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Peter Zuber – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF A “STRICT Aerobe” (BACILLUS SUBTILIS)
    Annual review of microbiology, 1998
    Co-Authors: Michiko M. Nakano, Peter Zuber

    Abstract:

    There was a long-held belief that the gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a strict Aerobe. But recent studies have shown that B. subtilis will grow anaerobically, either by using nitrate or nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor, or by fermentation. How B. subtilis alters its metabolic activity according to the availability of oxygen and alternative electron acceptors is but one focus of study. A two-component signal transduction system composed of a sensor kinase, ResE, and a response regulator, ResD, occupies an early stage in the regulatory pathway governing anaerobic respiration. One of the essential roles of ResD and ResE in anaerobic gene regulation is induction of fnr transcription upon oxygen limitation. FNR is a transcriptional activator for anaerobically induced genes, including those for respiratory nitrate reductase, narGHJI.B. subtilis has two distinct nitrate reductases, one for the assimilation of nitrate nitrogen and the other for nitrate respiration. In contrast, one nitrite reductase functions both in nitrite nitrogen assimilation and nitrite respiration. Unlike many anAerobes, which use pyruvate formate lyase, B. subtilis can carry out fermentation in the absence of external electron acceptors wherein pyruvate dehydrogenase is utilized to metabolize pyruvate.

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  • anaerobic growth of a strict Aerobe bacillus subtilis
    Annual Review of Microbiology, 1998
    Co-Authors: Michiko M. Nakano, Peter Zuber

    Abstract:

    There was a long-held belief that the gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a strict Aerobe. But recent studies have shown that B. subtilis will grow anaerobically, either by using nitrate or nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor, or by fermentation. How B. subtilis alters its metabolic activity according to the availability of oxygen and alternative electron acceptors is but one focus of study. A two-component signal transduction system composed of a sensor kinase, ResE, and a response regulator, ResD, occupies an early stage in the regulatory pathway governing anaerobic respiration. One of the essential roles of ResD and ResE in anaerobic gene regulation is induction of fnr transcription upon oxygen limitation. FNR is a transcriptional activator for anaerobically induced genes, including those for respiratory nitrate reductase, narGHJI.B. subtilis has two distinct nitrate reductases, one for the assimilation of nitrate nitrogen and the other for nitrate respiration. In contrast, one nitrite reductase functions both in nitrite nitrogen assimilation and nitrite respiration. Unlike many anAerobes, which use pyruvate formate lyase, B. subtilis can carry out fermentation in the absence of external electron acceptors wherein pyruvate dehydrogenase is utilized to metabolize pyruvate.

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Michiko M. Nakano – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF A “STRICT Aerobe” (BACILLUS SUBTILIS)
    Annual review of microbiology, 1998
    Co-Authors: Michiko M. Nakano, Peter Zuber

    Abstract:

    There was a long-held belief that the gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a strict Aerobe. But recent studies have shown that B. subtilis will grow anaerobically, either by using nitrate or nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor, or by fermentation. How B. subtilis alters its metabolic activity according to the availability of oxygen and alternative electron acceptors is but one focus of study. A two-component signal transduction system composed of a sensor kinase, ResE, and a response regulator, ResD, occupies an early stage in the regulatory pathway governing anaerobic respiration. One of the essential roles of ResD and ResE in anaerobic gene regulation is induction of fnr transcription upon oxygen limitation. FNR is a transcriptional activator for anaerobically induced genes, including those for respiratory nitrate reductase, narGHJI.B. subtilis has two distinct nitrate reductases, one for the assimilation of nitrate nitrogen and the other for nitrate respiration. In contrast, one nitrite reductase functions both in nitrite nitrogen assimilation and nitrite respiration. Unlike many anAerobes, which use pyruvate formate lyase, B. subtilis can carry out fermentation in the absence of external electron acceptors wherein pyruvate dehydrogenase is utilized to metabolize pyruvate.

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  • anaerobic growth of a strict Aerobe bacillus subtilis
    Annual Review of Microbiology, 1998
    Co-Authors: Michiko M. Nakano, Peter Zuber

    Abstract:

    There was a long-held belief that the gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a strict Aerobe. But recent studies have shown that B. subtilis will grow anaerobically, either by using nitrate or nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor, or by fermentation. How B. subtilis alters its metabolic activity according to the availability of oxygen and alternative electron acceptors is but one focus of study. A two-component signal transduction system composed of a sensor kinase, ResE, and a response regulator, ResD, occupies an early stage in the regulatory pathway governing anaerobic respiration. One of the essential roles of ResD and ResE in anaerobic gene regulation is induction of fnr transcription upon oxygen limitation. FNR is a transcriptional activator for anaerobically induced genes, including those for respiratory nitrate reductase, narGHJI.B. subtilis has two distinct nitrate reductases, one for the assimilation of nitrate nitrogen and the other for nitrate respiration. In contrast, one nitrite reductase functions both in nitrite nitrogen assimilation and nitrite respiration. Unlike many anAerobes, which use pyruvate formate lyase, B. subtilis can carry out fermentation in the absence of external electron acceptors wherein pyruvate dehydrogenase is utilized to metabolize pyruvate.

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Itzhak Brook – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • bacteriology of chronic sinusitis and acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis
    Archives of Otolaryngology-head & Neck Surgery, 2006
    Co-Authors: Itzhak Brook

    Abstract:

    Objective To establish the microbiological characteristics of acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis (AECS). Setting Academic medical center. Patients Thirty-two patients with chronic sinusitis and 30 patients with AECS. Main Outcome Measure The aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of maxillary AECS and chronic maxillary sinusitis. Results A total of 81 isolates (33 aerobic and 48 anaerobic) were recovered from the 32 cases (2.5 per specimen) with chronic sinusitis. Aerobes alone were recovered in 8 specimens (25%), anAerobes only were isolated in 11 (34%), and mixed Aerobes and anAerobes were recovered in 13 (41%). The predominant aerobic and facultative bacteria were Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus . The predominant anaerobic bacteria were Peptostreptococcus subspecies, Fusobacterium subspecies, anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, and Propionibacterium acnes . Twenty-one β-lactamase–producing bacteria were recovered from 17 specimens (53%). A total of 89 isolates (40 aerobic and facultatives, and 49 anaerobic) were recovered from the 30 patients (3.0 per specimen) with AECS. Aerobes were recovered in 8 instances (27%), anAerobes only in 11 (37%), and mixed Aerobes and anAerobes were recovered in 11 (37%). The predominant Aerobes were Streptococcus pneumoniae , Enterobacteriaceae, and S aureus . The predominant anAerobes were Peptostreptococcus subspecies, Fusobacterium subspecies, anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, and P acnes . Thirty-six β-lactamase–producing bacteria were recovered from 28 specimens (53%). Conclusions This study demonstrates that the organisms isolated from patients with AECS were predominantly anaerobic and were similar to those generally recovered in patients with chronic sinusitis. However, aerobic bacteria that are usually found in acute infections (eg, S pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis ) can also emerge in some of the episodes of AECS.

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  • Bacteriology of adenoids and tonsils in children with recurrent adenotonsillitis.
    Annals of Otology Rhinology and Laryngology, 2001
    Co-Authors: Itzhak Brook, Kiran Shah

    Abstract:

    Adenoids and tonsils electively removed from 25 children with a history of recurrent group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) adenotonsillitis were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Two hundred twenty-four organisms (112 Aerobes and facultatives, 110 anAerobes, and 2 Candida albicans) were isolated from the tonsils, and 229 (111 Aerobes and facultatives and 118 anAerobes) were isolated from the adenoids. Mixed infection was present in all instances, with an average of 9.1 isolates per specimen. The predominant Aerobes were Streptococcus sp, Haemophilus influenzae, and GABHS, and the prevalent anAerobes were Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium spp. β-Lactamase-producing bacteria were detected in 72 isolates recovered from 22 tonsils (88%) and in 74 isolates recovered from 21 adenoids (84%). Discrepancies in the organisms recovered were found between the tonsils and adenoids. Of the aerobic isolates, 20% were isolated only in tonsils and 18% only in adenoids. Of the anAerobes, 20% w…

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  • Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology in intra-abdominal infections associated with diverticulitis.
    Journal of medical microbiology, 2000
    Co-Authors: Itzhak Brook, Edith H. Frazier

    Abstract:

    The aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of intra-abdominal infections associated with diverticulitis was studied in 110 specimens from the peritoneal cavity after intestinal perforation and in 22 specimens from abdominal abscesses. Anaerobic bacteria only were isolated from 17 (15%) of the peritoneal specimens, aerobic bacteria only from 12 (11%) and mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora from 81 (74%). A total of 339 bacterial isolates was detected in peritoneal cultures (3.1 per specimen), comprising 155 Aerobes (1.4 per specimen) and 184 anAerobes (1.7 per specimen). Anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 4 (18%) abscesses, Aerobes alone in one (5%) and mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora in 17 (77%). A total of 72 bacterial isolates (3.3 per specimen) was detected in abdominal abscesses – 35 Aerobes (1.6 per specimen) and 37 Aerobes (1.7 per specimen). The predominant aerobic and facultative bacteria in abdominal infections were Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp. The most frequently isolated anAerobes were Bacteroides spp. (B. fragilis group), Peptostreptococcus, Clostridium and Fusobacterium spp.

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