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G. Piccioni – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aeronomy of the Venus Upper Atmosphere
    Space Science Reviews, 2017
    Co-Authors: J.-c. Gérard, S. W. Bougher, M. A. López-valverde, M. Pätzold, P. Drossart, G. Piccioni
    Abstract:

    We present aeronomical observations collected using remote sensing instruments on board Venus Express, complemented with ground-based observations and numerical modeling. They are mostly based on VIRTIS and SPICAV measurements of airglow obtained in the nadir mode and at the limb above 90 km. They complement our understanding of the behavior of Venus’ upper atmosphere that was largely based on Pioneer Venus observations mostly performed over thirty years earlier. Following a summary of recent spectral data from the EUV to the infrared, we examine how these observations have improved our knowledge of the composition, thermal structure, dynamics and transport of the Venus upper atmosphere. We then synthesize progress in three-dimensional modeling of the upper atmosphere which is largely based on global mapping and observations of time variations of the nitric oxide and O_2 nightglow emissions. Processes controlling the escape flux of atoms to space are described. Results based on the VeRA radio propagation experiment are summarized and compared to ionospheric measurements collected during earlier space missions. Finally, we point out some unsolved and open questions generated by these recent datasets and model comparisons.

J.-c. Gérard – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aeronomy of the Venus Upper Atmosphere
    Space Science Reviews, 2017
    Co-Authors: J.-c. Gérard, S. W. Bougher, M. A. López-valverde, M. Pätzold, P. Drossart, G. Piccioni
    Abstract:

    We present aeronomical observations collected using remote sensing instruments on board Venus Express, complemented with ground-based observations and numerical modeling. They are mostly based on VIRTIS and SPICAV measurements of airglow obtained in the nadir mode and at the limb above 90 km. They complement our understanding of the behavior of Venus’ upper atmosphere that was largely based on Pioneer Venus observations mostly performed over thirty years earlier. Following a summary of recent spectral data from the EUV to the infrared, we examine how these observations have improved our knowledge of the composition, thermal structure, dynamics and transport of the Venus upper atmosphere. We then synthesize progress in three-dimensional modeling of the upper atmosphere which is largely based on global mapping and observations of time variations of the nitric oxide and O_2 nightglow emissions. Processes controlling the escape flux of atoms to space are described. Results based on the VeRA radio propagation experiment are summarized and compared to ionospheric measurements collected during earlier space missions. Finally, we point out some unsolved and open questions generated by these recent datasets and model comparisons.

S. W. Bougher – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aeronomy of the Venus Upper Atmosphere
    Space Science Reviews, 2017
    Co-Authors: J.-c. Gérard, S. W. Bougher, M. A. López-valverde, M. Pätzold, P. Drossart, G. Piccioni
    Abstract:

    We present aeronomical observations collected using remote sensing instruments on board Venus Express, complemented with ground-based observations and numerical modeling. They are mostly based on VIRTIS and SPICAV measurements of airglow obtained in the nadir mode and at the limb above 90 km. They complement our understanding of the behavior of Venus’ upper atmosphere that was largely based on Pioneer Venus observations mostly performed over thirty years earlier. Following a summary of recent spectral data from the EUV to the infrared, we examine how these observations have improved our knowledge of the composition, thermal structure, dynamics and transport of the Venus upper atmosphere. We then synthesize progress in three-dimensional modeling of the upper atmosphere which is largely based on global mapping and observations of time variations of the nitric oxide and O_2 nightglow emissions. Processes controlling the escape flux of atoms to space are described. Results based on the VeRA radio propagation experiment are summarized and compared to ionospheric measurements collected during earlier space missions. Finally, we point out some unsolved and open questions generated by these recent datasets and model comparisons.

  • Aeronomy of the current martian atmosphere
    Mars, 1992
    Co-Authors: C A Barth, S. W. Bougher, A I F Stewart, D M Hunten, Siegfried Bauer, A F Nagy
    Abstract:

    The thermal structure of the Martian atmosphere, which varies diurnally, seasonally and episodically, is discussed. The atomic oxygen airglow at 1304 A is used to determine the density of atomic oxygen, and the 1216-A Lyman-alpha line is used to calculate the density of atomic hydrhydrogen and, when coupled with the temperature measurement, the escape flux of atomic hydrhydrogen. The most intense airglow is the IR atmospheric band of O2 at 1.27 micron that results from the photodissociation of ozone. The escape mechanism for atomic hydrhydrogen is thermal, or Jeans, escape, while the atomic oxygen escape is caused by a nonthermal process, namely, the dissociative recombination of O2(+). The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen is enriched by a factor of 6. Three-dimensional models of the Mars thermospheric circulation show that planetary rotation has a significant effect on the wind, composition, and temperature structure.

G. Kockarts – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aeronomy, a 20th Century emergent science: the role of solar Lyman series
    Annales Geophysicae, 2002
    Co-Authors: G. Kockarts
    Abstract:

    Abstract. Aeronomy is, by definition, a multidisciplinary science which can be used to study the terrestrial atmosphere, as well as any planetary atmosphere and even the interplanetary space. It was officially recognized in 1954 by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. The major objective of the present paper is to show how Aeronomy developed since its infancy. The subject is so large that a guide-line has been chosen to see how Aeronomy affects our atmospheric knowledge. This guideline is the solar Lyman alphalpha radiation which has different effects in the solar system. After a short description of the origins of Aeronomy the first observations of this line are summarized since the beginning of the space age. Then the consequences of these observations are analyzed for the physics and chemistry of the neutral terrestrial atmosphere. New chemical processes had to be introduced, as well as new transport phenomena. Solar Lyman alpha also influences the structure of the Earth’s ionosphere, particularly the D-region. In the terrestrial exosphere, solar Lyman alpha scattered resonantly by atomic hydrhydrogen is at present the only way to estimate this constituent in an almost collisionless medium. Since planetary atmospheres also contain atomic hydrhydrogen, the Lyman alpha line has been used to deduce the abundance of this constituent. The same is true for the interplanetary space where Lyman alpha observations can be a good tool to determine the concentration. The last section of the paper presents a question which is intended to stimulate further research in Aeronomy. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; thermosphere – composition and chemistry) – history of geophysics (atmospheric sciences)

  • Aeronomy, a 20th Century emergent science: the role of solar Lyman series
    Annales Geophysicae, 2002
    Co-Authors: G. Kockarts
    Abstract:

    Aeronomy is, by definition, a multidisciplinary science which can be used to study the terrestrial atmosphere, as well as any planetary atmosphere and even the interplanetary space. It was officially recognized in 1954 by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. The major objective of the present paper is to show how Aeronomy developed since its infancy. The subject is so large that a guide-line has been chosen to see how Aeronomy affects our atmospheric knowledge. This guideline is the solar Lyman alphalpha radiation which has different effects in the solar system. After a short description of the origins of Aeronomy the first observations of this line are summarized since the beginning of the space age. Then the consequences of these observations are analyzed for the physics and chemistry of the neutral terrestrial atmosphere. New chemical processes had to be introduced, as well as new transport phenomena. Solar Lyman alpha also influences the structure of the Earth’s ionosphere, particularly the D-region. In the terrestrial exosphere, solar Lyman alpha scattered resonantly by atomic hydrhydrogen is at present the only way to estimate this constituent in an almost collisionless medium. Since planetary atmospheres also contain atomic hydrhydrogen, the Lyman alpha line has been used to deduce the abundance of this constituent. The same is true for the interplanetary space where Lyman alpha observations can be a good tool to determine the concentration. The last section of the paper presents a question which is intended to stimulate further research in Aeronomy.

M. A. López-valverde – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aeronomy of the Venus Upper Atmosphere
    Space Science Reviews, 2017
    Co-Authors: J.-c. Gérard, S. W. Bougher, M. A. López-valverde, M. Pätzold, P. Drossart, G. Piccioni
    Abstract:

    We present aeronomical observations collected using remote sensing instruments on board Venus Express, complemented with ground-based observations and numerical modeling. They are mostly based on VIRTIS and SPICAV measurements of airglow obtained in the nadir mode and at the limb above 90 km. They complement our understanding of the behavior of Venus’ upper atmosphere that was largely based on Pioneer Venus observations mostly performed over thirty years earlier. Following a summary of recent spectral data from the EUV to the infrared, we examine how these observations have improved our knowledge of the composition, thermal structure, dynamics and transport of the Venus upper atmosphere. We then synthesize progress in three-dimensional modeling of the upper atmosphere which is largely based on global mapping and observations of time variations of the nitric oxide and O_2 nightglow emissions. Processes controlling the escape flux of atoms to space are described. Results based on the VeRA radio propagation experiment are summarized and compared to ionospheric measurements collected during earlier space missions. Finally, we point out some unsolved and open questions generated by these recent datasets and model comparisons.