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Additive Layer Manufacturing

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Zengxi Pan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The effect of location on the microstructure and mechanical properties of titanium aluminides produced by Additive Layer Manufacturing using in-situ alloying and gas tungsten arc welding
    Materials Science and Engineering A, 2015
    Co-Authors: Yan Ma, Dominic Cuiuri, Nicholas Hoye, Huijun Li, Zengxi Pan

    Abstract:

    An innovative and low cost Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) process is used to produce γ-TiAl based alloy wall components. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) provides the heat source for this new approach, combined with in-situ alloying through separate feeding of commercially pure Ti and Al wires into the weld pool. This paper investigates the morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties of the Additively manufactured TiAl material, and how these are affected by the location within the manufactured component. The typical Additively Layer manufactured morphology exhibits epitaxial growth of columnar grains and several Layer bands. The fabricated γ-TiAl based alloy consists of comparatively large α2grains in the near-substrate region, fully lamellar colonies with various sizes and interdendritic γ structure in the intermediate Layer bands, followed by fine dendrites and interdendritic γ phases in the top region. Microhardness measurements and tensile testing results indicated relatively homogeneous mechanical characteristics throughout the deposited material. The exception to this homogeneity occurs in the near-substrate region immediately adjacent to the pure Ti substrate used in these experiments, where the alloying process is not as well controlled as in the higher regions. The tensile properties are also different for the vertical (build) direction and horizontal (travel) direction because of the differing microstructure in each direction. The microstructure variation and strengthening mechanisms resulting from the new Manufacturing approach are analysed in detail. The results demonstrate the potential to produce full density titanium aluminide components directly using the new Additive Layer Manufacturing method.

  • Effects of wire feed conditions on in situ alloying and Additive Layer Manufacturing of titanium aluminides using gas tungsten arc welding
    Journal of Materials Research, 2014
    Co-Authors: Dominic Cuiuri, Nicholas Hoye, Zengxi Pan

    Abstract:

    An Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was used to produce simple 3-dimensional titanium aluminide components, which were successfully in situ alloyed by separately delivering elemental Al and Ti wires to the weld pool. The difference in microstructure, chemical composition, and microhardness of four wall components built with four different wire-feeding conditions has been evaluated. There was no significant change in the microstructure of the four walls. The composition and microhardness values were comparatively homogeneous throughout each wall except the near-substrate zone. However, with increasing the ratio of Al to Ti wire feed rates from 0.80 to 1.30, an increase of Al concentration and γ phases were observed. The situation was reversed for the effect of the Al:Ti ratio on microhardness. Additionally, an unexpected increase in the α 2 phase was produced when the ratio was increased to 1.30.

Erhard Brandl – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Morphology, microstructure, and hardness of titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) blocks deposited by wire-feed Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM)
    Materials Science and Engineering A-structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing, 2012
    Co-Authors: Erhard Brandl, Achim Schoberth, Christoph Leyens

    Abstract:

    Abstract Additive Layer Manufacturing offers a potential for time and cost savings, especially for aerospace components made from costly titanium alloys. In this paper, the morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and hardness of Additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V blocks are investigated and discussed. Blocks (7 beads wide, 7 Layers high) were deposited using Ti-6Al-4V wire and a Nd:YAG laser. Two different sets of parameters are used and three different post heat treatment conditions (as-built, 600 °C/4 h, 1200 °C/2 h) are investigated. The experiments reveal elementary properties of Additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V material in correlation to process parameters and heat treatments, which are discussed comprehensively.

  • Wire based Additive Layer Manufacturing: Comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V components fabricated by laser-beam deposition and shaped metal deposition
    Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Bernd Baufeld, Erhard Brandl, Omer Van Der Biest

    Abstract:

    Abstract The microstructure and the mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V components, fabricated by two different wire based Additive Layer Manufacturing techniques, namely laser-beam deposition and shaped metal deposition, are presented. Both techniques resulted in dense components with lamellar α / β microstructure. Large ultimate tensile strength values between 900 and 1000 MPa were observed. The strain at failure strongly depends on the orientation, where highest values up to 19% were obtained in direction of the building direction. Heat treatment increased the highest strain at failure up to 22%. The fatigue limit was observed to be higher than 770 MPa.

  • wire based Additive Layer Manufacturing comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of ti 6al 4v components fabricated by laser beam deposition and shaped metal deposition
    Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Bernd Baufeld, Erhard Brandl, Omer Van Der Biest

    Abstract:

    Abstract The microstructure and the mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V components, fabricated by two different wire based Additive Layer Manufacturing techniques, namely laser-beam deposition and shaped metal deposition, are presented. Both techniques resulted in dense components with lamellar α / β microstructure. Large ultimate tensile strength values between 900 and 1000 MPa were observed. The strain at failure strongly depends on the orientation, where highest values up to 19% were obtained in direction of the building direction. Heat treatment increased the highest strain at failure up to 22%. The fatigue limit was observed to be higher than 770 MPa.

Omer Van Der Biest – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Wire based Additive Layer Manufacturing: Comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V components fabricated by laser-beam deposition and shaped metal deposition
    Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Bernd Baufeld, Erhard Brandl, Omer Van Der Biest

    Abstract:

    Abstract The microstructure and the mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V components, fabricated by two different wire based Additive Layer Manufacturing techniques, namely laser-beam deposition and shaped metal deposition, are presented. Both techniques resulted in dense components with lamellar α / β microstructure. Large ultimate tensile strength values between 900 and 1000 MPa were observed. The strain at failure strongly depends on the orientation, where highest values up to 19% were obtained in direction of the building direction. Heat treatment increased the highest strain at failure up to 22%. The fatigue limit was observed to be higher than 770 MPa.

  • wire based Additive Layer Manufacturing comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of ti 6al 4v components fabricated by laser beam deposition and shaped metal deposition
    Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Bernd Baufeld, Erhard Brandl, Omer Van Der Biest

    Abstract:

    Abstract The microstructure and the mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V components, fabricated by two different wire based Additive Layer Manufacturing techniques, namely laser-beam deposition and shaped metal deposition, are presented. Both techniques resulted in dense components with lamellar α / β microstructure. Large ultimate tensile strength values between 900 and 1000 MPa were observed. The strain at failure strongly depends on the orientation, where highest values up to 19% were obtained in direction of the building direction. Heat treatment increased the highest strain at failure up to 22%. The fatigue limit was observed to be higher than 770 MPa.