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Venkatesh Sundararaman – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the Aggregate Effect of school choice evidence from a two stage experiment in india
    Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2015
    Co-Authors: Karthik Muralidharan, Venkatesh Sundararaman
    Abstract:

    We present experimental evidence on the impact of a school choice program in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh that provided students with a voucher to finance attending a private school of their choice. The study design featured a unique two-stage lottery-based allocation of vouchers that created both student-level and market-level experiments, which allows us to study the individual and the Aggregate Effects of school choice (including spillovers). After two and four years of the program, we find no difference between test scores of lottery winners and losers on Telugu (native language), math, English, and science/social studies, suggesting that the large cross-sectional differences in test scores across public and private schools mostly reflect omitted variables. However, private schools also teach Hindi, which is not taught by the public schools, and lottery winners have much higher test scores in Hindi. Furthermore, the mean cost per student in the private schools in our sample was less than a third of the cost in public schools. Thus, private schools in this setting deliver slightly better test score gains than their public counterparts (better on Hindi and same in other subjects), and do so at a substantially lower cost per student. Finally, we find no evidence of spillovers on public school students who do not apply for the voucher, or on private school students, suggesting that the positive Effects on voucher winners did not come at the expense of other students. JEL Codes: C93, H44, H52, I21, O15.

  • the Aggregate Effect of school choice evidence from a two stage experiment in india
    , 2013
    Co-Authors: Karthik Muralidharan, Venkatesh Sundararaman
    Abstract:

    We present experimental evidence on the impact of a school choice program in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh (AP) that provided students with a voucher to finance attending a private school of their choice. The study design featured a unique two-stage lottery-based allocation of vouchers that created both a student-level and a market-level experiment, which allows us to study both the individual and the Aggregate Effects of school choice (including spillovers). After two and four years of the program, we find no difference between test scores of lottery winners and losers on Telugu (native language) and math, suggesting that the large cross-sectional test-score differences between public and private school students on these subjects mostly reflect omitted variables. However, private schools spent significantly less instructional time on Telugu and math, and instead taught more English, science, social studies, and Hindi. Averaged across all subjects, lottery winners scored 0.13`sigma` higher, and the average causal impact on test scores of attending a private school was 0.23`sigma`. Further, the mean cost per student in the private schools in our sample was less than a third of the cost in public schools. Thus, private schools in this setting deliver (slightly) better test score gains than their public counterparts, and do so at substantially lower costs per student. Finally, we find no evidence of spillovers on public-school students who do not apply for the voucher, or on private school students, suggesting that the positive impacts on voucher winners did not come at the expense of other students.Institutional subscribers to the NBER working paper series, and residents of developing countries may download this paper without additional charge at www.nber.org.

  • the Aggregate Effect of school choice evidence from a two stage experiment in india
    National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013
    Co-Authors: Karthik Muralidharan, Venkatesh Sundararaman
    Abstract:

    We present experimental evidence on the impact of a school choice program in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh (AP) that provided students with a voucher to finance attending a private school of their choice. The study design featured a unique two-stage lottery-based allocation of vouchers that created both a student-level and a market-level experiment, which allows us to study both the individual and the Aggregate Effects of school choice (including spillovers). After two and four years of the program, we find no difference between test scores of lottery winners and losers on Telugu (native language) and math, suggesting that the large cross-sectional test-score differences between public and private school students on these subjects mostly reflect omitted variables. However, private schools spent significantly less instructional time on Telugu and math, and instead taught more English, science, social studies, and Hindi. Averaged across all subjects, lottery winners scored 0.13`sigma` higher, and the average causal impact on test scores of attending a private school was 0.23`sigma`. Further, the mean cost per student in the private schools in our sample was less than a third of the cost in public schools. Thus, private schools in this setting deliver (slightly) better test score gains than their public counterparts, and do so at substantially lower costs per student. Finally, we find no evidence of spillovers on public-school students who do not apply for the voucher, or on private school students, suggesting that the positive impacts on voucher winners did not come at the expense of other students.

Ming-syan Chen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • On exploring Aggregate Effect for efficient cache replacement in transcoding proxies
    IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 2003
    Co-Authors: Cheng-yue Chang, Ming-syan Chen
    Abstract:

    Recent technology advances in mobile networking have ushered in a new era of personal communication. Users can ubiquitously access the Internet via many emerging mobile appliances, such as portable notebooks, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and WAP-enabled cellular phones. While the transcoding proxy is attracting an increasing amount of attention in this environment, it is noted that new caching strategies are required for these transcoding proxies. We propose an efficient cache replacement algorithm for transcoding proxies. Specifically, we formulate a generalized profit function to evaluate the profit from caching each version of an object. This generalized profit function explicitly considers several new emerging factors in the transcoding proxy and the Aggregate Effect of caching multiple versions of the same object. It is noted that the Aggregate Effect is not simply the sum of the costs of caching individual versions of an object, but rather, depends on the transcoding relationship among these versions. The notion of a weighted transcoding graph is devised to evaluate the corresponding Aggregate Effect efficiently. Utilizing the generalized profit function and the weighted transcoding graph, we propose, in this paper, an innovative cache replacement algorithm for transcoding proxies. In addition, an Effective data structure is designed to facilitate the management of the multiple versions of different objects cached in the transcoding proxy. Using an event-driven simulation, it is shown that the algorithm proposed consistently outperforms companion schemes in terms of the delay saving ratios and cache hit ratios.

  • ICDE – Exploring Aggregate Effect with weighted transcoding graphs for efficient cache replacement in transcoding proxies
    Proceedings 18th International Conference on Data Engineering, 1
    Co-Authors: Cheng-yue Chang, Ming-syan Chen
    Abstract:

    This paper explores the Aggregate Effect when caching multiple versions of the same Web object in the transcoding proxy. Explicitly, the Aggregate profit from caching multiple versions of an object is not simply the sum of the profits from caching individual versions, but rather, depends on the transcoding relationships among them. Hence, to evaluate the profit from caching each version of an object efficiently, we devise the notion of a weighted transcoding graph and formulate a generalized profit function which explicitly considers the Aggregate Effect and several new emerging factors in the transcoding proxy. Based on the weighted transcoding graph and the generalized profit function, an innovative cache replacement algorithm for transcoding proxies is proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the algorithm proposed consistently outperforms companion schemes in terms of the delay saving ratios and cache hit ratios.

Heming Wang – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Karthik Muralidharan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the Aggregate Effect of school choice evidence from a two stage experiment in india
    Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2015
    Co-Authors: Karthik Muralidharan, Venkatesh Sundararaman
    Abstract:

    We present experimental evidence on the impact of a school choice program in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh that provided students with a voucher to finance attending a private school of their choice. The study design featured a unique two-stage lottery-based allocation of vouchers that created both student-level and market-level experiments, which allows us to study the individual and the Aggregate Effects of school choice (including spillovers). After two and four years of the program, we find no difference between test scores of lottery winners and losers on Telugu (native language), math, English, and science/social studies, suggesting that the large cross-sectional differences in test scores across public and private schools mostly reflect omitted variables. However, private schools also teach Hindi, which is not taught by the public schools, and lottery winners have much higher test scores in Hindi. Furthermore, the mean cost per student in the private schools in our sample was less than a third of the cost in public schools. Thus, private schools in this setting deliver slightly better test score gains than their public counterparts (better on Hindi and same in other subjects), and do so at a substantially lower cost per student. Finally, we find no evidence of spillovers on public school students who do not apply for the voucher, or on private school students, suggesting that the positive Effects on voucher winners did not come at the expense of other students. JEL Codes: C93, H44, H52, I21, O15.

  • the Aggregate Effect of school choice evidence from a two stage experiment in india
    , 2013
    Co-Authors: Karthik Muralidharan, Venkatesh Sundararaman
    Abstract:

    We present experimental evidence on the impact of a school choice program in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh (AP) that provided students with a voucher to finance attending a private school of their choice. The study design featured a unique two-stage lottery-based allocation of vouchers that created both a student-level and a market-level experiment, which allows us to study both the individual and the Aggregate Effects of school choice (including spillovers). After two and four years of the program, we find no difference between test scores of lottery winners and losers on Telugu (native language) and math, suggesting that the large cross-sectional test-score differences between public and private school students on these subjects mostly reflect omitted variables. However, private schools spent significantly less instructional time on Telugu and math, and instead taught more English, science, social studies, and Hindi. Averaged across all subjects, lottery winners scored 0.13`sigma` higher, and the average causal impact on test scores of attending a private school was 0.23`sigma`. Further, the mean cost per student in the private schools in our sample was less than a third of the cost in public schools. Thus, private schools in this setting deliver (slightly) better test score gains than their public counterparts, and do so at substantially lower costs per student. Finally, we find no evidence of spillovers on public-school students who do not apply for the voucher, or on private school students, suggesting that the positive impacts on voucher winners did not come at the expense of other students.Institutional subscribers to the NBER working paper series, and residents of developing countries may download this paper without additional charge at www.nber.org.

  • the Aggregate Effect of school choice evidence from a two stage experiment in india
    National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013
    Co-Authors: Karthik Muralidharan, Venkatesh Sundararaman
    Abstract:

    We present experimental evidence on the impact of a school choice program in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh (AP) that provided students with a voucher to finance attending a private school of their choice. The study design featured a unique two-stage lottery-based allocation of vouchers that created both a student-level and a market-level experiment, which allows us to study both the individual and the Aggregate Effects of school choice (including spillovers). After two and four years of the program, we find no difference between test scores of lottery winners and losers on Telugu (native language) and math, suggesting that the large cross-sectional test-score differences between public and private school students on these subjects mostly reflect omitted variables. However, private schools spent significantly less instructional time on Telugu and math, and instead taught more English, science, social studies, and Hindi. Averaged across all subjects, lottery winners scored 0.13`sigma` higher, and the average causal impact on test scores of attending a private school was 0.23`sigma`. Further, the mean cost per student in the private schools in our sample was less than a third of the cost in public schools. Thus, private schools in this setting deliver (slightly) better test score gains than their public counterparts, and do so at substantially lower costs per student. Finally, we find no evidence of spillovers on public-school students who do not apply for the voucher, or on private school students, suggesting that the positive impacts on voucher winners did not come at the expense of other students.

Cheng-yue Chang – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • On exploring Aggregate Effect for efficient cache replacement in transcoding proxies
    IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 2003
    Co-Authors: Cheng-yue Chang, Ming-syan Chen
    Abstract:

    Recent technology advances in mobile networking have ushered in a new era of personal communication. Users can ubiquitously access the Internet via many emerging mobile appliances, such as portable notebooks, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and WAP-enabled cellular phones. While the transcoding proxy is attracting an increasing amount of attention in this environment, it is noted that new caching strategies are required for these transcoding proxies. We propose an efficient cache replacement algorithm for transcoding proxies. Specifically, we formulate a generalized profit function to evaluate the profit from caching each version of an object. This generalized profit function explicitly considers several new emerging factors in the transcoding proxy and the Aggregate Effect of caching multiple versions of the same object. It is noted that the Aggregate Effect is not simply the sum of the costs of caching individual versions of an object, but rather, depends on the transcoding relationship among these versions. The notion of a weighted transcoding graph is devised to evaluate the corresponding Aggregate Effect efficiently. Utilizing the generalized profit function and the weighted transcoding graph, we propose, in this paper, an innovative cache replacement algorithm for transcoding proxies. In addition, an Effective data structure is designed to facilitate the management of the multiple versions of different objects cached in the transcoding proxy. Using an event-driven simulation, it is shown that the algorithm proposed consistently outperforms companion schemes in terms of the delay saving ratios and cache hit ratios.

  • ICDE – Exploring Aggregate Effect with weighted transcoding graphs for efficient cache replacement in transcoding proxies
    Proceedings 18th International Conference on Data Engineering, 1
    Co-Authors: Cheng-yue Chang, Ming-syan Chen
    Abstract:

    This paper explores the Aggregate Effect when caching multiple versions of the same Web object in the transcoding proxy. Explicitly, the Aggregate profit from caching multiple versions of an object is not simply the sum of the profits from caching individual versions, but rather, depends on the transcoding relationships among them. Hence, to evaluate the profit from caching each version of an object efficiently, we devise the notion of a weighted transcoding graph and formulate a generalized profit function which explicitly considers the Aggregate Effect and several new emerging factors in the transcoding proxy. Based on the weighted transcoding graph and the generalized profit function, an innovative cache replacement algorithm for transcoding proxies is proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the algorithm proposed consistently outperforms companion schemes in terms of the delay saving ratios and cache hit ratios.