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Airport Facility

The Experts below are selected from a list of 252 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

R. Moriyama – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Winter Simulation Conference – CEPM 1: application of simulation models in Airport Facility design
    , 2002
    Co-Authors: N. Doshi, R. Moriyama

    Abstract:

    Lester B. Pearson – Toronto International Airport is undertaking a $4.4B development program comprising a new 390,000 sq. m. terminal building (replacing two aging terminals), three new runways, cargo facilities, a central utilities plant, and an expanded road system and parking facilities. This activity is proceeding while the Airport continues to operate and while requirements evolve in response to rapid changes in the airline industry. The Airport has used and continues to use Airport simulation models to assist in the development of program requirements and to validate design. For example, computer models have been used to generate population estimates to determine impacts on HVAC requirements and to simulate queuing at check-in counters and pre-board security screening points. This paper will discuss calibration methods and the application of simulation results in the design process. Finally, the impact of the changed environment since September 11, 2001 on Airport design will be discussed.

  • cepm 1 application of simulation models in Airport Facility design
    Winter Simulation Conference, 2002
    Co-Authors: N. Doshi, R. Moriyama

    Abstract:

    Lester B. Pearson – Toronto International Airport is undertaking a $4.4B development program comprising a new 390,000 sq. m. terminal building (replacing two aging terminals), three new runways, cargo facilities, a central utilities plant, and an expanded road system and parking facilities. This activity is proceeding while the Airport continues to operate and while requirements evolve in response to rapid changes in the airline industry. The Airport has used and continues to use Airport simulation models to assist in the development of program requirements and to validate design. For example, computer models have been used to generate population estimates to determine impacts on HVAC requirements and to simulate queuing at check-in counters and pre-board security screening points. This paper will discuss calibration methods and the application of simulation results in the design process. Finally, the impact of the changed environment since September 11, 2001 on Airport design will be discussed.

  • Application of simulation models in Airport Facility design
    Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, 2002
    Co-Authors: N. Doshi, R. Moriyama

    Abstract:

    Lester B. Pearson – Toronto International Airport is undertaking a $4.4B development program comprising a new 390000 sq. m. terminal building (replacing two aging terminals), three new runways, cargo facilities, a central utilities plant, and an expanded road system and parking facilities. This activity is proceeding while the Airport continues to operate and while requirements evolve in response to rapid changes in the airline industry. The Airport has used and continues to use Airport simulation models to assist in the development of program requirements and to validate design. For example, computer models have been used to generate population estimates to determine impacts on HVAC requirements and to simulate queuing at check-in counters and pre-board security screening points. This paper discusses calibration methods and the application of simulation results in the design process. Finally, the impact of the changed environment since September 11, 2001 on Airport design is discussed.

O. Perrussel – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of atmospheric CO 2 in the Paris megacity area
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2018
    Co-Authors: I. Xueref-remy, Elsa Dieudonné, C. Vuillemin, Morgan Lopez, Martina Schmidt, M. Delmotte, Frédéric Chevallier, François Ravetta, O. Perrussel

    Abstract:

    Most of the global fossil fuel CO 2 emissions arise out of urbanized and industrialized areas. Bottom-up inventories quantify them but with large uncertainties. In 2010–2011, the first atmospheric in-situ CO 2 measurement network for Paris, the capital of France, has been operated with the aim of monitoring the regional atmospheric impact of the emissions out coming from this megacity. Five stations sampled air along a northeast-southwest axis that corresponds to the direction of the dominant winds. Two stations are classified as rural (TRN and MON), two are peri-urban (GON and GIF) and one is urban (EIF, located on top of the Eiffel tower). In this study, we analyze the diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of the in-situ CO2 measurements over nearly one year (8 August 2010–13 July 2011). We compare these datasets with remote CO 2 measurements made at Mace Head (MHD) on the Atlantic coast of Ireland, and support our analysis with atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) observations made in the centre of Paris and with both modeled and observed meteorological fields. The average hourly CO 2 diurnal cycles observed at the regional stations are mostly driven by the CO 2 biospheric cycle, the ABLH cycle, and the proximity to urban CO 2 emissions. Differences of several μmol mol −1 (ppm) can be observed from one regional site to the other. The more the site is surrounded by urban sources (mostly traffic, residential and commercial heating), the more the CO 2 concentration is elevated, as is the associated variability which reflects the variability of the urban sources. Furthermore, two elevated sites (EIF and TRN) show a phase shift of the CO 2 diurnal cycle of a few hours compared to lower sites due to a strong coupling with the boundary layer diurnal cycle. As a consequence, the existence of a CO 2 vertical gradient above Paris can be inferred, whose amplitude depends on the time of the day and on the season, ranging from a few tenths of ppm during daytime to several ppm during nighttime. The CO 2 seasonal cycle inferred from monthly means at our regional sites are driven by the biospheric and anthropogenic CO 2 flux seasonal cycles, by the ABLH seasonal cycle and also by synoptic variations. Gradients of several ppm are observed between the rural and peri-urban stations, mostly from the influence of urban emissions that are in the footprint of the peri-urban station. The seasonal cycle observed at the urban station (EIF) is specific and very sensitive to the ABLH cycle. At both the diurnal and the seasonal scales, noticeable differences of several ppm can be observed between the measurements made at regional rural stations and the remote measurements made at MHD, that are shown not to define background concentrations appropriately for quantifying the regional atmospheric impact of urban CO 2 emissions. For wind speeds less than 3 m s −1 , the accumulation of the local CO 2 emissions in the urban atmosphere forms a dome of several tens of ppm at the peri-urban stations, mostly under the influence of relatively local emissions including those from the Charles-De-Gaulle (CDG) Airport Facility and from aircrafts in flight. When wind speed increases, ventilation transforms the CO 2 dome into a plume. Higher CO 2 background concentrations of several ppm are advected from the remote Benelux-Ruhr and London regions, impacting concentrations at the five stations of the network even at wind speeds higher than 9 m s −1 . For wind speeds ranging between 3 and 8 m s −1 , the impact of Paris emissions can be detected in the peri-urban stations when they are downwind of the city, while the rural stations often seem disconnected from the city emission plume. As a conclusion, our study highlights a high sensitivity of the stations to wind speed and direction, to their distance from the city, but also to the ABLH cycle depending on their elevation. We learn some lessons regarding the design of an urban CO 2 network: 1/ careful attention should be paid to properly setting background sites that will be representative of the different wind sectors; 2/ the downwind stations should as much as possible be positioned symmetrically in relation to the city centre, at the peri-urban/rural border; 3/ the stations should be installed at ventilated sites (away from strong local sources) and the air inlet set-up above the building or biospheric canopy layer, whichever is the greatest; and 4/ high resolution wind information should be available with the CO 2 measurements.

  • Diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> in the Paris megacity area
    , 2016
    Co-Authors: I. Xueref-remy, Elsa Dieudonné, C. Vuillemin, Morgan Lopez, Martina Schmidt, M. Delmotte, Frédéric Chevallier, François Ravetta, O. Perrussel

    Abstract:

    &lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Abstract.&lt;/strong&gt; Most of the global fossil fuel CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; emissions arise out of urbanized and industrialized areas. Bottom-up inventories quantify them but with large uncertainties. In 2010&amp;#8211;2011, the first atmospheric in-situ CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; measurement network for Paris, the capital of France, has been operated with the aim of monitoring the regional atmospheric impact of the emissions out coming from this megacity. Five stations sampled air along a northeast-southwest axis that corresponds to the direction of the dominant winds. Two stations are classified as rural (TRN and MON), two are peri-urban (GON and GIF) and one is urban (EIF, located on top of the Eiffel tower). In this study, we analyze the diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of the in-situ CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; measurements over nearly one year (8 August 2010&amp;#8211;13 July 2011). We compare these datasets with remote CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; measurements made at Mace Head (MHD) on the Atlantic coast of Ireland, and support our analysis with atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) observations made in the centre of Paris and with both modeled and observed meteorological fields. The average hourly CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; diurnal cycles observed at the regional stations are mostly driven by the CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; biospheric cycle, the ABLH cycle, and the proximity to urban CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; emissions. Differences of several &amp;#956;mol mol&lt;sup&gt;&amp;#8722;1&lt;/sup&gt; (ppm) can be observed from one regional site to the other. The more the site is surrounded by urban sources (mostly traffic, residential and commercial heating), the more the CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; concentration is elevated, as is the associated variability which reflects the variability of the urban sources. Furthermore, two elevated sites (EIF and TRN) show a phase shift of the CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; diurnal cycle of a few hours compared to lower sites due to a strong coupling with the boundary layer diurnal cycle. As a consequence, the existence of a CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; vertical gradient above Paris can be inferred, whose amplitude depends on the time of the day and on the season, ranging from a few tenths of ppm during daytime to several ppm during nighttime. The CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; seasonal cycle inferred from monthly means at our regional sites are driven by the biospheric and anthropogenic CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; flux seasonal cycles, by the ABLH seasonal cycle and also by synoptic variations. Gradients of several ppm are observed between the rural and peri-urban stations, mostly from the influence of urban emissions that are in the footprint of the peri-urban station. The seasonal cycle observed at the urban station (EIF) is specific and very sensitive to the ABLH cycle. At both the diurnal and the seasonal scales, noticeable differences of several ppm can be observed between the measurements made at regional rural stations and the remote measurements made at MHD, that are shown not to define background concentrations appropriately for quantifying the regional atmospheric impact of urban CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; emissions. For wind speeds less than 3 m s&lt;sup&gt;&amp;#8722;1&lt;/sup&gt;, the accumulation of the local CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; emissions in the urban atmosphere forms a dome of several tens of ppm at the peri-urban stations, mostly under the influence of relatively local emissions including those from the Charles-De-Gaulle (CDG) Airport Facility and from aircrafts in flight. When wind speed increases, ventilation transforms the CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; dome into a plume. Higher CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; background concentrations of several ppm are advected from the remote Benelux-Ruhr and London regions, impacting concentrations at the five stations of the network even at wind speeds higher than 9 m s&lt;sup&gt;&amp;#8722;1&lt;/sup&gt;. For wind speeds ranging between 3 and 8 m s&lt;sup&gt;&amp;#8722;1&lt;/sup&gt;, the impact of Paris emissions can be detected in the peri-urban stations when they are downwind of the city, while the rural stations often seem disconnected from the city emission plume. As a conclusion, our study highlights a high sensitivity of the stations to wind speed and direction, to their distance from the city, but also to the ABLH cycle depending on their elevation. We learn some lessons regarding the design of an urban CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; network: 1/ careful attention should be paid to properly setting background sites that will be representative of the different wind sectors; 2/ the downwind stations should as much as possible be positioned symmetrically in relation to the city centre, at the peri-urban/rural border; 3/ the stations should be installed at ventilated sites (away from strong local sources) and the air inlet set-up above the building or biospheric canopy layer, whichever is the greatest; and 4/ high resolution wind information should be available with the CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; measurements.&lt;/p&gt;

Lidia Morawska – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • A plume capture technique for the remote characterization of aircraft engine emissions.
    Environmental Science & Technology, 2008
    Co-Authors: G. R. Johnson, Masood Mazaheri, Zoran D. Ristovski, Lidia Morawska

    Abstract:

    A technique for capturing and analyzing plumes from unmodified aircraft or other combustion sources under real world conditions is described and applied to the task of characterizing plumes from commercial aircraft during the taxiing phase of the Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle. The method utilizes a Plume Capture and Analysis System (PCAS) mounted in a four-wheel drive vehicle which is positioned in the airfield 60 to 180 meters downwind of aircraft operations. The approach offers low test turnaround times with the ability to complete careful measurements of particle and gaseous emission factors and sequentially scanned particle size distributions without distortion due to plume concentration fluctuations. These measurements can be performed for individual aircraft movements at five minute intervals.
    A Plume Capture Device (PCD) collected samples of the naturally diluted plume in a 200 L conductive membrane conforming to a defined shape. Samples from over 60 aircraft movements were collected and analyzed in-situ for particulate and gaseous concentrations and for particle size distribution using a Scanning Particle Mobility Sizer (SMPS). Emission factors are derived for particle number, NOx and PM2.5 for a widely used commercial aircraft type; Boeing 737 airframes with predominantly CFM56 class engines, during taxiing.

    The practical advantages of the PCAS, include the capacity to perform well targeted and controlled emission factor and size distribution measurements using instrumentation with varying response times within an Airport Facility, in close proximity to aircraft during their normal operations.

  • A plume capture technique for the remote characterization of aircraft engine emissions
    Environmental Science and Technology, 2008
    Co-Authors: G. R. Johnson, Masood Mazaheri, Zoran D. Ristovski, Lidia Morawska

    Abstract:

    A technique for capturing and analyzing plumes from unmodified aircraft or other combustion sources under real world conditions is described and applied to the task of characterizing plumes from commercial aircraft during the taxiing phase of the Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle. The method utilizes a Plume Capture and Analysis System (PCAS) mounted in a four-wheel drive vehicle which is positioned in the airfield 60 to 180 m downwind of aircraft operations. The approach offers low test turnaround times with the ability to complete careful measurements of particle and gaseous emission factors and sequentially scanned particle size distributions without distortion due to plume concentration fluctuations. These measurements can be performed for individual aircraft movements at five minute intervals. A Plume Capture Device (PCD) collected samples of the naturally diluted plume in a 200 L conductive membrane conforming to a defined shape. Samples from over 60 aircraft movements were collected and analyzed in situ for particulate and gaseous concentrations and for particle size distribution using a Scanning Particle Mobility Sizer (SMPS). Emission factors are derived for particle number, NO(x), and PM2.5 for a widely used commercial aircraft type, Boeing 737 airframes with predominantly CFM56 class engines, during taxiing. The practical advantages of the PCAS include the capacity to perform well targeted and controlled emission factor and size distribution measurements using instrumentation with varying response times within an Airport Facility, in close proximity to aircraft during their normal operations.