Adaptive Toolbox - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab

Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

Adaptive Toolbox

The Experts below are selected from a list of 2322 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Adaptive Toolbox – Free Register to Access Experts & Abstracts

Gerd Gigerenzer – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • How to Explain Behavior
    Topics in cognitive science, 2019
    Co-Authors: Gerd Gigerenzer

    Abstract:

    Unlike behaviorism, cognitive psychology relies on mental concepts to explain behavior. Yet mental processes are not directly observable and multiple explanations are possible, which poses a challenge for finding a useful framework. In this article, I distinguish three new frameworks for explanations that emerged after the cognitive revolution. The first is called tools-to-theories: Psychologists’ new tools for data analysis, such as computers and statistics, are turned into theories of mind. The second proposes as-if theories: Expected utility theory and Bayesian statistics are turned into theories of mind, describing an optimal solution of a problem but not its psychological process. The third studies the Adaptive Toolbox (formal models of heuristics) that describes mental processes in situations of uncertainty where an optimal solution is unknown. Depending on which framework researchers choose, they will model behavior in either situations of risk or of uncertainty, and construct models of cognitive processes or not. The frameworks also determine what questions are asked and what kind of data are generated. What all three frameworks have in common, however, is a clear preference for formal models rather than explanations by general dichotomies or mere verbal concepts. The frameworks have considerable potential to inform each other and to generate points of integration.

  • The ecological rationality of situations: Behavior = f(Adaptive Toolbox, environment)
    The Oxford Handbook of Psychological Situations, 2019
    Co-Authors: Peter M. Todd, Gerd Gigerenzer

    Abstract:

    The study of situations involves asking how people behave in particular environmental settings, often in terms of their individual personality differences. The ecological rationality research program explains people’s behavior in terms of the specific decision-making tools they select and use from their mind’s Adaptive Toolbox when faced with specific types of environment structure. These two approaches can be integrated to provide a more precise mapping from features of situation structure to decision heuristics used and behavioral outcomes. This chapter presents three examples illustrating research on ecological rationality and its foundations, along with initial directions for incorporating it into an integrated situation theory.

  • Environments That Make Us
    , 2016
    Co-Authors: Peter M. Todd, Gerd Gigerenzer

    Abstract:

    Traditional views of rationality posit general purpose decision mechanisms based on logic or optimiza tion. The study of ecological rationality focuses on un covering the “Adaptive Toolbox” of domain-specific simple heuristics that real, computationally bounded minds em ploy, and explaining how these heuristics produce accurate decisions by exploiting the structures of information in the environments in which they are applied. Knowing when and how people use particular heuristics can facilitate the

Markus Raab – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The power of simplicity: A fast-and-frugal heuristics approach to performance science
    Frontiers in psychology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Markus Raab, Gerd Gigerenzer

    Abstract:

    Performance science is a fairly new multidisciplinary field that integrates performance domains such as sports, medicine, business, and the arts. To give its many branches a structure and its research a direction, it requires a theoretical framework. We demonstrate the applications of this framework with examples from sport and medicine. Because performance science deals mainly with situations of uncertainty rather than known risks, the needed framework can be provided by the fast-and-frugal heuristics approach. According to this approach, experts learn to rely on heuristics in an Adaptive way in order to make accurate decisions. We investigate the Adaptive use of heuristics in three ways: the descriptive study of the heuristics in the cognitive “Adaptive Toolbox;” the prescriptive study of their “ecological rationality,” that is, the characterization of the situations in which a given heuristic works; and the engineering study of “intuitive design,” that is, the design of transparent aids for making better decisions.

  • An Adaptive Toolbox approach to the route to expertise in sport.
    Frontiers in psychology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Rita F. De Oliveira, Babett H. Lobinger, Markus Raab

    Abstract:

    Expertise is characterized by fast decision-making which is highly Adaptive to new situations. Here we propose that athletes use a Toolbox of heuristics which they develop on their route to expertise. The development of heuristics occurs within the context of the athletes’ natural abilities, past experiences, developed skills, and situational context, but does not pertain to any of these factors separately. This is a novel approach because it integrates separate factors into a comprehensive heuristic description. The novelty of this approach lies within the integration of separate factors determining expertise into a comprehensive heuristic description. It is our contention that talent identification methods and talent development models should therefore be geared toward the assessment and development of specific heuristics. Specifically, in addition to identifying and developing separate natural abilities and skills as per usual, heuristics should be identified and developed. The application of heuristics to talent and expertise models can bring the field one step away from dichotomized models of nature and nurture toward a comprehensive approach to the route to expertise.

  • Simple heuristics in sports
    International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Markus Raab

    Abstract:

    How do people make decisions under conditions of limited knowledge, time, and cognitive capacity in real-life situations such as sports? In this review I will introduce the concept of simple heuristics – rules of thumb that are based on the building blocks of decision making: how to search for information, stop information search, and decide quickly and accurately – and how they can help us understand the decisions made by athletes, coaches, referees, managers, and fans in tasks involving high uncertainty, such as predicting tournament outcomes, allocating balls to teammates, or determining when to buy or sell a talented player. I will present an ‘Adaptive Toolbox’ of such heuristics, that is, a collection of strategies that work effectively in specific environments. Additional building blocks will be added to explain motor behavior itself, which is central to many sport applications. Finally, principles for studying the use of simple heuristics by people involved in sports will be presented to guide futu…

Peter M. Todd – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The ecological rationality of situations: Behavior = f(Adaptive Toolbox, environment)
    The Oxford Handbook of Psychological Situations, 2019
    Co-Authors: Peter M. Todd, Gerd Gigerenzer

    Abstract:

    The study of situations involves asking how people behave in particular environmental settings, often in terms of their individual personality differences. The ecological rationality research program explains people’s behavior in terms of the specific decision-making tools they select and use from their mind’s Adaptive Toolbox when faced with specific types of environment structure. These two approaches can be integrated to provide a more precise mapping from features of situation structure to decision heuristics used and behavioral outcomes. This chapter presents three examples illustrating research on ecological rationality and its foundations, along with initial directions for incorporating it into an integrated situation theory.

  • Environments That Make Us
    , 2016
    Co-Authors: Peter M. Todd, Gerd Gigerenzer

    Abstract:

    Traditional views of rationality posit general purpose decision mechanisms based on logic or optimiza tion. The study of ecological rationality focuses on un covering the “Adaptive Toolbox” of domain-specific simple heuristics that real, computationally bounded minds em ploy, and explaining how these heuristics produce accurate decisions by exploiting the structures of information in the environments in which they are applied. Knowing when and how people use particular heuristics can facilitate the

  • Environments That Make Us Smart Rationality
    , 2007
    Co-Authors: Peter M. Todd, Gerd Gigerenzer

    Abstract:

    Traditional views of rationality posit general- purpose decision mechanisms based on logic or optimiza- tion. The study of ecological rationality focuses on un- covering the ”Adaptive Toolbox” of domain-specific simple heuristics that real, computationally bounded minds em- ploy,andexplaininghowtheseheuristicsproduceaccurate decisions by exploiting the structures of information in the environments in which they are applied. Knowing when and how people use particular heuristics can facilitate the shaping of environments to engender better decisions.