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Agricultural History

The Experts below are selected from a list of 324 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Lars A Brudvig – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • canopy thinning not Agricultural History determines early responses of wild bees to longleaf pine savanna restoration
    Restoration Ecology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Katherine Odanaka, Jason Gibbs, Nash E Turley, Rufus Isaacs, Lars A Brudvig

    Abstract:

    Longleaf pine savannas are highly threatened, fire‐maintained ecosystems unique to the southeastern United States. Fire suppression and conversion to agriculture have strongly affected this ecosystem, altering overstory canopies, understory plant communities, and animal populations. Tree thinning to reinstate open canopies can benefit understory plant diversity, but effects on animal communities are less well understood. Moreover, Agricultural land‐use legacies can have long‐lasting impacts on plant communities, but their effects on animal communities either alone or through interactions with restoration are unclear. Resolving these impacts is important due to the conservation potential of fire‐suppressed and post‐Agricultural longleaf savannas. We evaluated how historical Agricultural land use and canopy thinning affect the diversity and abundance of wild bees in longleaf pine savannas. We employed a replicated, large‐scale factorial block experiment in South Carolina, where canopy thinning was applied to longleaf pine savannas that were either post‐Agricultural or remnant (no Agricultural History). Bees were sampled using elevated bee bowls. In the second growing season after restoration, thinned plots supported a greater bee abundance and bee community richness. Additionally, restored plots had altered wild bee community composition when compared to unthinned plots, indicating that reduction of canopy cover by the thinning treatment best predicted wild bee diversity and composition. Conversely, we found little evidence for differences between sites with or without historical Agricultural land use. Some abundant Lasioglossum species were the most sensitive to habitat changes. Our results highlight how restoration practices that reduce canopy cover in fire‐suppressed savannas can have rapid benefits for wild bee communities.

  • Agricultural land use History does not reduce woodland understory herb establishment
    Oecologia, 2019
    Co-Authors: Carrie A Barker, John L Orrock, Nash E Turley, Joseph A Ledvina, Lars A Brudvig

    Abstract:

    Agricultural land use is a leading cause of habitat degradation, leaving a legacy of ecological impacts long after agriculture has ceased. Yet the mechanisms for legacy effects, such as altered plant community composition, are not well understood. In particular, whether plant community recovery is limited by an inability of populations to establish within post-Agricultural areas, owing to altered environmental conditions within these areas, remains poorly known. We evaluated this hypothesis of post-Agricultural establishment limitation through a field experiment within longleaf pine woodlands in South Carolina (USA) and a greenhouse experiment using field-collected soils from these sites. In the field, we sowed seeds of 12 understory plant species associated with remnants (no known History of agriculture) into 27 paired remnant and post-Agricultural woodlands. We found that post-Agricultural woodlands supported higher establishment, resulting in greater species richness of sown species. These results were context dependent, however, with higher establishment in post-Agricultural woodlands only when sites were frequently burned, had less leaf litter, or had less sandy soils. In the greenhouse, we found that Agricultural History had no impact on plant growth or survival, suggesting that establishment limitation is unlikely driven by differences in soils associated with Agricultural History when environmental conditions are not stressful. Rather, the potential for establishment in post-Agricultural habitats can be higher than in remnant habitats, with the strength of this effect determined by fire frequency and soil characteristics.

  • Agricultural land use History causes persistent loss of plant phylogenetic diversity
    Ecology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Nash E Turley, Lars A Brudvig

    Abstract:

    Intensive land use activities, such as agriculture, are a leading cause of biodiversity loss and can have lasting impacts on ecological systems. Yet, few studies have investigated how land-use legacies impact phylogenetic diversity (the total amount of evolutionary History in a community) or how restoration activities might mitigate legacy effects on biodiversity. We studied ground-layer plant communities in 27 pairs of Remnant (no Agricultural History) and Post-Agricultural (agriculture abandoned >60 yr ago) longleaf pine savannas, half of which we restored by thinning trees to reinstate open savanna conditions. We found that Agricultural History had no impact on species richness, but did alter community composition and reduce phylogenetic diversity by 566 million years/1,000 m2. This loss of phylogenetic diversity in post-Agricultural savannas was due to, in part, a reduction in the average evolutionary distance between pairs of closely related species, that is, increased phylogenetic clustering. Habitat restoration increased species richness by 27% and phylogenetic diversity by 914 million years but did not eliminate the effects of Agricultural land use on community composition and phylogenetic structure. These results demonstrate the persistence of Agricultural legacies, even in the face of intensive restoration efforts, and the importance of considering biodiversity broadly when evaluating human impacts on ecosystems.

Glenn R. Matlack – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Non-native plant species show a legacy of Agricultural History in second-growth forests of southeastern Ohio
    Biological Invasions, 2019
    Co-Authors: Marion A. Holmes, Glenn R. Matlack

    Abstract:

    In second-growth forest the abundance and diversity of non-native plant species often differ considerably with stand age and the History of disturbance. To understand the role of Agricultural History in shaping non-native forest floras, we compared successional trajectories between second-growth stands that were formerly cultivated and pastured, two historically common land uses differing in soil disturbance and vegetation structure. Successional change was inferred from a replicated chronosequence consisting of 40 second-growth stands in southeastern Ohio, USA. The non-native flora was described in terms of community composition and individual species abundance and compared across biotic and abiotic gradients. Abundance of non-native species generally declined through the chronosequence in both land-use categories but was significantly greater in formerly cultivated sites. Non-native richness in the oldest post-Agricultural sites was significantly greater than in undisturbed forest, implying that the nonnative flora has not stabilized after 80 years. Species dispersing seeds by ingestion were more abundant in formerly pastured sites; clonal species were more common in cultivated stands. Thus, the non-native forest flora shows a long-lived legacy of variation between stands of different Agricultural histories. The distribution of non-native species suggests colonization of established forest as well as relictual survival from the open, Agricultural stage. Although non-native abundance declines with successional time, a subset of shade tolerant species should be considered a long-term component of the second-growth flora.

  • Agricultural History drives structure and tree species composition of second growth forest over 100 years in southeastern ohio usa
    Journal of Vegetation Science, 2017
    Co-Authors: Marion A. Holmes, Glenn R. Matlack

    Abstract:

    Questions
    Most modern forest in eastern North America has recolonized after abandonment from agriculture. Cultivation and pasturing, historically the dominant forms of agriculture, differ in their environmental legacies and potentially influence stand development following abandonment. We ask how the legacy of agriculture plays out in development of second-growth stands, and whether tree community composition and structure differ between sites with contrasting land-use histories.

    Methods
    Thirty-five second growth stands were sorted into a replicated chronosequence of formerly cultivated and pastured sites spanning 80 years. Stand age and land-use History were determined from historical aerial photographs and from site characteristics including microtopography and soil profiles. In addition, a control group was selected consisting of long-established forest stands showing no signs of Agricultural disturbance. At each site stand composition and structure were described using the point-centered quarter method.

    Results
    Stand density declined and basal area increased through the chronosequence but neither pastured nor cultivated sites reached levels observed in the control group. Density decreased most dramatically between the 41-60 and 61-80 year age classes, consistant with competitive stand thinning. Tree community composition changed through time, reflecting a shift away from light-demanding successional species and toward long lived, shade-tolerant species characteristic of long-established forests. Composition and

    structure did not differ significantly between cultivated and pastured sites, but individual species did show significant differences with the greatest contrast evident shortly after abandonment.

    Conclusions
    Stand development following agriculture appears to be a process of convergence in species composition and density. Because most deciduous forest in eastern North America is less than 80 years old, these results suggest that most forest is still accruing biomass and has yet to reach a stable density and composition.

    This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

John L Orrock – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Agricultural land use History does not reduce woodland understory herb establishment
    Oecologia, 2019
    Co-Authors: Carrie A Barker, John L Orrock, Nash E Turley, Joseph A Ledvina, Lars A Brudvig

    Abstract:

    Agricultural land use is a leading cause of habitat degradation, leaving a legacy of ecological impacts long after agriculture has ceased. Yet the mechanisms for legacy effects, such as altered plant community composition, are not well understood. In particular, whether plant community recovery is limited by an inability of populations to establish within post-Agricultural areas, owing to altered environmental conditions within these areas, remains poorly known. We evaluated this hypothesis of post-Agricultural establishment limitation through a field experiment within longleaf pine woodlands in South Carolina (USA) and a greenhouse experiment using field-collected soils from these sites. In the field, we sowed seeds of 12 understory plant species associated with remnants (no known History of agriculture) into 27 paired remnant and post-Agricultural woodlands. We found that post-Agricultural woodlands supported higher establishment, resulting in greater species richness of sown species. These results were context dependent, however, with higher establishment in post-Agricultural woodlands only when sites were frequently burned, had less leaf litter, or had less sandy soils. In the greenhouse, we found that Agricultural History had no impact on plant growth or survival, suggesting that establishment limitation is unlikely driven by differences in soils associated with Agricultural History when environmental conditions are not stressful. Rather, the potential for establishment in post-Agricultural habitats can be higher than in remnant habitats, with the strength of this effect determined by fire frequency and soil characteristics.

  • fire frequency Agricultural History and the multivariate control of pine savanna understorey plant diversity
    Journal of Vegetation Science, 2014
    Co-Authors: Joseph W Veldman, Lars A Brudvig, John L Orrock, Ellen I Damschen, Brett W Mattingly, Joan L Walker

    Abstract:

    Question: Human-altered disturbance regimes and Agricultural land uses are broadly associated with reduced plant species diversity in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we seek to understand how fire frequency and Agricultural landuseHistory influence savannaunderstorey plant diversity throughcomplex relationships (i.e. indirect effects) among multiple biophysical variables.

  • land use History and contemporary management inform an ecological reference model for longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities
    PLOS ONE, 2014
    Co-Authors: Lars A Brudvig, John L Orrock, Ellen I Damschen, Cathy D Collins, Philip G Hahn, Brett W Mattingly, Joseph W Veldman, Joan L Walker

    Abstract:

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils (which broadly structure these communities), and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, Agricultural History, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients–i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by Agricultural History, but at individual locations, Agricultural History or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes). Our study demonstrates the utility of quantifying degraded states and provides a series of hypotheses for future experimental restoration work. More broadly, our work provides a framework for developing and evaluating reference models that incorporate multiple, interactive anthropogenic drivers of ecosystem degradation.