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Adolescent Exposure

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James D. Rowan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Adolescent Exposure to fluoxetine impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.
    Neurobiology of learning and memory, 2019
    Co-Authors: Jessica L. Sharp, Stephen B. Fountain, Shannon M.a. Kundey, Samantha M. Renaud, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda Willey Matoushek, Megan E. Miller-cahill, Katherine H. Dyer, Claire C. Jackman, James D. Rowan
    Abstract:

    Abstract The effects of chronic Adolescent fluoxetine (FLX, Prozac®) Exposure on adult cognition are largely unknown. We used a serial multiple choice (SMC) task to characterize the effects of Adolescent FLX Exposure on rat serial pattern learning in adulthood. Male rats were exposed to either 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg/kg/day FLX for five consecutive days each week for five weeks during adolescence, followed by a 35-day drug-free period. As adults, the rats were trained in a task that required them to learn a highly structured sequential pattern of responses in an octagonal chamber for water reinforcement. In a transfer phase, the terminal element of the pattern was replaced by a violation element that was inconsistent with previously learned pattern structure. Results indicated that Adolescent FLX Exposure caused differential learning deficits for different types of elements in the serial pattern. Adolescent Exposure to 1.0 or 4.0 mg/kg/day FLX, but not 2.0 mg/kg/day FLX, impaired chunk-boundary element learning, which is known to be mediated by stimulus-response (S-R) learning. All three doses of FLX impaired violation element learning, which is known to be mediated by multiple-cue learning. FLX did not impair within-chunk element learning, which is known to be mediated by rule-learning mechanisms. The results indicate that Adolescent FLX Exposure produced multiple cognitive impairments that were detectable in adulthood long after drug Exposure ended.

  • Adolescent Exposure to methylphenidate impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.
    Neurotoxicology and teratology, 2015
    Co-Authors: James D. Rowan, Madison K. Mccarty, Shannon M.a. Kundey, Crystal D. Osburn, Samantha M. Renaud, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda Willey Matoushek, Stephen B. Fountain
    Abstract:

    The long-term effects of Adolescent Exposure to methylphenidate (MPD) on adult cognitive capacity are largely unknown. We utilized a serial multiple choice (SMC) task, which is a sequential learning paradigm for studying complex learning, to observe the effects of methylphenidate Exposure during adolescence on later serial pattern acquisition during adulthood. Following 20.0mg/kg/day MPD or saline Exposure for 5 days/week for 5 weeks during adolescence, male rats were trained to produce a highly structured serial response pattern in an octagonal operant chamber for water reinforcement as adults. During a transfer phase, a violation to the previously-learned pattern structure was introduced as the last element of the sequential pattern. Results indicated that while rats in both groups were able to learn the training and transfer patterns, Adolescent Exposure to MPD impaired learning for some aspects of pattern learning in the training phase which are learned using discrimination learning or serial position learning. In contrast Adolescent Exposure to MPD had no effect on other aspects of pattern learning which have been shown to tap into rule learning mechanisms. Additionally, Adolescent MPD Exposure impaired learning for the violation element in the transfer phase. This indicates a deficit in multi-item learning previously shown to be responsible for violation element learning. Thus, these results clearly show that Adolescent MPD produced multiple cognitive impairments in male rats that persisted into adulthood long after MPD Exposure ended.

  • Adolescent Exposure to nicotine impairs adult serial pattern learning in rats
    Experimental Brain Research, 2008
    Co-Authors: Stephen B. Fountain, James D. Rowan, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda R Willey, Eric P Nolley
    Abstract:

    In the present study investigating the effects of Adolescent nicotine Exposure on adult serial pattern learning, Adolescent rats received daily i.p. injections of either 1.0 mg/kg nicotine or saline for 5 days per week for 5 weeks beginning on postnatal day 25 (P25), then were allowed 35 days drug free. Rats then began training on P95 as adults on a 24-element serial pattern composed of eight 3-element chunks. Adolescent Exposure to 1.0 mg/kg nicotine produced persistent retardation of learning for the first element of each 3-element chunk of the pattern, that is, for chunk boundary elements, and transient retardation of learning for elements 2 and 3 of each chunk of the pattern, that is, for the within-chunk elements. Deficits at chunk boundaries were interpreted as deficits of phrasing cue discrimination learning whereas deficits for learning responses for elements within-chunks (elements 2 and 3 of chunks) were interpreted as deficits of rule learning. These results indicate that the effects of Adolescent nicotine Exposure on adult learning and cognitive capacity deserve further scrutiny.

Stephen B. Fountain – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Adolescent Exposure to fluoxetine impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.
    Neurobiology of learning and memory, 2019
    Co-Authors: Jessica L. Sharp, Stephen B. Fountain, Shannon M.a. Kundey, Samantha M. Renaud, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda Willey Matoushek, Megan E. Miller-cahill, Katherine H. Dyer, Claire C. Jackman, James D. Rowan
    Abstract:

    Abstract The effects of chronic Adolescent fluoxetine (FLX, Prozac®) Exposure on adult cognition are largely unknown. We used a serial multiple choice (SMC) task to characterize the effects of Adolescent FLX Exposure on rat serial pattern learning in adulthood. Male rats were exposed to either 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg/kg/day FLX for five consecutive days each week for five weeks during adolescence, followed by a 35-day drug-free period. As adults, the rats were trained in a task that required them to learn a highly structured sequential pattern of responses in an octagonal chamber for water reinforcement. In a transfer phase, the terminal element of the pattern was replaced by a violation element that was inconsistent with previously learned pattern structure. Results indicated that Adolescent FLX Exposure caused differential learning deficits for different types of elements in the serial pattern. Adolescent Exposure to 1.0 or 4.0 mg/kg/day FLX, but not 2.0 mg/kg/day FLX, impaired chunk-boundary element learning, which is known to be mediated by stimulus-response (S-R) learning. All three doses of FLX impaired violation element learning, which is known to be mediated by multiple-cue learning. FLX did not impair within-chunk element learning, which is known to be mediated by rule-learning mechanisms. The results indicate that Adolescent FLX Exposure produced multiple cognitive impairments that were detectable in adulthood long after drug Exposure ended.

  • Adolescent Exposure to methylphenidate impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.
    Neurotoxicology and teratology, 2015
    Co-Authors: James D. Rowan, Madison K. Mccarty, Shannon M.a. Kundey, Crystal D. Osburn, Samantha M. Renaud, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda Willey Matoushek, Stephen B. Fountain
    Abstract:

    The long-term effects of Adolescent Exposure to methylphenidate (MPD) on adult cognitive capacity are largely unknown. We utilized a serial multiple choice (SMC) task, which is a sequential learning paradigm for studying complex learning, to observe the effects of methylphenidate Exposure during adolescence on later serial pattern acquisition during adulthood. Following 20.0mg/kg/day MPD or saline Exposure for 5 days/week for 5 weeks during adolescence, male rats were trained to produce a highly structured serial response pattern in an octagonal operant chamber for water reinforcement as adults. During a transfer phase, a violation to the previously-learned pattern structure was introduced as the last element of the sequential pattern. Results indicated that while rats in both groups were able to learn the training and transfer patterns, Adolescent Exposure to MPD impaired learning for some aspects of pattern learning in the training phase which are learned using discrimination learning or serial position learning. In contrast Adolescent Exposure to MPD had no effect on other aspects of pattern learning which have been shown to tap into rule learning mechanisms. Additionally, Adolescent MPD Exposure impaired learning for the violation element in the transfer phase. This indicates a deficit in multi-item learning previously shown to be responsible for violation element learning. Thus, these results clearly show that Adolescent MPD produced multiple cognitive impairments in male rats that persisted into adulthood long after MPD Exposure ended.

  • Adolescent Exposure to nicotine impairs adult serial pattern learning in rats
    Experimental Brain Research, 2008
    Co-Authors: Stephen B. Fountain, James D. Rowan, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda R Willey, Eric P Nolley
    Abstract:

    In the present study investigating the effects of Adolescent nicotine Exposure on adult serial pattern learning, Adolescent rats received daily i.p. injections of either 1.0 mg/kg nicotine or saline for 5 days per week for 5 weeks beginning on postnatal day 25 (P25), then were allowed 35 days drug free. Rats then began training on P95 as adults on a 24-element serial pattern composed of eight 3-element chunks. Adolescent Exposure to 1.0 mg/kg nicotine produced persistent retardation of learning for the first element of each 3-element chunk of the pattern, that is, for chunk boundary elements, and transient retardation of learning for elements 2 and 3 of each chunk of the pattern, that is, for the within-chunk elements. Deficits at chunk boundaries were interpreted as deficits of phrasing cue discrimination learning whereas deficits for learning responses for elements within-chunks (elements 2 and 3 of chunks) were interpreted as deficits of rule learning. These results indicate that the effects of Adolescent nicotine Exposure on adult learning and cognitive capacity deserve further scrutiny.

Brian M. Kelley – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Adolescent Exposure to fluoxetine impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.
    Neurobiology of learning and memory, 2019
    Co-Authors: Jessica L. Sharp, Stephen B. Fountain, Shannon M.a. Kundey, Samantha M. Renaud, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda Willey Matoushek, Megan E. Miller-cahill, Katherine H. Dyer, Claire C. Jackman, James D. Rowan
    Abstract:

    Abstract The effects of chronic Adolescent fluoxetine (FLX, Prozac®) Exposure on adult cognition are largely unknown. We used a serial multiple choice (SMC) task to characterize the effects of Adolescent FLX Exposure on rat serial pattern learning in adulthood. Male rats were exposed to either 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg/kg/day FLX for five consecutive days each week for five weeks during adolescence, followed by a 35-day drug-free period. As adults, the rats were trained in a task that required them to learn a highly structured sequential pattern of responses in an octagonal chamber for water reinforcement. In a transfer phase, the terminal element of the pattern was replaced by a violation element that was inconsistent with previously learned pattern structure. Results indicated that Adolescent FLX Exposure caused differential learning deficits for different types of elements in the serial pattern. Adolescent Exposure to 1.0 or 4.0 mg/kg/day FLX, but not 2.0 mg/kg/day FLX, impaired chunk-boundary element learning, which is known to be mediated by stimulus-response (S-R) learning. All three doses of FLX impaired violation element learning, which is known to be mediated by multiple-cue learning. FLX did not impair within-chunk element learning, which is known to be mediated by rule-learning mechanisms. The results indicate that Adolescent FLX Exposure produced multiple cognitive impairments that were detectable in adulthood long after drug Exposure ended.

  • Adolescent Exposure to methylphenidate impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.
    Neurotoxicology and teratology, 2015
    Co-Authors: James D. Rowan, Madison K. Mccarty, Shannon M.a. Kundey, Crystal D. Osburn, Samantha M. Renaud, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda Willey Matoushek, Stephen B. Fountain
    Abstract:

    The long-term effects of Adolescent Exposure to methylphenidate (MPD) on adult cognitive capacity are largely unknown. We utilized a serial multiple choice (SMC) task, which is a sequential learning paradigm for studying complex learning, to observe the effects of methylphenidate Exposure during adolescence on later serial pattern acquisition during adulthood. Following 20.0mg/kg/day MPD or saline Exposure for 5 days/week for 5 weeks during adolescence, male rats were trained to produce a highly structured serial response pattern in an octagonal operant chamber for water reinforcement as adults. During a transfer phase, a violation to the previously-learned pattern structure was introduced as the last element of the sequential pattern. Results indicated that while rats in both groups were able to learn the training and transfer patterns, Adolescent Exposure to MPD impaired learning for some aspects of pattern learning in the training phase which are learned using discrimination learning or serial position learning. In contrast Adolescent Exposure to MPD had no effect on other aspects of pattern learning which have been shown to tap into rule learning mechanisms. Additionally, Adolescent MPD Exposure impaired learning for the violation element in the transfer phase. This indicates a deficit in multi-item learning previously shown to be responsible for violation element learning. Thus, these results clearly show that Adolescent MPD produced multiple cognitive impairments in male rats that persisted into adulthood long after MPD Exposure ended.

  • Adolescent Exposure to nicotine impairs adult serial pattern learning in rats
    Experimental Brain Research, 2008
    Co-Authors: Stephen B. Fountain, James D. Rowan, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda R Willey, Eric P Nolley
    Abstract:

    In the present study investigating the effects of Adolescent nicotine Exposure on adult serial pattern learning, Adolescent rats received daily i.p. injections of either 1.0 mg/kg nicotine or saline for 5 days per week for 5 weeks beginning on postnatal day 25 (P25), then were allowed 35 days drug free. Rats then began training on P95 as adults on a 24-element serial pattern composed of eight 3-element chunks. Adolescent Exposure to 1.0 mg/kg nicotine produced persistent retardation of learning for the first element of each 3-element chunk of the pattern, that is, for chunk boundary elements, and transient retardation of learning for elements 2 and 3 of each chunk of the pattern, that is, for the within-chunk elements. Deficits at chunk boundaries were interpreted as deficits of phrasing cue discrimination learning whereas deficits for learning responses for elements within-chunks (elements 2 and 3 of chunks) were interpreted as deficits of rule learning. These results indicate that the effects of Adolescent nicotine Exposure on adult learning and cognitive capacity deserve further scrutiny.

Amanda Willey Matoushek – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Adolescent Exposure to fluoxetine impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.
    Neurobiology of learning and memory, 2019
    Co-Authors: Jessica L. Sharp, Stephen B. Fountain, Shannon M.a. Kundey, Samantha M. Renaud, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda Willey Matoushek, Megan E. Miller-cahill, Katherine H. Dyer, Claire C. Jackman, James D. Rowan
    Abstract:

    Abstract The effects of chronic Adolescent fluoxetine (FLX, Prozac®) Exposure on adult cognition are largely unknown. We used a serial multiple choice (SMC) task to characterize the effects of Adolescent FLX Exposure on rat serial pattern learning in adulthood. Male rats were exposed to either 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg/kg/day FLX for five consecutive days each week for five weeks during adolescence, followed by a 35-day drug-free period. As adults, the rats were trained in a task that required them to learn a highly structured sequential pattern of responses in an octagonal chamber for water reinforcement. In a transfer phase, the terminal element of the pattern was replaced by a violation element that was inconsistent with previously learned pattern structure. Results indicated that Adolescent FLX Exposure caused differential learning deficits for different types of elements in the serial pattern. Adolescent Exposure to 1.0 or 4.0 mg/kg/day FLX, but not 2.0 mg/kg/day FLX, impaired chunk-boundary element learning, which is known to be mediated by stimulus-response (S-R) learning. All three doses of FLX impaired violation element learning, which is known to be mediated by multiple-cue learning. FLX did not impair within-chunk element learning, which is known to be mediated by rule-learning mechanisms. The results indicate that Adolescent FLX Exposure produced multiple cognitive impairments that were detectable in adulthood long after drug Exposure ended.

  • Adolescent Exposure to methylphenidate impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.
    Neurotoxicology and teratology, 2015
    Co-Authors: James D. Rowan, Madison K. Mccarty, Shannon M.a. Kundey, Crystal D. Osburn, Samantha M. Renaud, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda Willey Matoushek, Stephen B. Fountain
    Abstract:

    The long-term effects of Adolescent Exposure to methylphenidate (MPD) on adult cognitive capacity are largely unknown. We utilized a serial multiple choice (SMC) task, which is a sequential learning paradigm for studying complex learning, to observe the effects of methylphenidate Exposure during adolescence on later serial pattern acquisition during adulthood. Following 20.0mg/kg/day MPD or saline Exposure for 5 days/week for 5 weeks during adolescence, male rats were trained to produce a highly structured serial response pattern in an octagonal operant chamber for water reinforcement as adults. During a transfer phase, a violation to the previously-learned pattern structure was introduced as the last element of the sequential pattern. Results indicated that while rats in both groups were able to learn the training and transfer patterns, Adolescent Exposure to MPD impaired learning for some aspects of pattern learning in the training phase which are learned using discrimination learning or serial position learning. In contrast Adolescent Exposure to MPD had no effect on other aspects of pattern learning which have been shown to tap into rule learning mechanisms. Additionally, Adolescent MPD Exposure impaired learning for the violation element in the transfer phase. This indicates a deficit in multi-item learning previously shown to be responsible for violation element learning. Thus, these results clearly show that Adolescent MPD produced multiple cognitive impairments in male rats that persisted into adulthood long after MPD Exposure ended.

Shannon M.a. Kundey – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Adolescent Exposure to fluoxetine impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.
    Neurobiology of learning and memory, 2019
    Co-Authors: Jessica L. Sharp, Stephen B. Fountain, Shannon M.a. Kundey, Samantha M. Renaud, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda Willey Matoushek, Megan E. Miller-cahill, Katherine H. Dyer, Claire C. Jackman, James D. Rowan
    Abstract:

    Abstract The effects of chronic Adolescent fluoxetine (FLX, Prozac®) Exposure on adult cognition are largely unknown. We used a serial multiple choice (SMC) task to characterize the effects of Adolescent FLX Exposure on rat serial pattern learning in adulthood. Male rats were exposed to either 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg/kg/day FLX for five consecutive days each week for five weeks during adolescence, followed by a 35-day drug-free period. As adults, the rats were trained in a task that required them to learn a highly structured sequential pattern of responses in an octagonal chamber for water reinforcement. In a transfer phase, the terminal element of the pattern was replaced by a violation element that was inconsistent with previously learned pattern structure. Results indicated that Adolescent FLX Exposure caused differential learning deficits for different types of elements in the serial pattern. Adolescent Exposure to 1.0 or 4.0 mg/kg/day FLX, but not 2.0 mg/kg/day FLX, impaired chunk-boundary element learning, which is known to be mediated by stimulus-response (S-R) learning. All three doses of FLX impaired violation element learning, which is known to be mediated by multiple-cue learning. FLX did not impair within-chunk element learning, which is known to be mediated by rule-learning mechanisms. The results indicate that Adolescent FLX Exposure produced multiple cognitive impairments that were detectable in adulthood long after drug Exposure ended.

  • Adolescent Exposure to methylphenidate impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.
    Neurotoxicology and teratology, 2015
    Co-Authors: James D. Rowan, Madison K. Mccarty, Shannon M.a. Kundey, Crystal D. Osburn, Samantha M. Renaud, Brian M. Kelley, Amanda Willey Matoushek, Stephen B. Fountain
    Abstract:

    The long-term effects of Adolescent Exposure to methylphenidate (MPD) on adult cognitive capacity are largely unknown. We utilized a serial multiple choice (SMC) task, which is a sequential learning paradigm for studying complex learning, to observe the effects of methylphenidate Exposure during adolescence on later serial pattern acquisition during adulthood. Following 20.0mg/kg/day MPD or saline Exposure for 5 days/week for 5 weeks during adolescence, male rats were trained to produce a highly structured serial response pattern in an octagonal operant chamber for water reinforcement as adults. During a transfer phase, a violation to the previously-learned pattern structure was introduced as the last element of the sequential pattern. Results indicated that while rats in both groups were able to learn the training and transfer patterns, Adolescent Exposure to MPD impaired learning for some aspects of pattern learning in the training phase which are learned using discrimination learning or serial position learning. In contrast Adolescent Exposure to MPD had no effect on other aspects of pattern learning which have been shown to tap into rule learning mechanisms. Additionally, Adolescent MPD Exposure impaired learning for the violation element in the transfer phase. This indicates a deficit in multi-item learning previously shown to be responsible for violation element learning. Thus, these results clearly show that Adolescent MPD produced multiple cognitive impairments in male rats that persisted into adulthood long after MPD Exposure ended.