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Agglutination Tests

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Ken B Waites – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • comparison of two rapid latex Agglutination Tests for detection of cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 1998
    Co-Authors: David L Jaye, Ken B Waites, Brent Parker, Sandra L Bragg, Stephen A Moser

    Abstract:

    The Murex Cryptococcus Test was compared with the Cryptococcal Antigen Latex Agglutination System (CALAS) for detecting cryptococcal polysaccharide in 173 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens and 117 serum samples with 99% and 97% concordance, respectively. Eighteen CSF samples and 17 serum samples were positive in both assays, and 249 were negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the Murex relative to the CALAS were 90% and 100%, respectively, for CSF, and 81% and 100%, respectively, for serum. Six discrepancies were arbitrated by retesting, using a third analytic method, review of other laboratory and clinical data, or both. The reaction in 1 CSF specimen was considered false positive by the CALAS, and the reactions in 2 serum samples were false negatives by the Murex. For 3 patients with previous cryptococcal meningitis but no active disease, only the CALAS detected antigen, suggesting that the Murex has less analytic sensitivity in this context. Titer differences dictate that direct comparisons between the 2 Tests are not feasible. There were no false-positive reactions in limited testing with either method using specimens from patients with concurrent noncryptococcal infections or in rheumatoid factor-positive serum samples. Infections caused by Cryptococcus neoformans serotypes A or AD were detected equally by both assays. Based on our study, we have elected to continue to use the CALAS for routine testing for cryptococcal antigen.

  • identification of oxacillin susceptible and oxacillin resistant staphylococcus aureus using commercial latex Agglutination Tests
    Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 1998
    Co-Authors: William C Summers, Eneida S Brookings, Ken B Waites

    Abstract:

    Abstract Four hundred thirteen Staphylococcus sp. were identified by Staphaurex, Staphaurex Plus, and BACTiStaph kits using tube coagulase as reference. Among 222 coagulase-positive isolates, 56 were oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . All Tests were accurate in distinguishing between coagulase-positive and -negative staphylococci with sensitivities and specificities ≥97% and only nine discrepancies.

Jerome Etienne – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • identification of the capsular polysaccharides in staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates by pcr and Agglutination Tests
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2007
    Co-Authors: Isabelle Verdier, Geraldine Durand, Kimberly L Taylor, Gerard Lina, Francois Vandenesch, Ali Fattom, Jerome Etienne

    Abstract:

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The predominance of two capsular polysaccharides, types 5 and 8, on the surface of clinical isolates led to the development of a conjugate vaccine (StaphVAX) based on capsular polysaccharides types 5 and 8 conjugated to a carrier protein. We have studied the capsular phenotypes and genotypes of 195 isolates representative of all clinical syndromes that encompassed both hospital and community-acquired infections. These isolates were mainly detected in France between January 2001 and December 2004. In this population, most of clinical isolates (87%) expressed either capsular polysaccharide type 5 (42%) or 8 (45%), whereas 13% were nontypeable by the serotyping method with antibodies specific to capsular polysaccharide type 5 or 8. These 26 nontypeable strains were further serotyped and were demonstrated to express the cell wall surface antigen 336, a polyribitol phosphate N-acetylglucosamine, which resembles cell wall teichoic acid. Among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, we found a predominance of serotype 5 for 64% of strains, whereas MSSA isolates were predominantly capsular serotype 8 (60%). All S. aureus clinical isolates included in the present study have been investigated by PCR method, demonstrating that all isolates carried either the cap5 or the cap8 locus.

  • international multicenter evaluation of latex Agglutination Tests for identification of staphylococcus aureus
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2001
    Co-Authors: Arjanne Van Griethuysen, Jerome Etienne, Reinhard Zbinden, Jan Kluytmans

    Abstract:

    A newly marketed rapid Agglutination kit for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus, Slidex Staph Plus (bioMerieux), was compared to Staphaurex Plus (Murex Diagnostics) and Pastorex Staph-Plus (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur). The study took place in three clinical microbiology laboratories in three different European countries. A total of 892 staphylococcal isolates, including 278 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, 171 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, and 443 coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates, were analyzed. The sensitivities (MSSA/MRSA) and specificities, respectively, were 98.2% (98.9%/97.1%) and 98.9% for Slidex Staph Plus, 98.2% (98.2%/98.2%) and 96.2% for Staphaurex Plus, and 98.7% (98.6%/98.8%) and 95.7% for Pastorex Staph Plus. The specificity of the Slidex Staph Plus kit was statistically significantly higher than the specificities of Staphaurex Plus and Pastorex Staph-Plus. The Slidex Staph Plus is a very reliable test for the identification of S. aureus.

Paul P Bourbeau – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • comparison of five Agglutination Tests for identification of staphylococcus aureus
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1997
    Co-Authors: M Wilkerson, S Mcallister, J M Miller, B J Heiter, Paul P Bourbeau

    Abstract:

    Various commercially produced Agglutination kits are widely used for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus. These kits detect the presence of protein A and/or clumping factor on S. aureus. The literature has shown that methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates which are deficient in both clumping factor and protein A may be misidentified. Two products, Slidex and Staphaurex Plus, utilize specific anti-S. aureus antibodies, potentially giving them greater sensitivity compared to products without these antibodies. We report a prospective study designed to compare the performance characteristics of Fastaph, Slidex, Staphaurex, Staphaurex Plus, Staphyloslide, and the tube coagulase test for the identification of staphylococcal isolates. All discrepant isolates were tested with the Gen-Probe AccuProbe S. aureus test and were identified to the species level with conventional reference biochemicals. A total of 1,193 isolates were tested, including 33 MRSA and 423 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates. The sensitivities and specificities of the Tests, respectively, were as follows: Fastaph, 99.1 and 98.9%; Slidex, 99.6 and 96.4%; Staphaurex, 98.9 and 99.9%; Staphaurex Plus, 99.6 and 93.9%; Staphyloslide, 99.1 and 98.9%; and tube coagulase, 99.3 and 100%. Sensitivity was excellent for all of the products tested. The specificities of Fastaph, Staphaurex, and Staphyloslide were excellent, while Staphaurex Plus and Slidex demonstrated less optimal results.