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Age at Maturity

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Craig R. Primmer – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Heterogeneous genetic basis of Age at maturity in salmonid fishes
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Charles D. Waters, Anthony J. Clemento, Tutku Aykanat, John Carlos Garza, Kerry A. Naish, Shawn R. Narum, Craig R. Primmer

    Abstract:

    Abstract Understanding the genetic basis of repeated evolution of the same phenotype across taxa is a fundamental aim in evolutionary biology and has applications to conservation and manAgement. However, the extent to which interspecific life-history trait polymorphisms share evolutionary pathways remains under-explored. We address this gap by studying the genetic basis of a key life-history trait, Age at maturity, in four species of Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) that exhibit intra- and interspecific variation in this trait – Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Steelhead Trout. We tested for associations in all four species between Age at maturity and two genome regions, six6 and vgll3, that are strongly associated with the same trait in atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). We also conducted a genome-wide association analysis in Steelhead to assess whether additional regions were associated with this trait. We found the genetic basis of Age at maturity to be heterogeneous across salmonid species. Significant associations between six6 and Age at maturity were observed in two of the four species, Sockeye and Steelhead, with the association in Steelhead being particularly strong in both sexes (p = 4.46×10−9 after adjusting for genomic inflation). However, no significant associations were detected between Age at maturity and the vgll3 genome region in any of the species, despite its strong association with the same trait in atlantic Salmon. We discuss possible explanations for the heterogeneous nature of the genetic architecture of this key life-history trait, as well as the implications of our findings for conservation and manAgement.

  • Beyond large-effect loci: large-scale GWAS reveals a mixed large-effect and polygenic architecture for Age at maturity of atlantic salmon
    Genetics Selection Evolution, 2020
    Co-Authors: Marion Sinclair-waters, Craig R. Primmer, Jørgen Ødegård, Sven Arild Korsvoll, Thomas Moen, Sigbjørn Lien, Nicola J. Barson

    Abstract:

    Background Understanding genetic architecture is essential for determining how traits will change in response to evolutionary processes such as selection, genetic drift and/or gene flow. In atlantic salmon, Age at maturity is an important life history trait that affects factors such as survival, reproductive success, and growth. Furthermore, Age at maturity can seriously impact aquaculture production. Therefore, characterizing the genetic architecture that underlies variation in Age at maturity is of key interest. Results Here, we refine our understanding of the genetic architecture for Age at maturity of male atlantic salmon using a genome-wide association study of 11,166 males from a single aquaculture strain, using imputed genotypes at 512,397 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). All individuals were genotyped with a 50K SNP array and imputed to higher density using parents genotyped with a 930K SNP array and pedigree information. We found significant association signals on 28 of 29 chromosomes ( P -values: 8.7 × 10^−133–9.8 × 10^−8), including two very strong signals spanning the six6 and vgll3 gene regions on chromosomes 9 and 25, respectively. Furthermore, we identified 116 independent signals that tagged 120 candidate genes with varying effect sizes. Five of the candidate genes found here were previously associated with Age at maturity in other vertebrates, including humans. Discussion These results reveal a mixed architecture of large-effect loci and a polygenic component that consists of multiple smaller-effect loci, suggesting a more complex genetic architecture of atlantic salmon Age at maturity than previously thought. This more complex architecture will have implications for selection on this key trait in aquaculture and for manAgement of wild salmon populations.

  • Beyond large-effect loci: large-scale GWAS reveals a mixed large-effect and polygenic architecture for Age at maturity of atlantic salmon
    Genetics selection evolution : GSE, 2020
    Co-Authors: Marion Sinclair-waters, Craig R. Primmer, Jørgen Ødegård, Sven Arild Korsvoll, Thomas Moen, Sigbjørn Lien, Nicola J. Barson

    Abstract:

    Understanding genetic architecture is essential for determining how traits will change in response to evolutionary processes such as selection, genetic drift and/or gene flow. In atlantic salmon, Age at maturity is an important life history trait that affects factors such as survival, reproductive success, and growth. Furthermore, Age at maturity can seriously impact aquaculture production. Therefore, characterizing the genetic architecture that underlies variation in Age at maturity is of key interest. Here, we refine our understanding of the genetic architecture for Age at maturity of male atlantic salmon using a genome-wide association study of 11,166 males from a single aquaculture strain, using imputed genotypes at 512,397 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). All individuals were genotyped with a 50K SNP array and imputed to higher density using parents genotyped with a 930K SNP array and pedigree information. We found significant association signals on 28 of 29 chromosomes (P-values: 8.7 × 10−133–9.8 × 10−8), including two very strong signals spanning the six6 and vgll3 gene regions on chromosomes 9 and 25, respectively. Furthermore, we identified 116 independent signals that tagged 120 candidate genes with varying effect sizes. Five of the candidate genes found here were previously associated with Age at maturity in other vertebrates, including humans. These results reveal a mixed architecture of large-effect loci and a polygenic component that consists of multiple smaller-effect loci, suggesting a more complex genetic architecture of atlantic salmon Age at maturity than previously thought. This more complex architecture will have implications for selection on this key trait in aquaculture and for manAgement of wild salmon populations.

Tutku Aykanat – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Heterogeneous genetic basis of Age at maturity in salmonid fishes
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Charles D. Waters, Anthony J. Clemento, Tutku Aykanat, John Carlos Garza, Kerry A. Naish, Shawn R. Narum, Craig R. Primmer

    Abstract:

    Abstract Understanding the genetic basis of repeated evolution of the same phenotype across taxa is a fundamental aim in evolutionary biology and has applications to conservation and manAgement. However, the extent to which interspecific life-history trait polymorphisms share evolutionary pathways remains under-explored. We address this gap by studying the genetic basis of a key life-history trait, Age at maturity, in four species of Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) that exhibit intra- and interspecific variation in this trait – Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Steelhead Trout. We tested for associations in all four species between Age at maturity and two genome regions, six6 and vgll3, that are strongly associated with the same trait in atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). We also conducted a genome-wide association analysis in Steelhead to assess whether additional regions were associated with this trait. We found the genetic basis of Age at maturity to be heterogeneous across salmonid species. Significant associations between six6 and Age at maturity were observed in two of the four species, Sockeye and Steelhead, with the association in Steelhead being particularly strong in both sexes (p = 4.46×10−9 after adjusting for genomic inflation). However, no significant associations were detected between Age at maturity and the vgll3 genome region in any of the species, despite its strong association with the same trait in atlantic Salmon. We discuss possible explanations for the heterogeneous nature of the genetic architecture of this key life-history trait, as well as the implications of our findings for conservation and manAgement.

  • transcription profiles of Age at maturity associated genes suggest cell fate commitment regulation as a key factor in the atlantic salmon maturation process
    G3: Genes Genomes Genetics, 2020
    Co-Authors: Johanna Kurko, Tutku Aykanat, Jaakko Erkinaro, Paul V. Debes, Andrew H House, Craig R. Primmer

    Abstract:

    Despite recent taxonomic diversification in studies linking genotype with phenotype, follow-up studies aimed at understanding the molecular processes of such genotype-phenotype associations remain rare. The Age at which an individual reaches sexual maturity is an important fitness trait in many wild species. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating maturation timing processes remain obscure. A recent genome-wide association study in atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) identified large-effect Ageat-maturity-associated chromosomal regions including genes vgll3, akap11 and six6, which have roles in adipogenesis, spermatogenesis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, respectively. Here, we determine expression patterns of these genes during salmon development and their potential molecular partners and pathways. Using Nanostring transcription profiling technology, we show development- and tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns for vgll3, akap11 and six6 Correlated expression levels of vgll3 and akap11, which have adjacent chromosomal location, suggests they may have shared regulation. Further, vgll3 correlating with arhgap6 and yap1, and akap11 with lats1 and yap1 suggests that Vgll3 and Akap11 take part in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Tissue-specific expression results indicate that vgll3 and akap11 paralogs have sex-dependent expression patterns in gonads. Moreover, six6 correlating with slc38a6 and rtn1, and Hippo signaling genes suggests that Six6 could have a broader role in the HPG neuroendrocrine and cell fate commitment regulation, respectively. We conclude that Vgll3, Akap11 and Six6 may influence atlantic salmon maturation timing via affecting adipogenesis and gametogenesis by regulating cell fate commitment and the HPG axis. These results may help to unravel general molecular mechanisms behind maturation.

  • Regulatory divergence in vgll3 underlies variation in Age at maturity in male atlantic salmon
    , 2019
    Co-Authors: Jukka-pekka Verta, Tutku Aykanat, Paul V. Debes, Nikolai Piavchenko, Annukka Ruokolainen, Outi Ovaskainen, Jacqueline E. Moustakas-verho, Seija Tillanen, Noora Parre, Jaakko Erkinaro

    Abstract:

    Abstract The optimal phenotypes to survive and reproduce in given evolutionary settings are often in conflict, which manifest as trade-offs in life history traits. Genome-wide association studies have been successful in uncovering genome regions controlling for life history trade-offs in a range of species 1–8. However, lack of functional studies of the discovered genotype-phenotype associations restrains our understanding how alternative life history traits evolved and are mediated at the molecular level. Here we establish a molecular mechanism by which allele-specific expression differences of the transcription co-factor vgll3 mediate variation in Age at maturity in male atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). By way of a common-garden experiment and temporal sampling of vgll3 expression, we show that vgll3 genotype and expression control male puberty timing in one-year old salmon. Vgll3 expression was high in immature testicular tissue and males entering puberty reduced their vgll3 expression by 66% compared to immature males. Testicular expression of the early maturation associated allele in immature males was constitutively lower compared to the late maturation allele, shifting the liability of early allele carriers towards earlier maturation. These results reveal how gene regulatory differences can be a central mechanism for the evolution of life history variation.

Yaming Cheny. Chen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • unnatural random mating policies select for younger Age at maturity in hatchery chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations
    Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2009
    Co-Authors: David G. Hankin, Jacqueline Fitzgibbonsj. Fitzgibbons, Yaming Cheny. Chen

    Abstract:

    We explored the long-term consequences of three mating regimes ((1) completely random, (2) completely random but excluding jacks (Age 2 males), and (3) male length ≥ female length) on Age and sex s…

  • Unnatural random mating policies select for younger Age at maturity in hatchery Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations.
    Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2009
    Co-Authors: David G. Hankin, Jacqueline Fitzgibbonsj. Fitzgibbons, Yaming Cheny. Chen

    Abstract:

    We explored the long-term consequences of three mating regimes ((1) completely random, (2) completely random but excluding jacks (Age 2 males), and (3) male length ≥ female length) on Age and sex structure of wild and hatchery populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Regimes similar to regimes 1 or 2 are used at most salmon hatcheries, whereas regime 3 emulates the outcomes of natural spawning behaviors that favor larger males. Inheritance of Age at maturity is captured in Age– and sex-structured models via matrices of Age– and sex-specific conditional maturation probabilities that depend on Age and sex of parents. In unexploited populations, regime 1 leads to substantial long-term selection for younger Age at maturity, an effect that is somewhat reduced by regime 2, but greatly reduced under regime 3. Equilibrium Age and sex structures for wild and hatchery populations under regime 3 are similar to those of natural populations, whereas mating regime 1 generates Age structure that is grea…