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Advanced Polymer

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L. C. Hollaway – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Chapter 8 – Applications in Advanced Polymer composite constructions
    Advanced Polymer Composites and Polymers in the Civil Infrastructure, 2020
    Co-Authors: L. C. Hollaway, P R Head

    Abstract:

    Publisher Summary
    This chapter illustrates the construction of some buildings and structures using Advanced Polymer composite material, which is arguably the newest material to enter the construction industry but its utilization is growing rapidly. The most highly developed application to date is the use of Advanced composites in repair and upgrading of bridge decks, utilizing the plate bonding technique, column wrapping, and other support elements to improve their ductility, particularly for seismic resistance. The more exciting application of Advanced Polymer composites is in the construction of new bridges and bridge deck replacement units. Research conducted throughout the world has resulted in the design of Polymer-composite-material highway and footbridges, Polymer composite bridge decks and in Polymer composite bridge enclosures. Furthermore, there is demand for piling, poles, and highway overhead signposts. In piling applications the material has to withstand aggressive corrosive environment particularly in the splash zone in the case of marine piles.

  • Chapter 2 – Advanced Polymer composite materials and their components
    Advanced Polymer Composites and Polymers in the Civil Infrastructure, 2020
    Co-Authors: L. C. Hollaway, P R Head

    Abstract:

    Publisher Summary
    This chapter provides an overview of the mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of Polymer matrix materials and fibers. The mechanical and physical properties of the composite are controlled by their constituent properties and by micro-structural configurations. The reinforcing of a low modulus matrix with high strength and modulus fibers utilizes the visco-elastic displacement of the low-modulus matrix under stress to transfer the load to the fiber; this results in a high strength, high modulus composite. The transfer of loads and improved toughness provided by the matrix and the interface are prerequisites for the properties of the composite but the reinforcement is primarily responsible for these properties. Advanced composites offer greatly reduced maintenance compared with steel and concrete and, therefore, offer whole life cost benefits. Design costs of Advanced composite applications are very high because of the complexity of the design process and the need to optimize material content. The matrix material of an Advanced Polymer composite is a low strength and low modulus component and the fiber are of high strength and high modulus component. Several different Polymer matrices can be utilized in Advanced composites, but in construction only a relatively small number are actually used.

  • Chapter 3 – Manufacture and properties of Advanced Polymer composites relevant to civil engineering
    Advanced Polymer Composites and Polymers in the Civil Infrastructure, 2020
    Co-Authors: L. C. Hollaway, P R Head

    Abstract:

    Publisher Summary
    This chapter summarizes the mechanical and in-service properties of Advanced composites. The mechanical properties of the final composite are dependent on the method of manufacture, the type of the fiber used (carbon, glass or aramid fibers), the relative proportions of the Polymer and fiber (fiber volume fraction), the orientation of the fiber (unidirectional, bi-directional aligned or randomly orientated). Composites are manufactured by the controlled distribution of one or more materials, the reinforcement, the first phase, is placed into a continuous matrix, the second phase, and the boundary between these two phases is the interface, which is the third phase. Generally, the interface maximizes the coupling between the two phases. Advanced Polymer composite products are mixtures composed of a matrix resin and a fiber component. The fiber component may be inorganic like glass, or organic, like carbon or aramid and the matrix may be either epoxy resin or one of several different types of polyester resin. A wide variety of combinations is possible and hence no general statement can be made about the re-cycling of FRP products.

Mohammed Naffakh – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • opportunities and challenges in the use of inorganic fullerene like nanoparticles to produce Advanced Polymer nanocomposites
    Progress in Polymer Science, 2013
    Co-Authors: Mohammed Naffakh, Carlos Marco, Ana M Diezpascual, G Ellis, Marian A Gomezfatou

    Abstract:

    Polymer/inorganic nanoparticle nanocomposites have garnered considerable academic and industrial interest over recent decades in the development of Advanced materials for a wide range of applications. In this respect, the dispersion of so-called inorganic fullerene-like (IF) nanoparticles, e.g., tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) or molybdenum disulfide (IF-MoS2), into Polymeric matrices is emerging as a new strategy. The surprising properties of these layered metal dichalcogenides such as high impact resistance and superior tribological behavior, attributed to their nanoscale size and hollow quasi-spherical shape, open up a wide variety of opportunities for applications of these inorganic compounds. The present work presents a detailed overview on research in the area of IF-based Polymer nanocomposites, with special emphasis on the use of IF-WS2 nanoparticles as environmentally friendly reinforcing fillers. The incorporation of IF particles has been shown to be efficient for improving thermal, mechanical and tribological properties of various thermoplastic Polymers, such as polypropylene, nylon-6, poly(phenylene sulfide), poly(ether ether ketone), where nanocomposites were fabricated by simple melt-processing routes without the need for modifiers or surfactants. This new family of nanocomposites exhibits similar or enhanced performance when compared with nanocomposites that incorporate carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers or nanoclays, but are substantially more cost-effective, efficient and environmentally satisfactory. Most recently, innovative approaches have been described that exploit synergistic effects to produce new materials with enhanced properties, including the combined use of micro- and nanoparticles such as IF-WS2/nucleating agent or IF-WS2/carbon fiber, as well as dual nanoparticle systems such as SWCNT/IF-WS2 where each nanoparticle has different characteristics. The structure–property relationships of these nanocomposites are discussed and potential applications proposed ranging from medicine to the aerospace, automotive and electronics industries.

  • Opportunities and challenges in the use of inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles to produce Advanced Polymer nanocomposites
    Progress in Polymer Science, 2013
    Co-Authors: Mohammed Naffakh, Ana M. Díez-pascual, Carlos Marco, Gary J. Ellis, Marián A. Gómez-fatou

    Abstract:

    Polymer/inorganic nanoparticle nanocomposites have garnered considerable academic and industrial interest over recent decades in the development of Advanced materials for a wide range of applications. In this respect, the dispersion of so-called inorganic fullerene-like (IF) nanoparticles, e.g., tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) or molybdenum disulfide (IF-MoS 2), into Polymeric matrices is emerging as a new strategy. The surprising properties of these layered metal dichalcogenides such as high impact resistance and superior tribological behavior, attributed to their nanoscale size and hollow quasi-spherical shape, open up a wide variety of opportunities for applications of these inorganic compounds. The present work presents a detailed overview on research in the area of IF-based Polymer nanocomposites, with special emphasis on the use of IF-WS2 nanoparticles as environmentally friendly reinforcing fillers. The incorporation of IF particles has been shown to be efficient for improving thermal, mechanical and tribological properties of various thermoplastic Polymers, such as polypropylene, nylon-6, poly(phenylene sulfide), poly(ether ether ketone), where nanocomposites were fabricated by simple melt-processing routes without the need for modifiers or surfactants. This new family of nanocomposites exhibits similar or enhanced performance when compared with nanocomposites that incorporate carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers or nanoclays, but are substantially more cost-effective, efficient and environmentally satisfactory. Most recently, innovative approaches have been described that exploit synergistic effects to produce new materials with enhanced properties, including the combined use of micro- and nanoparticles such as IF-WS2/ nucleating agent or IF-WS2/carbon fiber, as well as dual nanoparticle systems such as SWCNT/IF-WS2 where each nanoparticle has different characteristics. The structure-property relationships of these nanocomposites are discussed and potential applications proposed ranging from medicine to the aerospace, automotive and electronics industries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Orhun K Muratoglu – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • wear of highly crosslinked uhmwpe against an Advanced Polymer to prevent in vivo trunnion corrosion
    Orthopaedic Proceedings, 2018
    Co-Authors: Keith K Wannomae, Andrew J Lozynsky, Z Konsin, Orhun K Muratoglu

    Abstract:

    IntroductionCorrosion of the femoral head-trunnion junction in modular hip components has become a concern as the corrosion products may lead to adverse local tissue reactions. A simple way to avoid trunnion corrosion is to manufacture the femoral head with a non-metallic material, such as ceramics that are widely. An alternative solution may lie in Advanced Polymers like polyaryletherketones (PAEKs). These thermoplastics have high mechanical strength necessary for use as femoral heads in hip arthroplasty, but they must be tested to ensure that they do not adversely affect the wear of the ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) liner counterface. Pin-on-disc (POD) wear testing has been extensively used to evaluate the wear properties of UHMWPE prior to more extensive and costly analysis with joint simulators. We hypothesized that the wear of crosslinked UHMWPE would not be adversely affected in POD tests when articulated against an Advanced thermoplastic counterface.Methods0.1 wt.% VitE blended U…

  • wear of highly crosslinked uhmwpe against an Advanced Polymer to prevent in vivo trunnion corrosion
    Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-british Volume, 2017
    Co-Authors: Keith K Wannomae, Andrew J Lozynsky, Z Konsin, Orhun K Muratoglu

    Abstract:

    Introduction Corrosion of the femoral head-trunnion junction in modular hip components has become a concern as the corrosion products may lead to adverse local tissue reactions. A simple way to avoid trunnion corrosion is to manufacture the femoral head with a non-metallic material, such as ceramics that are widely. An alternative solution may lie in Advanced Polymers like polyaryletherketones (PAEKs). These thermoplastics have high mechanical strength necessary for use as femoral heads in hip arthroplasty, but they must be tested to ensure that they do not adversely affect the wear of the ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) liner counterface. Pin-on-disc (POD) wear testing has been extensively used to evaluate the wear properties of UHMWPE prior to more extensive and costly analysis with joint simulators. We hypothesized that the wear of crosslinked UHMWPE would not be adversely affected in POD tests when articulated against an Advanced thermoplastic counterface. Methods 0.1 wt.% VitE blended UHMWPE stock was e-beam irradiated to 100, 125, 140, 160, and 175 kGy and machined into cylindrical pins for testing. An additional group of 100 kGy e-beam irradiated and melted UHMWPE (with no vitamin E) was also machined and tested. Three different counterface materials were tested: (1) Cobalt-chrome (CoCr) with a surface roughness (R a ) of A bidirectional POD wear tester [1] was used to measure the wear rate of UHMWPE specimens, where the specimens moved in a 10 mm × 5 mm rectangular pattern under a Paul-type load curve [2] synchronized with the motion. The peak load of the loading curve corresponded to a peak contact pressure of 5.1 MPa between each UHMWPE pin specimen and the counterface disc. Each test was conducted at 2 Hz in undiluted bovine serum stabilized with ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) and penicillin. The pins were cleaned and weighed daily, and a wear rate was calculated at the end of each test by linear regression. Results As expected, higher radiation doses led to lower wear rates against all counterface materials (Fig 2). The PEEK discs produced the lowest UHMWPE wear in each group and the CoCr discs produced the highest UHMWPE wear; however, the two UHMWPE groups with the lowest wear rates showed no difference between the three counterface materials. Conclusions Even though the PEEK discs had visible machining marks – that is they were not polished to an implant surface finish – they still yielded the lowest wear rates for UHMWPE articulating against them when compared to the highly polished and smooth CoCr and ceramic materials. Implementing further steps to better the surface roughness of the PEEK counterface may yield even better wear rates. Using PEEK in femoral heads may alleviate issues with trunnion corrosion without increasing the incidence of osteolysis or other wear related issues. For any figures or tables, please contact authors directly (see Info & Metrics tab above).