to alter its phenotype in response to changes in environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, the study of phenotypic plasticity is innately interdisciplinary and encompasses aspects of behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, genomics, and multiple physiological systems at various levels of biological organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means of adaptation and dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity include predator avoidance, insect wing polymorphisms, the timing of metamorphosis in amphibians, osmoregulation in fishes, and alternative reproductive tactics in male vertebrates. From a human healhealth perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology. Regardless of the discipline, phenotypic plasticity has increasingly become the target of a plethora of investigations with the methodological approaches utilized ranging from the molecular to whole organsimal. In this article, we provide a brief historical outlook on phenotypic plasticity; examine its potential Adaptive Significance; emphasize recent molecular approaches that provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms, and highlight examples in fishes and insects. Finally, we highlight examples of phenotypic plasticity from a human healhealth perspective and underscore the use of mouse models as a powerful tool in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity. C ! 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1417-1439, 2012.

  • Comprehensive Physiology – Phenotypic plasticity: molecular mechanisms and Adaptive Significance
    Comprehensive Physiology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Scott A Kelly, Tami M Panhuis, Andrew M Stoehr
    Abstract:

    Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments, as the modification of developmental events by the environment, or as the ability of an individual organism to alter its phenotype in response to changes in environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, the study of phenotypic plasticity is innately interdisciplinary and encompasses aspects of behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, genomics, and multiple physiological systems at various levels of biological organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means of adaptation and dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity include predator avoidance, insect wing polymorphisms, the timing of metamorphosis in amphibians, osmoregulation in fishes, and alternative reproductive tactics in male vertebrates. From a human healhealth perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology. Regardless of the discipline, phenotypic plasticity has increasingly become the target of a plethora of investigations with the methodological approaches utilized ranging from the molecular to whole organsimal. In this article, we provide a brief historical outlook on phenotypic plasticity; examine its potential Adaptive Significance; emphasize recent molecular approaches that provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms, and highlight examples in fishes and insects. Finally, we highlight examples of phenotypic plasticity from a human healhealth perspective and underscore the use of mouse models as a powerful tool in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity. C ! 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1417-1439, 2012.

Andrew M Stoehr – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • phenotypic plasticity molecular mechanisms and Adaptive Significance
    Comprehensive Physiology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Scott A Kelly, Tami M Panhuis, Andrew M Stoehr
    Abstract:

    Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments, as the modification of developmental events by the environment, or as the ability of an individual organism to alter its phenotype in response to changes in environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, the study of phenotypic plasticity is innately interdisciplinary and encompasses aspects of behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, genomics, and multiple physiological systems at various levels of biological organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means of adaptation and dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity include predator avoidance, insect wing polymorphisms, the timing of metamorphosis in amphibians, osmoregulation in fishes, and alternative reproductive tactics in male vertebrates. From a human health perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology. Regardless of the discipline, phenotypic plasticity has increasingly become the target of a plethora of investigations with the methodological approaches utilized ranging from the molecular to whole organsimal. In this article, we provide a brief historical outlook on phenotypic plasticity; examine its potential Adaptive Significance; emphasize recent molecular approaches that provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms, and highlight examples in fishes and insects. Finally, we highlight examples of phenotypic plasticity from a human health perspective and underscore the use of mouse models as a powerful tool in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity. C ! 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1417-1439, 2012.

  • Comprehensive Physiology – Phenotypic plasticity: molecular mechanisms and Adaptive Significance
    Comprehensive Physiology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Scott A Kelly, Tami M Panhuis, Andrew M Stoehr
    Abstract:

    Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments, as the modification of developmental events by the environment, or as the ability of an individual organism to alter its phenotype in response to changes in environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, the study of phenotypic plasticity is innately interdisciplinary and encompasses aspects of behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, genomics, and multiple physiological systems at various levels of biological organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means of adaptation and dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity include predator avoidance, insect wing polymorphisms, the timing of metamorphosis in amphibians, osmoregulation in fishes, and alternative reproductive tactics in male vertebrates. From a human health perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology. Regardless of the discipline, phenotypic plasticity has increasingly become the target of a plethora of investigations with the methodological approaches utilized ranging from the molecular to whole organsimal. In this article, we provide a brief historical outlook on phenotypic plasticity; examine its potential Adaptive Significance; emphasize recent molecular approaches that provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms, and highlight examples in fishes and insects. Finally, we highlight examples of phenotypic plasticity from a human health perspective and underscore the use of mouse models as a powerful tool in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity. C ! 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1417-1439, 2012.

Masahiko Higashi – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The Adaptive Significance of trunk inclination: a further thought
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 1998
    Co-Authors: Reiichiro Ishii, Masahiko Higashi
    Abstract:

    A recent paper in this journal has criticized our previous study, in which we identified an Adaptive Significance of trunk inclination on slopes. Our main argument was that a tree on a slope may gain some benefit by leaning, which provides the tree with shorter access to the canopy light, and thus a better chance for survival, and that if this benefit outweighs the cost involved in leaning, trunk inclination will be favoured by selection. Although the criticisms are based on some misunderstandings, the situations considered in the critique, which are different from ours, have inspired us into an extension of our previous study. In the course of a reply to the criticisms, we present a further thought on the Adaptive Significance of trunk inclination in a broader scope. Specifically, we show that our model, with its modified formulation of the benefit component of tree leaning, may evaluate the fitness of a tree with its trunk inclined. It can also be used to examine the conditions for tree leaning, and make predictions on the optimal tree leaning in any situations, including canopy gaps and permanent openings, which the critique is mainly concerned with.

  • Tree coexistence on a slope: an Adaptive Significance of trunk inclination.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 1997
    Co-Authors: Reiichiro Ishii, Masahiko Higashi
    Abstract:

    Under storey trees on slopes often incline their trunks downward. The Adaptive Significance of this conspicuous phenomenon has, however, remained elusive. Here we present a theoretical model for the growth of under storey trees on a slope, which shows that the maximum rate of tree survival, and the optimal degree of trunk inclination, increase as the slope gets steeper, clearly indicating an Adaptive Significance of trunk inclination on slopes. Close examination of the results reveals that the advantage of trunk inclination on a slope is in shortening the distance from the canopy surface, and that this effect is enhanced the steeper the slope. Furthermore, the model predicts that the maximum tree survival rate increases with the slope angle more sharply under poorer light conditions. The predictions of the model are supported by an under storey species, Rhododendron tashiroi, which grows in evergreen forests on the Japanese island of Yakushima. R. tashiroi exhibits sharper trunk inclination and coexists more successfully on steeper slopes with the dominant canopy species, Distylium racemosum, and sustains itself even under poor light conditions where the slope is sufficiently steep. This also suggests that trunk inclination is a mechanism used by under storey species to coexist with the dominant canopy species.

Tami M Panhuis – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • phenotypic plasticity molecular mechanisms and Adaptive Significance
    Comprehensive Physiology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Scott A Kelly, Tami M Panhuis, Andrew M Stoehr
    Abstract:

    Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments, as the modification of developmental events by the environment, or as the ability of an individual organism to alter its phenotype in response to changes in environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, the study of phenotypic plasticity is innately interdisciplinary and encompasses aspects of behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, genomics, and multiple physiological systems at various levels of biological organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means of adaptation and dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity include predator avoidance, insect wing polymorphisms, the timing of metamorphosis in amphibians, osmoregulation in fishes, and alternative reproductive tactics in male vertebrates. From a human health perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology. Regardless of the discipline, phenotypic plasticity has increasingly become the target of a plethora of investigations with the methodological approaches utilized ranging from the molecular to whole organsimal. In this article, we provide a brief historical outlook on phenotypic plasticity; examine its potential Adaptive Significance; emphasize recent molecular approaches that provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms, and highlight examples in fishes and insects. Finally, we highlight examples of phenotypic plasticity from a human health perspective and underscore the use of mouse models as a powerful tool in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity. C ! 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1417-1439, 2012.

  • Comprehensive Physiology – Phenotypic plasticity: molecular mechanisms and Adaptive Significance
    Comprehensive Physiology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Scott A Kelly, Tami M Panhuis, Andrew M Stoehr
    Abstract:

    Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments, as the modification of developmental events by the environment, or as the ability of an individual organism to alter its phenotype in response to changes in environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, the study of phenotypic plasticity is innately interdisciplinary and encompasses aspects of behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, genomics, and multiple physiological systems at various levels of biological organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means of adaptation and dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity include predator avoidance, insect wing polymorphisms, the timing of metamorphosis in amphibians, osmoregulation in fishes, and alternative reproductive tactics in male vertebrates. From a human health perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology. Regardless of the discipline, phenotypic plasticity has increasingly become the target of a plethora of investigations with the methodological approaches utilized ranging from the molecular to whole organsimal. In this article, we provide a brief historical outlook on phenotypic plasticity; examine its potential Adaptive Significance; emphasize recent molecular approaches that provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms, and highlight examples in fishes and insects. Finally, we highlight examples of phenotypic plasticity from a human health perspective and underscore the use of mouse models as a powerful tool in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity. C ! 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1417-1439, 2012.

Reiichiro Ishii – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The Adaptive Significance of trunk inclination: a further thought
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 1998
    Co-Authors: Reiichiro Ishii, Masahiko Higashi
    Abstract:

    A recent paper in this journal has criticized our previous study, in which we identified an Adaptive Significance of trunk inclination on slopes. Our main argument was that a tree on a slope may gain some benefit by leaning, which provides the tree with shorter access to the canopy light, and thus a better chance for survival, and that if this benefit outweighs the cost involved in leaning, trunk inclination will be favoured by selection. Although the criticisms are based on some misunderstandings, the situations considered in the critique, which are different from ours, have inspired us into an extension of our previous study. In the course of a reply to the criticisms, we present a further thought on the Adaptive Significance of trunk inclination in a broader scope. Specifically, we show that our model, with its modified formulation of the benefit component of tree leaning, may evaluate the fitness of a tree with its trunk inclined. It can also be used to examine the conditions for tree leaning, and make predictions on the optimal tree leaning in any situations, including canopy gaps and permanent openings, which the critique is mainly concerned with.

  • Tree coexistence on a slope: an Adaptive Significance of trunk inclination.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 1997
    Co-Authors: Reiichiro Ishii, Masahiko Higashi
    Abstract:

    Under storey trees on slopes often incline their trunks downward. The Adaptive Significance of this conspicuous phenomenon has, however, remained elusive. Here we present a theoretical model for the growth of under storey trees on a slope, which shows that the maximum rate of tree survival, and the optimal degree of trunk inclination, increase as the slope gets steeper, clearly indicating an Adaptive Significance of trunk inclination on slopes. Close examination of the results reveals that the advantage of trunk inclination on a slope is in shortening the distance from the canopy surface, and that this effect is enhanced the steeper the slope. Furthermore, the model predicts that the maximum tree survival rate increases with the slope angle more sharply under poorer light conditions. The predictions of the model are supported by an under storey species, Rhododendron tashiroi, which grows in evergreen forests on the Japanese island of Yakushima. R. tashiroi exhibits sharper trunk inclination and coexists more successfully on steeper slopes with the dominant canopy species, Distylium racemosum, and sustains itself even under poor light conditions where the slope is sufficiently steep. This also suggests that trunk inclination is a mechanism used by under storey species to coexist with the dominant canopy species.