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Erkki Soinne – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • aerodynamically balanced Ailerons for a commuter aircraft
    Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 2001
    Co-Authors: Erkki Soinne
    Abstract:

    Abstract This review paper describes the state of designing aerodynamically balanced Ailerons with a practical application to commuter aircraft, with Saab 2000 being used as an example. A modern design method is presented based on the application of CFD computations to determine the aileron aerodynamic data combined with flight mechanical simulations to study the impact on airplane rolling maneuvers and aileron dynamics. Dynamic response of aileron deflection, airplane roll rate and roll acceleration to the applied wheel force is determined by frequency analysis. A review on the design requirements on Ailerons and practical design considerations is presented. The CFD computations are described in detail with comparisons against wind tunnel experiments and flight tests for validation of the methodology. Description of the flight mechanical simulation system includes the modeling of the aileron control system. The frequency analysis summarizes the equations of the employed Fourier analysis, spectrum analysis and system identification. Numerical results are presented on aileron hinge moment coefficient, airplane rolling moment coefficient, wheel force in sideslip and rolling maneuvers and gain and phase lag in frequency analysis results to highlight the key discussion points including the effects of aileron control system and aileron and tab gap sizes. Overall, aerodynamically balanced Ailerons, together with a mechanical control system, offer large cost savings on small- and medium-sized airplanes.

  • Aerodynamic and Flight Dynamic Simulations of Aileron Characteristics
    , 2000
    Co-Authors: Erkki Soinne
    Abstract:

    The subject of this investigation is the application of CFD computations to flows around airplane Ailerons combined with flight mechanical simulations to study the impact on airplane rolling maneuvers and aileron dynamics. The practical application is on Saab 2000 commuter airplane. In the validation of CFD computations the low speed airfoils FX 61-163 and FX 6617AII-182 were investigated with the 2D Navier-Stokes code ns2d by comparing the computations with selected wind tunnel experiments. The medium speed MS(1)-0313 and the transonic DLBA032 airfoils with plain Ailerons were investigated with ns2d and NSMB codes in selected wind tunnel cases representative for the Ailerons of Saab 2000 aircraft. One algebraic and three k-e turbulence models were used in the calculations at different aileron deflections. The effects of local mesh refinement and grid convergence were studied on the aerodynamic coefficients. Two-dimensional CFD computations were made on Saab 2000 aileron to compare the hinge moment with flight test results, measured by disconnecting the left and right hand side Ailerons. The local angles of attack were determined by using extended lifting line theory and the conversion to 3D coefficients was made with handbook methods. The airplane rolling moment was determined by inserting the CFD derived lift effectiveness into the calculations. The effects of aileron slot and tab slot gap sizes as well as aileron hinge axis position on the aerodynamic coefficients were computed with the ns2d code. The CFD derived aerodynamic coefficients were fed into a six degree of freedom flight mechanical simulation system to study the impact on airplane rolling maneuvers. Frequency analysis was performed on the response of aileron deflection, airplane roll rate and roll acceleration to applied wheel force using fast Fourier transform, spectrum analysis and system identification. A review was made on practical aileron design considerations with issues on maximum wheel force, aileron effectiveness, wind tunnel testing, induced drag and aileron control system.

Amendola Gianluca – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Technological demonstration of an adaptive aileron system
    'SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng', 2018
    Co-Authors: Amendola Gianluca, Amoroso Francesco, Pecora Rosario, Concilio Antonio, Dimino Ignazio, Lecce Leonardo
    Abstract:

    Variation of trailing edge camber proved to be one of the easiest and most effective ways to modify aerofoil shape to match different aircraft operational weights, with benefits approaching 3% of fuel savings or, equivalently, range extension. This is particularly the case of commercial planes, where both initial take-off conditions (because of the unpredictable payload or the specific required mission-transfer flight, for instance) and in-flight states (for the kerosene consumption) can undergo significant differences. Several studies (like the European Research Programs SARISTU or JTI-GRA) demonstrated that the most sensible region for installing an adaptive trailing edge system for those aims is towards the wing tip. This is unfortunately a very delicate area where usually Ailerons are deployed and where significant mass insertions could affect the aeroelastic response with some risks of instabilities. Furthermore, the volume available are really limited so that the installation of a fully embedded system is challenging. Moving from the experience taken in many former projects as the cited ones, the authors faced the problem of installing a fully integrated adaptive trailing edge system within the existing structural skeleton of a reference aileron and defined a design strategy to take into account the aeroelastic modifications due to the installation of such a device. Besides, the architecture preserved the original function of that control surface so that it could work as a standard aileron (classical rigid tab movement) with the augmented function of a deformable, quasi-static shape. In this sense, the proposed system exhibited a double functionality: A conventional rigid aileron with augmented shape modification capability plus a continuous, slow change of the trailing edge, occurring during flight for compensating aircraft weight variation. The research was carried out within the Italian-Canadian program MDO-505 and led to the realisation of a multifunctional aileron with two operational motor systems (one for the classical aileron working and the other for the morphing enforcement), completely integrated so that no external element was visible or affected the aerodynamics of the wing. The manufacture of this device was possible thanks to the development of a suitable design process that allowed taking into account both the structural and the aeroelastic response of the integrated architecture. This system was part of an adaptive wing section that was completed with the realisations made by the ETS of Montreal, the Quebecoise Consortium for Aerospace Research and Innovation (CRIAQ) and the IAR-NRC, supported by Bombardier and Thales Canada. The joint demonstrator was tested in the wind tunnel at the NRC facilities in Ottawa and gave confirmation of the aerodynamic, aeroelastic and structural predictions. The paper that is herein presented deals therefore with the design process and the manufacture of an adaptive trailing edge, installed within the existing aileron system of a wing segment, to undergo wind tunnel tests. The resulting device considers the definition of the kinematic structural system, the development of the integrated actuator system, their integration and the assessment of their static and dynamic structural response, and the verification of a safe aeroelastic behavior. Numerical and experimental results are presented, achieved in lab and wind tunnel environments

  • Numerical and experimental validation of a full scale servo-actuated morphing aileron model
    'IOP Publishing', 2018
    Co-Authors: Arena Maurizio, Amendola Gianluca, Amoroso Francesco, Pecora Rosario, Dimino Ignazio, Concilio Antonio
    Abstract:

    Aircraft industry is by now deeply involved in technological breakthroughs bringing innovative frameworks, in which the morphing systems constitute the most promising scenario. These systems are taking a remarkable role among the unconventional solutions for the improvement of performance in the operating conditions. The application of morphing devices involves a combination among structural and aerodynamic analyses, actuation requirements, weight assessment and flight control performance. The research project CRIAQ-MDO505, Canadian-European cooperation project on smart technologies, has investigated morphing structures potential through the design and the manufacturing of a variable camber aileron tailored to CS-25 category aircraft applications. This paper is especially focused on the most considerable results able to validate the conceptual design: functionality, ground vibration and wind tunnel tests outcomes have been discussed. The Ailerons typically constitute crucial elements for the aerodynamic forces equilibrium of the wing. Therefore, compared to the traditional architectures, the need of studying the dynamic performance and the following aeroelastic impact is, in the specific case of servo-actuated variable-shaped systems, higher. Relying upon the experimental evidence within the present research, the issue appeared concerns the critical importance of considering the dynamic modelling of the actuators in the design phase of a smart device. The higher number of actuators and mechanisms involved makes de facto the morphing structure much more complex. In this context, the action of the actuators has been modelled within the numerical model of the aileron: the comparison between the modal characteristics of numerical predictions and testing activities has shown a high level of correlation. Moreover, the compliance of the device with the design morphing shapes has been proved by wind tunnel test. The outcomes are expected to be key insights for future designers to better comprehend the dynamic response of a morphing aileron, primary knowledge for flutter and failure analyses

  • Numerical and experimental testing of a morphing upper surface wing equipped with conventional and morphing Ailerons
    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Botez R. M., Oliviu Sugar Gabor, Koreanschi Andreea, Mebarki Yussef, Mamou Mahmoud, Tondji Yvan, Amoroso Francesco, Pecora Rosario, Lecce Leonardo, Amendola Gianluca
    Abstract:

    A new wing-tip concept with morphing upper surface and interchangeable conventional and morphing Ailerons was designed, manufactured, bench and wind tunnel tested. The development of this wing tip was done in the frame of an international CRIAQ project, and the purpose was to demonstrate the upper surface morphing and aileron morphing capabilities in improving the wing tip aerodynamic performances. During numerical optimization with \u2018in-house\u2019 genetic algorithm software, and during wind tunnel experimental tests, it was demonstrated that the air flow laminar state was extended and drag coefficient reduction were obtained.Peer reviewed: YesNRC publication: Ye

Youssef Mébarki – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Numerical and experimental transition results evaluation for a morphing wing and aileron system
    The Aeronautical Journal, 2018
    Co-Authors: Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Andreea Koreanschi, Oliviu Sugar Gabor, Y. Tondji, Mohamed Sadok Guezguez, J. T. Kammegne, Lucian Teodor Grigorie, Dragos George Sandu, Youssef Mébarki, M. Mamou
    Abstract:

    A new wing-tip concept with morphing upper surface and interchangeable conventional and morphing Ailerons was designed, manufactured, bench and wind tunnel tested. The development of this wing tip model was performed in the frame of an international CRIAQ project, and the purpose was to demonstrate the wing upper surface and aileron morphing capabilities in improving the wing tip aerodynamic performances. During numerical optimization with ‘in-house’ genetic algorithm software, and during wind tunnel experimental tests, it was demonstrated that the air flow laminarity over the wing skin was promoted, and the laminar flow was extended with up to 9% of the chord. Drag coefficient reduction of up to 9% was obtained when the morphing aileron was introduced.

  • Morphing wing-tip open loop controller and its validation during wind tunnel tests at the IAR-NRC
    , 2016
    Co-Authors: Mohamed Sadok Guezguez, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Mahmoud Mamou, Youssef Mébarki
    Abstract:

    In this project, a wing tip of a real aircraft was designed and manufactured. This wing tip was composed of a wing and an aileron. The wing was equipped with a composite skin on its upper surface. This skin changed its shape (morphed) by use of 4 electrical in-house developed actuators and 32 pressure sensors. These pressure sensors measure the pressures, and further the loads on the wing upper surface. Thus, the upper surface of the wing was morphed using these actuators with the aim to improve the aerodynamic performances of the wing-tip. Two types of Ailerons were designed and manufactured: one aileron is rigid (non-morphed) and one morphing aileron. This morphing aileron can change its shape also for the aerodynamic performances improvement. The morphing wing-tip internal structure is designed and manufactured, and is presented firstly in the paper. Then, the modern communication and control hardware are presented for the entire morphing wing tip equipped with actuators and sensors having the aim to morph the wing. The calibration procedure of the wing tip is further presented, followed by the open loop controller results obtained during wind tunnel tests. Various methodologies of open loop control are presented in this paper, and results obtained were obtained and validated experimentally through wind tunnel tests.Peer reviewed: YesNRC publication: Ye

  • Morphing Wing-Tip Open Loop Controller and its Validation During Wind Tunnel Tests at the IAR-NRC
    National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli” – INCAS, 2016
    Co-Authors: Mohamed Sadok Guezguez, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Mahmoud Mamou, Youssef Mébarki
    Abstract:

    In this project, a wing tip of a real aircraft was designed and manufactured. This wing tip was composed of a wing and an aileron. The wing was equipped with a composite skin on its upper surface. This skin changed its shape (morphed) by use of 4 electrical in-house developed actuators and 32 pressure sensors. These pressure sensors measure the pressures, and further the loads on the wing upper surface. Thus, the upper surface of the wing was morphed using these actuators with the aim to improve the aerodynamic performances of the wing-tip. Two types of Ailerons were designed and manufactured: one aileron is rigid (non-morphed) and one morphing aileron. This morphing aileron can change its shape also for the aerodynamic performances improvement. The morphing wing-tip internal structure is designed and manufactured, and is presented firstly in the paper. Then, the modern communication and control hardware are presented for the entire morphing wing tip equipped with actuators and sensors having the aim to morph the wing. The calibration procedure of the wing tip is further presented, followed by the open loop controller results obtained during wind tunnel tests. Various methodologies of open loop control are presented in this paper, and results obtained were obtained and validated experimentally through wind tunnel tests