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Annarosa Virgili – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Effects of Airbag Deployment
    American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 2004
    Co-Authors: Monica Corazza, Silvana Trincone, Annarosa Virgili

    Abstract:

    Airbags are restraining safety devices, but their activation may sometimes induce injuries during road accidents. Rapid deceleration due to an impact causes the ignition of a sodium azide cartridge, which releases nitrogen gas to inflate the nylon rubber bag. Numerous high-temperature gases, sodium hydroxide, carbon dioxide, and various other metallic oxides are also released producing a corrosive alkaline aerosol. Cutaneous and extracutaneous injuries due to Airbag deployment may occur. Cutaneous injuries are frequent, and consist of irritant dermatitis, and chemical and thermal burns. Furthermore, numerous kinds of traumatic lesions (abrasions, friction burns, and lacerations) may be observed. Extracutaneous damage may involve the eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, nerves, joints, and bones. The nature of Airbag lesions, their frequency, and management are reported. Even though the majority of Airbag lesions are minor and do not require hospitalization, correct diagnosis and the choice of the most suitable treatment are necessary.

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Monica Corazza – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Effects of Airbag Deployment
    American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 2004
    Co-Authors: Monica Corazza, Silvana Trincone, Annarosa Virgili

    Abstract:

    Airbags are restraining safety devices, but their activation may sometimes induce injuries during road accidents. Rapid deceleration due to an impact causes the ignition of a sodium azide cartridge, which releases nitrogen gas to inflate the nylon rubber bag. Numerous high-temperature gases, sodium hydroxide, carbon dioxide, and various other metallic oxides are also released producing a corrosive alkaline aerosol. Cutaneous and extracutaneous injuries due to Airbag deployment may occur. Cutaneous injuries are frequent, and consist of irritant dermatitis, and chemical and thermal burns. Furthermore, numerous kinds of traumatic lesions (abrasions, friction burns, and lacerations) may be observed. Extracutaneous damage may involve the eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, nerves, joints, and bones. The nature of Airbag lesions, their frequency, and management are reported. Even though the majority of Airbag lesions are minor and do not require hospitalization, correct diagnosis and the choice of the most suitable treatment are necessary.

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Stefan M. Duma – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The effects of depowered Airbags on skin injuries in frontal automobile crashes.
    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 2005
    Co-Authors: Amber L. Rath, Mary Jernigan, Joel D. Stitzel, Stefan M. Duma

    Abstract:

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of depowered frontal Airbags on the incidence of skin injuries. The National Automotive Sampling System database files from 1993 to 2000 were examined in a study including 2,246,524 occupants exposed to Airbag deployment in the United States. There was no significant difference between full-powered and depowered Airbags, with 60.2 percent of those exposed to a full-powered deployment sustaining a skin injury versus 59.5 percent of occupants exposed to a depowered Airbag (p = 0.19). Whether occupants were exposed to a full-powered Airbag (1,936,485 occupants) or a depowered airbay (310,039 occupants), the majority of skin injuries were to the upper extremity and the face. Regardless of Airbag power, the overwhelming majority of the skin injuries were minor (99.8 percent). There was not a significantly greater risk of injury from any source for occupants exposed to a depowered Airbag or a full-powered Airbag (p = 0.87). The data suggest that the implementation of depowered Airbags did not affect the number, seriousness, location, or source of skin injuries.

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  • Injury risk function for the small female wrist in axial loading.
    Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2003
    Co-Authors: Stefan M. Duma, Brian M. Boggess, Jeffrey Richard Crandall, Conor B. Macmahon

    Abstract:

    Previous experiments with human cadavers and side Airbags revealed the potential for wrist injuries as a result of the hand becoming entrapped in the handgrip. The purpose of this paper was to develop an injury tolerance for the small female wrist that may be used in the design phase of side Airbags in order to reduce the risk of wrist injuries resulting from side air bag deployment. Small female cadaver upper extremities were used to develop the wrist tolerance as a conservative estimate of the most vulnerable section of the driving population. The energy source was a pneumatic impactor that was configured to match the force onset rate, impulse, and peak force in order to simulate the load profile of a deploying side Airbag. A total of 17 (n=17) axial impact experiments were performed on the wrists of small female cadavers. Post-test necropsy revealed that 9 of the 17 tests resulted in wrist injuries. The injury patterns were identical to those observed from cadaver tests with side Airbags and included fractures of the scaphoid (AIS 2), lunate (AIS 1), distal radius (AIS 3), and distal ulna (AIS 2). Using the injury outcome as the binary variable, a logistic regression analysis was performed. When mass scaled to the fifth female, the analysis produced an injury risk function that predicts a 50% risk of injury at a wrist load of 1700 N (P=0.0037). Risk of injury was found not to be dependent of subject bone mineral density (P=0.49), age (P=0.99), mass (P=0.31), and stature (P=0.69). Based on the similarities in impact load profile and observed injury patterns between the impactor tests and the side Airbag tests, it is suggested that the injury risk function will accurately predict the risk of wrist injuries in the automobile crash environment.

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  • Incidence of Severe Upper Extremity Injuries and Minor Skin Injuries in Frontal Automobile Crashes
    SAE transactions, 2003
    Co-Authors: Mary Jernigan, Stefan M. Duma

    Abstract:

    The objective of this study was to investigate severe upper extremity injuries and minor skin injuries resulting from frontal automobile crashes and to determine the effects of frontal Airbags. The National Automotive Sampling System database files from 1993 to 2000 were examined in a study that included 25,464 individual cases that occurred in the United States. An analysis of the cases indicated that occupants exposed to an Airbag deployment were statistically more likely to sustain a severe upper extremity injury (2.7%), than those occupants not exposed to an Airbag deployment (1.6%) (p=0.01). The paper explains how 0.7% of occupants exposed to an Airbag deployment sustained a severe upper extremity injury specifically from the Airbag. In addition, when in crashes with an Airbag deployment, older occupants were at a higher risk for severe upper extremity injury, as well as occupants in crashes with higher changes in velocity. A further analysis of the cases indicated that occupants exposed to an Airbag deployment sustained a minor skin injury nearly twice as often (59.9%) as those occupants not exposed to an Airbag deployment (35.9%). Using the chi square test of independence for survey data, seatbelt use (p=0.46), and seat position (p=0.10) were found to be statistically significant in predicting risk of Airbag induced skin injuries; however, occupant sex was a significant indicator of risk, with females being more likely to sustain an Airbag induced skin injury than males (p=.01).

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