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Jos Lelieveld – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • impact of Agricultural Emission reductions on fine particulate matter and public health
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Andrea Pozzer, Jos Lelieveld, Alexandra P Tsimpidi, Vlassis A Karydis, Alexander De Meij
    Abstract:

    Abstract. A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing Agricultural Emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3) released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small Emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when Emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of Agricultural Emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of Agricultural Emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by  ∼ 250 000 people yr−1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  • Impact of Agricultural Emission reductions on fine particulate matter and public health
    , 2017
    Co-Authors: Andrea Pozzer, Alexandra P Tsimpidi, Vlassis A Karydis, Alexander De Meij, Jos Lelieveld
    Abstract:

    Abstract. A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America and East Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing Agricultural Emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3), released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small Emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not directly limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when Emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of Agricultural Emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of Agricultural Emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by ~ 250 thousands people per year worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30 %, 19 % and 8 % over North America, Europe and East Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 thousand per year.

Valérie Gros – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) fingerprints of major urban and Agricultural Emission sources for use in source apportionment studies
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2020
    Co-Authors: Ashish Kumar, Vinayak Sinha, Muhammed Shabin, Haseeb Hakkim, B. Bonsang, Valérie Gros
    Abstract:

    Abstract. In complex atmospheric Emission environments such as urban agglomerates, multiple sources control the ambient chemical composition driving air quality and regional climate. In contrast to pristine sites, where reliance on single or a few chemical tracers is often adequate for resolving pollution plumes and source influences, the comprehensive chemical fingerprinting of sources using non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and the identification of suitable tracer molecules and Emission ratios becomes necessary. Here, we characterise and present chemical fingerprints of some major urban and Agricultural Emission sources active in South Asia, such as paddy stubble burning, garbage burning, idling vehicular exhaust and evaporative fuel Emissions. A total of 121 whole air samples were actively collected from the different Emission sources in passivated air sampling steel canisters and then analysed for 49 NMHCs (22 alkanes, 16 aromatics, 10 alkenes and one alkyne) using thermal desodesorption gas chromatography flame ionisation detection. Several new insights were obtained. Propane was found to be present in paddy stubble fire Emissions (8 %), and therefore, for an environment impacted by crop resiresidue fires, the use of propane as a fugitive liquefied petrpetroleum (LPG) Emission tracer must be done with caution. Propene was found to be ∼  1.6 times greater (by weight) than ethene in smouldering paddy fires. Compositional differences were observed between evaporative Emissions of domestic LPG and commercial LPG, which are used in South Asia. While the domestic LPG vapours had more propane (40  ±  6 %) than n -butane (19  ±  2 %), the converse was true for commercial LPG vapours (7  ±  6 % and 37  ±  4 %, respectively). Isoprene was identified as a new tracer for distinguishing paddy stubble and garbage burning in the absence of isoprene Emissions at night from biogenic sources. Analyses of source-specific inter-NMHC molar ratios revealed that toluene/benzene ratios can be used to distinguish among paddy stubble fire Emissions in the flaming (0.38  ±  0.11) and smouldering stages (1.40  ±  0.10), garbage burning flaming (0.26  ±  0.07) and smouldering Emissions (0.59  ±  0.16), and traffic Emissions (3.54  ±  0.21), whereas i -pentane  ∕ n -pentane can be used to distinguish biomass burning Emissions (0.06–1.46) from the petrol-dominated traffic and fossil fuel Emissions (2.83–4.13). i -butane  ∕ n -butane ratios were similar (0.20–0.30) for many sources and could be used as a tracer for photochemical ageing. In agreement with previous studies, i -pentane, propane and acetylene were identified as suitable chemical tracers for petrol vehicular and evaporative Emissions, LPG evaporative and vehicular Emissions and flaming-stage biomass fires, respectively. The secondary pollutant formation potential and human health impact of the sources was also assessed in terms of their hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity (s −1 ), ozone formation potential (OFP; gO 3 /gNMHC) and fractional benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) content. Petrol vehicular Emissions, paddy stubble fires and garbage fires were found to have a higher pollution potential (at ≥95  % confidence interval) relative to the other sources studied in this work. Thus, many results of this study provide a new foundational framework for quantitative source apportionment studies in complex Emission environments.

  • Non methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) fingerprints of major urban and Agricultural Emission sources active in South Asia for use in source apportionment studies
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Ashish Kumar, Vinayak Sinha, Muhammed Shabin, Haseeb Hakkim, B. Bonsang, Valérie Gros
    Abstract:

    Abstract. In complex atmospheric Emission environments such as urban agglomerates, multiple sources control the ambient chemical composition driving air quality and regional climate. In contrast to pristine sites, where reliance on single or few chemical tracers is often adequate to resolve pollution plumes and source influences, comprehensive chemical fingerprinting of sources using non-methane hydrocarbons and identification of suitable tracer molecule/molecules and Emission ratios is necessary. Here, we characterize and present chemical fingerprints of some major urban and Agricultural Emission sources active in South Asia such as paddy stubble burning, garbage burning, idling vehicular exhaust and evaporative fuel Emissions. Whole air samples were collected actively from the Emission sources in passivated air sampling steel canisters and then analyzed for 49 NMHCs (22 alkanes, 16 aromatics, 10 alkene and 1 alkyne) using thermal desodesorption gas chromatography flame ionisation detection (TD-GC-FID). Based on the measured source profiles, chemical tracers were identified for distinguishing varied Emission sources and also for use in PMF source apportionment models. Thus, we were able to identify chemical tracers such as i-pentane for petrol vehicular exhaust and evaporative Emissions, propane for LPG evaporative and LPG vehicular exhaust Emissions, and acetylene for the biomass fires during the flaming stage. Furthermore, we observed propane to be a major NMHC Emission (8 %) from paddy stubble fires and therefore in an Emission environment impacted by crop resiresidue fires, use of propane as a fugitive LPG Emission tracer requires caution. Isoprene was identified as a potential tracer for distinguishing paddy stubble and garbage burning in the absence of isoprene Emissions at night from biogenic sources. Diesel vehicular exhaust comprised of > 50 % alkenes and alkyne by mass composition while diesel evaporative Emissions were enriched in C5–C8 alkanes and aromatics. The secondary pollutant formation potential and human health impact of the sources was also assessed in terms of their OH reactivity (s−1), ozone formation potential (OFP, gO3/gNMHC) and fractional BTEX content. Petrol vehicular exhaust Emissions, paddy stubble fires and garbage fires were identified as the most polluting among the sources studied in this work. Source specific inter-NMHC molar ratios which are often employed for identifying ambient air pollution Emission plumes and assessing photochemical ageing were also examined. Toluene / benzene (T / B) ratios were a good tracer for distinguishing the paddy stubble fire Emissions in flaming (0.42) and smoldering stages (1.39), garbage burning Emissions (0.21–0.32) and traffic Emissions (3.54). While i-butane / n-butane ratios were found to be similar (0.20–0.30) for many sources, i-pentane / n-pentane ratios were useful for distinguishing biomass burning Emissions (0.09–0.70) from the traffic/fossil fuel Emissions (1.55–8.77). The results of this study provide a new foundational framework for quantitative source apportionment studies in complex Emission environments such as South Asia.

Daniel Tong – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • a comprehensive inventory of Agricultural atmospheric particulate matters pm10 and pm2 5 and gaseous pollutants vocs so2 nh3 co nox and hc Emissions in china
    Ecological Indicators, 2019
    Co-Authors: Weiwei Chen, Daniel Tong, Aijun Xiu, Hongmei Zhao, Xuelei Zhang, Shichun Zhang
    Abstract:

    Abstract Atmospheric pollutants emitted from agriculture are a key factor in regional air quality. However, previous studies of Agricultural sources have only focused on Agricultural burning, livestock or fertilizer; comprehensive Agricultural Emission inventories involving main Agricultural operations are still lacking in China, which would limit our ability to understand, predict and control the effects of Agricultural Emissions on air quality and human health. This study presents the latest county-level sector-specific Emission inventories of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and gaseous pollutants (VOCs, SO2, NH3, CO and NOx) from six Agricultural sectors, including land preparation, crop harvesting, crop resiresidue burning, grain processing, fertilizer application and Agricultural machinery, based on a bottom-up Emission estimation method. Agricultural activity data were collected from statistical yearbooks, and Emission factors of each operation were adopted from published data. Annual Emissions of PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, SO2, NH3, CO, and NOx from Agricultural operations during 2015 in China were estimated to be 2867.4 Gg, 1941.1 Gg, 2321.9 Gg, 139.6 Gg, 1072.7 Gg, 10149.9 Gg and 1433.2 Gg, respectively. Higher pollutant Emissions are found in Eastern and Central China. Atmospheric pollutant Emissions show a primary peak in October in North, Northeast, Northwest and Southwest and in June and July in other regions. The historic trends (1997–2015) of Agricultural Emissions have shown annual average growth rates of 0.9%/yr, 1.3%/yr, 1.5%/yr, 2.5%/yr, 1.1%/yr, 1.2%/yr and 0.6%/yr for PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, NOx, SO2, CO and NH3, respectively. The detailed Agricultural Emission inventory generated by this study could provide useful information for air quality modeling and support the development of appropriate pollution control strategies.

Andrea Pozzer – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • impact of Agricultural Emission reductions on fine particulate matter and public health
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Andrea Pozzer, Jos Lelieveld, Alexandra P Tsimpidi, Vlassis A Karydis, Alexander De Meij
    Abstract:

    Abstract. A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing Agricultural Emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3) released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small Emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when Emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of Agricultural Emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of Agricultural Emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by  ∼ 250 000 people yr−1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  • Impact of Agricultural Emission reductions on fine particulate matter and public health
    , 2017
    Co-Authors: Andrea Pozzer, Alexandra P Tsimpidi, Vlassis A Karydis, Alexander De Meij, Jos Lelieveld
    Abstract:

    Abstract. A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America and East Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing Agricultural Emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3), released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small Emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not directly limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when Emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of Agricultural Emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of Agricultural Emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by ~ 250 thousands people per year worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30 %, 19 % and 8 % over North America, Europe and East Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 thousand per year.

Ashish Kumar – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) fingerprints of major urban and Agricultural Emission sources for use in source apportionment studies
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2020
    Co-Authors: Ashish Kumar, Vinayak Sinha, Muhammed Shabin, Haseeb Hakkim, B. Bonsang, Valérie Gros
    Abstract:

    Abstract. In complex atmospheric Emission environments such as urban agglomerates, multiple sources control the ambient chemical composition driving air quality and regional climate. In contrast to pristine sites, where reliance on single or a few chemical tracers is often adequate for resolving pollution plumes and source influences, the comprehensive chemical fingerprinting of sources using non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and the identification of suitable tracer molecules and Emission ratios becomes necessary. Here, we characterise and present chemical fingerprints of some major urban and Agricultural Emission sources active in South Asia, such as paddy stubble burning, garbage burning, idling vehicular exhaust and evaporative fuel Emissions. A total of 121 whole air samples were actively collected from the different Emission sources in passivated air sampling steel canisters and then analysed for 49 NMHCs (22 alkanes, 16 aromatics, 10 alkenes and one alkyne) using thermal desorption gas chromatography flame ionisation detection. Several new insights were obtained. Propane was found to be present in paddy stubble fire Emissions (8 %), and therefore, for an environment impacted by crop residue fires, the use of propane as a fugitive liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Emission tracer must be done with caution. Propene was found to be ∼  1.6 times greater (by weight) than ethene in smouldering paddy fires. Compositional differences were observed between evaporative Emissions of domestic LPG and commercial LPG, which are used in South Asia. While the domestic LPG vapours had more propane (40  ±  6 %) than n -butane (19  ±  2 %), the converse was true for commercial LPG vapours (7  ±  6 % and 37  ±  4 %, respectively). Isoprene was identified as a new tracer for distinguishing paddy stubble and garbage burning in the absence of isoprene Emissions at night from biogenic sources. Analyses of source-specific inter-NMHC molar ratios revealed that toluene/benzene ratios can be used to distinguish among paddy stubble fire Emissions in the flaming (0.38  ±  0.11) and smouldering stages (1.40  ±  0.10), garbage burning flaming (0.26  ±  0.07) and smouldering Emissions (0.59  ±  0.16), and traffic Emissions (3.54  ±  0.21), whereas i -pentane  ∕ n -pentane can be used to distinguish biomass burning Emissions (0.06–1.46) from the petrol-dominated traffic and fossil fuel Emissions (2.83–4.13). i -butane  ∕ n -butane ratios were similar (0.20–0.30) for many sources and could be used as a tracer for photochemical ageing. In agreement with previous studies, i -pentane, propane and acetylene were identified as suitable chemical tracers for petrol vehicular and evaporative Emissions, LPG evaporative and vehicular Emissions and flaming-stage biomass fires, respectively. The secondary pollutant formation potential and human health impact of the sources was also assessed in terms of their hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity (s −1 ), ozone formation potential (OFP; gO 3 /gNMHC) and fractional benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) content. Petrol vehicular Emissions, paddy stubble fires and garbage fires were found to have a higher pollution potential (at ≥95  % confidence interval) relative to the other sources studied in this work. Thus, many results of this study provide a new foundational framework for quantitative source apportionment studies in complex Emission environments.

  • Non methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) fingerprints of major urban and Agricultural Emission sources active in South Asia for use in source apportionment studies
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Ashish Kumar, Vinayak Sinha, Muhammed Shabin, Haseeb Hakkim, B. Bonsang, Valérie Gros
    Abstract:

    Abstract. In complex atmospheric Emission environments such as urban agglomerates, multiple sources control the ambient chemical composition driving air quality and regional climate. In contrast to pristine sites, where reliance on single or few chemical tracers is often adequate to resolve pollution plumes and source influences, comprehensive chemical fingerprinting of sources using non-methane hydrocarbons and identification of suitable tracer molecule/molecules and Emission ratios is necessary. Here, we characterize and present chemical fingerprints of some major urban and Agricultural Emission sources active in South Asia such as paddy stubble burning, garbage burning, idling vehicular exhaust and evaporative fuel Emissions. Whole air samples were collected actively from the Emission sources in passivated air sampling steel canisters and then analyzed for 49 NMHCs (22 alkanes, 16 aromatics, 10 alkene and 1 alkyne) using thermal desorption gas chromatography flame ionisation detection (TD-GC-FID). Based on the measured source profiles, chemical tracers were identified for distinguishing varied Emission sources and also for use in PMF source apportionment models. Thus, we were able to identify chemical tracers such as i-pentane for petrol vehicular exhaust and evaporative Emissions, propane for LPG evaporative and LPG vehicular exhaust Emissions, and acetylene for the biomass fires during the flaming stage. Furthermore, we observed propane to be a major NMHC Emission (8 %) from paddy stubble fires and therefore in an Emission environment impacted by crop residue fires, use of propane as a fugitive LPG Emission tracer requires caution. Isoprene was identified as a potential tracer for distinguishing paddy stubble and garbage burning in the absence of isoprene Emissions at night from biogenic sources. Diesel vehicular exhaust comprised of > 50 % alkenes and alkyne by mass composition while diesel evaporative Emissions were enriched in C5–C8 alkanes and aromatics. The secondary pollutant formation potential and human health impact of the sources was also assessed in terms of their OH reactivity (s−1), ozone formation potential (OFP, gO3/gNMHC) and fractional BTEX content. Petrol vehicular exhaust Emissions, paddy stubble fires and garbage fires were identified as the most polluting among the sources studied in this work. Source specific inter-NMHC molar ratios which are often employed for identifying ambient air pollution Emission plumes and assessing photochemical ageing were also examined. Toluene / benzene (T / B) ratios were a good tracer for distinguishing the paddy stubble fire Emissions in flaming (0.42) and smoldering stages (1.39), garbage burning Emissions (0.21–0.32) and traffic Emissions (3.54). While i-butane / n-butane ratios were found to be similar (0.20–0.30) for many sources, i-pentane / n-pentane ratios were useful for distinguishing biomass burning Emissions (0.09–0.70) from the traffic/fossil fuel Emissions (1.55–8.77). The results of this study provide a new foundational framework for quantitative source apportionment studies in complex Emission environments such as South Asia.