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Adrenal Gland Tissue

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Young K. Song – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • High-Throughput Molecular and Histopathologic Profiling of Tumor Tissue in a Novel Transplantable Model of Murine Neuroblastoma: New Tools for Pediatric Drug Discovery
    Cancer investigation, 2012
    Co-Authors: Jimmy K. Stauffer, Rimas J. Orentas, Erin Lincoln, Tahira Khan, Rosalba Salcedo, Julie A. Hixon, Timothy C. Back, Jun S. Wei, Rajesh Patidar, Young K. Song
    Abstract:

    Using two MYCN transgenic mouse strains, we established 10 transplantable neuroblastoma cell lines via serial orthotopic passage in the Adrenal Gland. Tissue arrays demonstrate that by histochemistry, vascularity, immunohistochemical staining for neuroblastoma markers, catecholamine analysis, and concurrent cDNA microarray analysis, there is a close correspondence between the transplantable lines and the spontaneous tumors. Several genes closely associated with the pathobiology and immune evasion of neuroblastoma, novel targets that warrant evaluation, and decreased expression of tumor suppressor genes are demonstrated. These studies describe a unique and generalizable approach to expand the utility of transgenic models of spontaneous tumor, providing new tools for preclinical investigation.

K. E. Rohde – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The structural organization and the steroidogenic responsiveness in vitro of Adrenal Gland Tissue from the neonatal mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos)
    Cell and Tissue Research, 1991
    Co-Authors: W. N. Holmes, S. C. Al-ghawas, James Cronshaw, K. E. Rohde
    Abstract:

    The Adrenal steroidogenic Tissue of the neonatal mallard duckling is differentiated into an outer subcapsular zone where the cells contain many large lipid droplets, and an inner zone in which the cells appear to contain less lipid. The cells in both zones contain numerous mitochondria and an abundance of smooth endoendoplasmic retireticulum, and their interdigitating plasma membranes possess many filipodia, coated pits and desmosome-like junctions. Islands of chromaffin cells are distributed throughout the steroidogenic Tissue. Two types of chromaffin cell are present, one with vesicles containing densely staining material and the other more lightly staining material. Non-myelinated preganglionic fibers synapse with the chromaffin cells and the axonal terminals contain two types of dense-cored vesicles as well as acetylcholine-containing vesicles. The basal rates of corticosterone (B) and aldosterone (Aldo) release from Tissue superfused with buffer containing no secretogogue were low and almost equal (B: Aldo=1.25); the corresponding rate of deoxycorticosterone (DOC) release was less than one-fortieth of the rates of B and Aldo release. The addition of 1–24 ACTH to the medium caused the rate of release of each hormone to increase as a semi-logarithmic function of the concentration and the induced increase in B release was always significantly higher than that of Aldo (B: Aldo=4.8). The corticotropin-induced rates of B and Aldo, but not DOC, release reflected do novo hormone synthesis. Norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine each suppressed the basal rates of B and Aldo release, but had no effect when the medium contained 1–24 ACTH. Acetylcholine (ACh) similarly suppressed the basal rates of hormone release, and neither suppressed nor enhanced the responses to medium containing 1–24 ACTH. The suppressive effects of the catecholamines and ACh were not dose-related. [Asp^1, Val^5] angiotensin II induced significant semi-logarithmic dose-dependent increases in Aldo synthesis but had no effect on the release of either B or DOC.

Ju Xianghong – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Proteomic analysis of the response of porcine Adrenal Gland to heat stress.
    Research in veterinary science, 2018
    Co-Authors: Yan-hong Yong, Dongliang Gong, Lin Shi, Xiao-min Wang, Ravi Gooneratne, Patil Yadnyavalkya, Ju Xianghong
    Abstract:

    Heat stress (HS) and its associated pathologies are major challenges facing the pig industry in southern China, and are responsible for large economic losses. However, the molecular mechanisms governing the abnormal secretion of HS-responsive hormones, such as glucocorticoids, are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to investigate differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the Adrenal Glands of pigs, and to elucidate changes in the immune neuroendocrine system in pigs following HS. Through a functional proteomics approach, we identified 1202 peptides, corresponding to 415 proteins. Of these, we found 226 DEPs between heat-stressed and control porcine Adrenal Gland Tissue; 99 of these were up-regulated and 127 were down-regulated in response to HS. These DEPs included proteins involved in substrate transport, cytoskeletal changes, and stress responses. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to identify the subcellular characterization, functional pathway involvement, regulatory networks, and upstream regulators of the identified proteins. Functional network and pathway analyses may provide insights into the complexity and dynamics of HS-host interactions, and may accelerate our understanding of the mechanisms of HS.

Leslie A. Sombers – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Characterization of a Multiple-Scan-Rate Voltammetric Waveform for Real-Time Detection of Met-Enkephalin
    ACS chemical neuroscience, 2019
    Co-Authors: S. E. Calhoun, Carl J. Meunier, Christie A. Lee, Gregory S. Mccarty, Leslie A. Sombers
    Abstract:

    Opioid peptides are critically involved in a variety of physiological functions necessary for adaptation and survival, and as such, understanding the precise actions of endogenous opioid peptides will aid in identification of potential therapeutic strategies to treat a variety of disorders. However, few analytical tools are currently available that offer both the sensitivity and spatial resolution required to monitor peptidergic concentration fluctuations in situ on a time scale commensurate with that of neuronal communication. Our group has developed a multiple-scan-rate waveform to enable real-time voltammetric detection of tyrosine containing neuropeptides. Herein, we have evaluated the waveform parameters to increase sensitivity to methionine-enkephalin (M-ENK), an endogenous opioid neuropeptide implicated in pain, stress, and reward circuits. M-ENK dynamics were monitored in Adrenal Gland Tissue, as well as in the dorsal striatum of anesthetized and freely behaving animals. The data reveal cofluctuat…

Fernando D. Dip – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Technical description and feasibility of laparoscopic Adrenal contouring using fluorescence imaging
    Surgical Endoscopy, 2015
    Co-Authors: Fernando D. Dip, Mayank Roy, Steven Perrins, Rama Rao Ganga, Emanuele Lo Menzo, Samuel Szomstein, Raul Rosenthal
    Abstract:

    Background Identification of Adrenal Glands from the surrounding structures during laparoscopic surgery can be challenging especially in obese individuals. This can increase the chances for hemorrhage and conversion to open surgery. We present the first report of fluorescent infrared visualization of the Adrenal Glands in a large animal model. Methods Five adult Yorkshire pigs were utilized for the study, in compliance with the animal study regulations. After an intravenous bolus administration of 3 mL of indocyanine green (ICG), visualization was performed with a xenon/infrared light source and a laparoscope with a charge-coupled filter device. Activation of the device was done with a foot pedal. Images were analyzed using histogram software and the difference of enhancement was statistically analyzed using unpaired two-tailed t test. Results The right Adrenal Glands were visualized in all five animals immediately after administering ICG. Fluorescence facilitated demarcation of Adrenal Gland Tissue from surrounding adipose Tissue. Peritoneum and fat was visualized in black color. Adrenal enhancement lasted for 4 h in all cases. The mean value for Adrenal fluorescence using histogram count was 71.75 pixels, and for Adrenal xenon was 168.87 pixels ( p  = 0.0002; 95 % CI −130.93 to −0.63). The mean value for fat fluorescence using histogram count was 5.54 pixels and fat xenon was 187.15 pixels ( p  = 0.0001; 95 % CI −199.39 to −163.82). Although there was no significant difference between Adrenal and fat enhancement with xenon light ( p  = 0.24; 95 % CI −15.53 to 52.09), the difference became significant between Adrenal and fat fluorescence ( p  = 0.0001; 95 % CI 48.51–83.9). Conclusion Fluorescence imaging appears to be a feasible and easy method to differentiate Adrenal Glands from the surrounding Tissue in a large animal model. Further studies are necessary to investigate the real application of this method during laparoscopic Adrenalectomy in humans.

  • Technical description and feasibility of laparoscopic Adrenal contouring using fluorescence imaging
    Surgical endoscopy, 2014
    Co-Authors: Fernando D. Dip, Mayank Roy, Steven Perrins, Emanuele Lo Menzo, Samuel Szomstein, Rama Ganga, Raul J. Rosenthal
    Abstract:

    Identification of Adrenal Glands from the surrounding structures during laparoscopic surgery can be challenging especially in obese individuals. This can increase the chances for hemorrhage and conversion to open surgery. We present the first report of fluorescent infrared visualization of the Adrenal Glands in a large animal model. Five adult Yorkshire pigs were utilized for the study, in compliance with the animal study regulations. After an intravenous bolus administration of 3 mL of indocyanine green (ICG), visualization was performed with a xenon/infrared light source and a laparoscope with a charge-coupled filter device. Activation of the device was done with a foot pedal. Images were analyzed using histogram software and the difference of enhancement was statistically analyzed using unpaired two-tailed t test. The right Adrenal Glands were visualized in all five animals immediately after administering ICG. Fluorescence facilitated demarcation of Adrenal Gland Tissue from surrounding adipose Tissue. Peritoneum and fat was visualized in black color. Adrenal enhancement lasted for 4 h in all cases. The mean value for Adrenal fluorescence using histogram count was 71.75 pixels, and for Adrenal xenon was 168.87 pixels (p = 0.0002; 95 % CI −130.93 to −0.63). The mean value for fat fluorescence using histogram count was 5.54 pixels and fat xenon was 187.15 pixels (p = 0.0001; 95 % CI −199.39 to −163.82). Although there was no significant difference between Adrenal and fat enhancement with xenon light (p = 0.24; 95 % CI −15.53 to 52.09), the difference became significant between Adrenal and fat fluorescence (p = 0.0001; 95 % CI 48.51–83.9). Fluorescence imaging appears to be a feasible and easy method to differentiate Adrenal Glands from the surrounding Tissue in a large animal model. Further studies are necessary to investigate the real application of this method during laparoscopic Adrenalectomy in humans.