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Air Consumption

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Gojmir Radica – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • An Investigation of the Composition of the Flow in and out of a Two-Stroke Diesel Engine and Air Consumption Ratio
    Energies, 2017
    Co-Authors: Mirko Grljušić, Ivan Tolj, Gojmir Radica

    Abstract:

    The aim of this research was to investigate the mass, substance and energy flow through two-stroke low speed Diesel engines. For this reason, a zero-dimensional model of the combustion in the engine was developed with a calculated amount and composition of exhaust gases. Due to the large amount of oxygen in the exhaust gases, a ratio of real Air Consumption and stoichiometric amount of Air required for combustion of injected fuel was set. The calculated ratio showed that the engine consumed four times more Air than needed for combustion in AFRstoich. In this work, this was called the Air Consumption Factor or Ratio, and has not previously been mentioned in scientific literature. The Air Consumption ratio is defined as a factor of dry or humid Air. To be more comprehensive, a modified diagram of the composition of the flow in and out of a two-stroke fuel injection engine and the cylinder was made.

  • An Investigation of the Composition of the Flow in and out of a Two-stroke Diesel engine and Air Consumption Ratio
    , 2017
    Co-Authors: Mirko Grljušić, Ivan Tolj, Gojmir Radica

    Abstract:

    The aim of this research was to investigate the mass, substances and energy flow through two-stroke low speed Diesel engines. For this reason, a zero-dimensional model of the combustion in the engine was developed with a calculated amount and composition of exhaust gases. Due to the large amount of oxygen in the exhaust gases, a ratio of real Air Consumption and stoichiometric amount of Air required for combustion of injected fuel was set. The calculated ratio showed that the engine consumes four times more Air than needed for combustion in AFRstoich. In this work it is called the Air Consumption Factor or Ratio and has not been mentioned in scientific literature before. Air Consumption Ratio is defined as a factor of dry or humid Air. To be more comprehensive, a modified diagram of composition of the flow in and out of a two-stroke fuel injection engine and the cylinder was drawn.

Michael Rosenberg – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Exercise intensity inferred from Air Consumption during recreational scuba diving
    Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, 2014
    Co-Authors: Peter Buzzacott, Neal W Pollock, Michael Rosenberg

    Abstract:

    INTRODUCTION Episodic exercise is a risk factor for acute cardiac events and cardiac complications are increasingly recognized in fatalities during recreational scuba diving. What is not known is the exercise intensity involved in typical recreational diving. METHODS This study used pre- to post-dive gas cylinder pressure drop to estimate Air Consumption and, from that, exercise intensity during recreational dives. Dive profiles were captured electronically and divers self-reported cylinder pressure changes, perceived workload, thermal status and any problems during dives. Mean surface Air Consumption (SAC) rate per kg body weight and mean exercise intensity (reported in metabolic equivalents, MET multiples of assumed resting metabolic rate of 3.5 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) were then estimated. Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS A total of 959 recreational Air dives (20 ± 9 metres’ sea water maximum depth; 50 ± 12 min underwater time) by 139 divers (42 ± 10 y age; 11 ± 10 y of diving; 12% smokers; 73% male) were monitored. Problems were reported with 129/959 dives: buoyancy (45%), equalization (38%), rapid ascent (10%), vertigo (5%) and other (2%). Assuming a 10% overestimate due to cylinder cooling and uncontrolled gas loss, the estimated exercise intensity associated with monitored dives was 5 ± 1 MET. Mean ± 2SD, or 7 MET, captures the effort associated with the vast majority of dives monitored. CONCLUSIONS Our estimates suggest that uncomplicated recreational dives require moderate-intensity energy expenditure to complete, with a 7-MET capacity generally adequate. Higher levels of aerobic fitness are still strongly recommended to ensure ample reserves. Further research is needed to quantify energetic demands of recreational diving during both typical and emergent events in both experienced and less experienced divers.

  • Exercise intensity inferred from Air Consumption during recreational scuba diving
    Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, 2014
    Co-Authors: Peter Buzzacott, Neal W Pollock, Michael Rosenberg

    Abstract:

    Episodic exercise is a risk factor for acute cardiac events and cardiac complications are increasingly recognized in fatalities during recreational scuba diving. What is not known is the exercise intensity involved in typical recreational diving.
    This study used pre- to post-dive gas cylinder pressure drop to estimate Air Consumption and, from that, exercise intensity during recreational dives. Dive profiles were captured electronically and divers self-reported cylinder pressure changes, perceived workload, thermal status and any problems during dives. Mean surface Air Consumption (SAC) rate per kg body weight and mean exercise intensity (reported in metabolic equivalents, MET multiples of assumed resting metabolic rate of 3.5 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) were then estimated. Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation.
    A total of 959 recreational Air dives (20 ± 9 metres’ sea water maximum depth; 50 ± 12 min underwater time) by 139 divers (42 ± 10 y age; 11 ± 10 y of diving; 12% smokers; 73% male) were monitored. Problems were reported with 129/959 dives: buoyancy (45%), equalization (38%), rapid ascent (10%), vertigo (5%) and other (2%). Assuming a 10% overestimate due to cylinder cooling and uncontrolled gas loss, the estimated exercise intensity associated with monitored dives was 5 ± 1 MET. Mean ± 2SD, or 7 MET, captures the effort associated with the vast majority of dives monitored.
    Our estimates suggest that uncomplicated recreational dives require moderate-intensity energy expenditure to complete, with a 7-MET capacity generally adequate. Higher levels of aerobic fitness are still strongly recommended to ensure ample reserves. Further research is needed to quantify energetic demands of recreational diving during both typical and emergent events in both experienced and less experienced divers.

Johann Borenstein – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • minimizing Air Consumption of pneumatic actuators in mobile robots
    International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2004
    Co-Authors: Grzegorz Granosik, Johann Borenstein

    Abstract:

    This paper introduces a new control method for pneumatic actuators, called “Proportional Position and Stiffness (PPS)” controller. The PPS method provides both position and stiffness control for a robot joint driven by a pneumatic cylinder with four ON-OFF valves. In addition, the proposed control system consumes much less compressed Air than comparable strategies. These features make the PPS method highly suitable to application in mobile robots.

  • ICRA – Minimizing Air Consumption of pneumatic actuators in mobile robots
    IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 2004. Proceedings. ICRA '04. 2004, 2004
    Co-Authors: Grzegorz Granosik, Johann Borenstein

    Abstract:

    This paper introduces a new control method for pneumatic actuators, called “Proportional Position and Stiffness (PPS)” controller. The PPS method provides both position and stiffness control for a robot joint driven by a pneumatic cylinder with four ON-OFF valves. In addition, the proposed control system consumes much less compressed Air than comparable strategies. These features make the PPS method highly suitable to application in mobile robots.