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Barbara J. Leppard – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Attitudes and beliefs of an Albino population toward sun avoidance: advice and services provided by an outreach Albino clinic in Tanzania.
    Archives of Dermatology, 2002
    Co-Authors: S.r. Mcbride, Barbara J. Leppard
    Abstract:

    Objective To determine an Albino population’s expectations from an outreach Albino clinic, understanding of skin cancer risk, and attitudes toward sun protection behavior. Design Survey, June 1, 1997, to September 30, 1997. Setting Outreach Albino clinics in Tanzania. Participants All Albinos 13 years and older and accompanying adults of younger children attending clinics. Unaccompanied children younger than 13 years and those too sick to answer questions were excluded. Ninety-four questionnaires were completed in 5 villages, with a 100% response rate. Interventions Interview-based questionnaire with scoring system for pictures depicting poorly sun-protected Albinos. Results The most common reasons for attending the clinic were health education and skin examination. Thirteen respondents (14%) believed albinism was inherited; it was more common to believe in superstitious causes of albinism than inheritance. Seventy-three respondents (78%) believed skin cancer was preventable, and 60 (63%) believed skin cancer was related to the sun. Seventy-two subjects (77%) thought sunscreen provided protection from the sun; 9 (10%) also applied it at night. Reasons for not wearing sun-protective clothing included fashion, culture, and heat. The hats provided were thought to have too soft a brim, to shrink, and to be ridiculed. Suggestions for additional clinic services centered on education and employment. Albinos who had read the educational booklet had no better understanding of sun avoidance than those who had not ( P = .49). Conclusions There was a reasonable understanding of risks of skin cancer and sun-avoidance methods. Clinical advice was often not followed for cultural reasons. The hats provided were unsuitable, and there was some confusion about the use of sunscreen. A lack of understanding of the cause of albinism led to many superstitions.

  • Attitudes and beliefs of an Albino population toward sun avoidance: advice and services provided by an outreach Albino clinic in Tanzania.
    Archives of dermatology, 2002
    Co-Authors: S.r. Mcbride, Barbara J. Leppard
    Abstract:

    To determine an Albino population’s expectations from an outreach Albino clinic, understanding of skin cancer risk, and attitudes toward sun protection behavior. Survey, June 1, 1997, to September 30, 1997. Outreach Albino clinics in Tanzania. All Albinos 13 years and older and accompanying adults of younger children attending clinics. Unaccompanied children younger than 13 years and those too sick to answer questions were excluded. Ninety-four questionnaires were completed in 5 villages, with a 100% response rate. Interview-based questionnaire with scoring system for pictures depicting poorly sun-protected Albinos. The most common reasons for attending the clinic were health education and skin examination. Thirteen respondents (14%) believed albinism was inherited; it was more common to believe in superstitious causes of albinism than inheritance. Seventy-three respondents (78%) believed skin cancer was preventable, and 60 (63%) believed skin cancer was related to the sun. Seventy-two subjects (77%) thought sunscreen provided protection from the sun; 9 (10%) also applied it at night. Reasons for not wearing sun-protective clothing included fashion, culture, and heat. The hats provided were thought to have too soft a brim, to shrink, and to be ridiculed. Suggestions for additional clinic services centered on education and employment. Albinos who had read the educational booklet had no better understanding of sun avoidance than those who had not (P =.49). There was a reasonable understanding of risks of skin cancer and sun-avoidance methods. Clinical advice was often not followed for cultural reasons. The hats provided were unsuitable, and there was some confusion about the use of sunscreen. A lack of understanding of the cause of albinism led to many superstitions.

S.r. Mcbride – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Attitudes and beliefs of an Albino population toward sun avoidance: advice and services provided by an outreach Albino clinic in Tanzania.
    Archives of Dermatology, 2002
    Co-Authors: S.r. Mcbride, Barbara J. Leppard
    Abstract:

    Objective To determine an Albino population’s expectations from an outreach Albino clinic, understanding of skin cancer risk, and attitudes toward sun protection behavior. Design Survey, June 1, 1997, to September 30, 1997. Setting Outreach Albino clinics in Tanzania. Participants All Albinos 13 years and older and accompanying adults of younger children attending clinics. Unaccompanied children younger than 13 years and those too sick to answer questions were excluded. Ninety-four questionnaires were completed in 5 villages, with a 100% response rate. Interventions Interview-based questionnaire with scoring system for pictures depicting poorly sun-protected Albinos. Results The most common reasons for attending the clinic were health education and skin examination. Thirteen respondents (14%) believed albinism was inherited; it was more common to believe in superstitious causes of albinism than inheritance. Seventy-three respondents (78%) believed skin cancer was preventable, and 60 (63%) believed skin cancer was related to the sun. Seventy-two subjects (77%) thought sunscreen provided protection from the sun; 9 (10%) also applied it at night. Reasons for not wearing sun-protective clothing included fashion, culture, and heat. The hats provided were thought to have too soft a brim, to shrink, and to be ridiculed. Suggestions for additional clinic services centered on education and employment. Albinos who had read the educational booklet had no better understanding of sun avoidance than those who had not ( P = .49). Conclusions There was a reasonable understanding of risks of skin cancer and sun-avoidance methods. Clinical advice was often not followed for cultural reasons. The hats provided were unsuitable, and there was some confusion about the use of sunscreen. A lack of understanding of the cause of albinism led to many superstitions.

  • Attitudes and beliefs of an Albino population toward sun avoidance: advice and services provided by an outreach Albino clinic in Tanzania.
    Archives of dermatology, 2002
    Co-Authors: S.r. Mcbride, Barbara J. Leppard
    Abstract:

    To determine an Albino population’s expectations from an outreach Albino clinic, understanding of skin cancer risk, and attitudes toward sun protection behavior. Survey, June 1, 1997, to September 30, 1997. Outreach Albino clinics in Tanzania. All Albinos 13 years and older and accompanying adults of younger children attending clinics. Unaccompanied children younger than 13 years and those too sick to answer questions were excluded. Ninety-four questionnaires were completed in 5 villages, with a 100% response rate. Interview-based questionnaire with scoring system for pictures depicting poorly sun-protected Albinos. The most common reasons for attending the clinic were health education and skin examination. Thirteen respondents (14%) believed albinism was inherited; it was more common to believe in superstitious causes of albinism than inheritance. Seventy-three respondents (78%) believed skin cancer was preventable, and 60 (63%) believed skin cancer was related to the sun. Seventy-two subjects (77%) thought sunscreen provided protection from the sun; 9 (10%) also applied it at night. Reasons for not wearing sun-protective clothing included fashion, culture, and heat. The hats provided were thought to have too soft a brim, to shrink, and to be ridiculed. Suggestions for additional clinic services centered on education and employment. Albinos who had read the educational booklet had no better understanding of sun avoidance than those who had not (P =.49). There was a reasonable understanding of risks of skin cancer and sun-avoidance methods. Clinical advice was often not followed for cultural reasons. The hats provided were unsuitable, and there was some confusion about the use of sunscreen. A lack of understanding of the cause of albinism led to many superstitions.

Yara Aiko Tabata – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Generation of a white-Albino phenotype from cobalt blue and yellow-Albino rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Inheritance pattern and chromatophores analysis.
    PloS one, 2020
    Co-Authors: Ricardo Shohei Hattori, Tulio Teruo Yoshinaga, Arno Juliano Butzge, Shoko Hattori-ihara, Ricardo Yasuichi Tsukamoto, Neuza Sumico Takahashi, Yara Aiko Tabata
    Abstract:

    Albinism is the most common color variation described in fish and is characterized by a white or yellow phenotype according to the species. In rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, aside from yellow-Albino phenotypes, cobalt blue variants with autosomal, recessive inheritance have also been reported. In this study, we investigated the inheritance pattern and chromatophores distribution/abundance of cobalt blue trouts obtained from a local fish farm. Based on crosses with wild-type and dominant yellow-Albino lines, we could infer that cobalt blue are dominant over wild-type and co-dominant in relation to yellow-Albino phenotype, resulting in a fourth phenotype: the white-Albino. Analysis of chromatophores revealed that cobalt blue trouts present melanophores, as the wild-type, and a reduced number of xanthophores. As regards to the white-Albino phenotype, they were not only devoid of melanophores but also presented a reduced number of xanthophores. Cobalt blue and white-Albino trouts also presented reduced body weight and a smaller pituitary gland compared to wild-type and yellow-Albino phenotypes. The transcription levels of tshb and trh were up regulated in cobalt blue compared to wild type, suggesting the involvement of thyroid hormone in the expression of blue color. These phenotypes represent useful models for research on body pigmentation in salmonids and on the mechanisms behind endocrine control of color patterning.

  • Generation of a white-Albino phenotype from cobalt blue and yellow-Albino trouts: inheritance pattern and chromatophores analysis
    , 2019
    Co-Authors: Ricardo Shohei Hattori, Tulio Teruo Yoshinaga, Arno Juliano Butzge, Shoko Hattori-ihara, Ricardo Yasuichi Tsukamoto, Neuza Sumico Takahashi, Yara Aiko Tabata
    Abstract:

    Abstract Albinism is the most common color variation described in fish and is characterized by a white or yellow phenotype according to the species. In rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, aside from yellow-Albino phenotypes, cobalt blue variants with autosomal, recessive inheritance have also been reported. In this study, we investigated the inheritance pattern and chromatophores distribution/abundance of cobalt blue trouts obtained from a local fish farm. Based on crosses with wild-type and dominant yellow-Albino lines, we could infer that cobalt blue are dominant over wild-type and co-dominant in relation to yellow-Albino phenotype, resulting in a fourth phenotype: the white-Albino. Analysis of chromatophores revealed that cobalt blue trouts present melanophores, as the wild-type, and a reduced number of xanthophores. As regards to the white-Albino phenotype, they were not only devoid of melanophores but also presented a reduced number of xanthophores. Cobalt blue and white-Albino trouts also presented a more elongated body shape and, most remarkably, a smaller pituitary gland compared to wild-type and yellow-Albino, suggesting that the allele for blue color is somehow linked with this abnormal pituitary phenotype. These phenotypes represent interesting models for research on body pigmentation in salmonids and on the mechanisms behind endocrine control of color patterning.

Klauspeter Hoffmann – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Differences between cation-chloride co-transporter functions in the visual cortex of pigmented and Albino rats.
    European Journal of Neuroscience, 2005
    Co-Authors: Gleb Barmashenko, Matthias Schmidt, Klauspeter Hoffmann
    Abstract:

    Albinism in mammals is accompanied by specific morphological and functional alterations of the visual system. To understand their cellular basis we studied the physiological characteristics and transmembrane currents of pyramidal neurons in 350-microm-thick slices of visual cortex from pigmented and Albino rats using whole-cell and gramicidin perforated patch-clamp recordings. The resting membrane potential was significantly more positive and the rheobase was significantly lower in neurons of layers II/III and V in Albinos as compared with pigmented rats. No significant differences were found in the input resistance, time constant and chronaxy. Whereas the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-mediated currents were not significantly different, the maximum gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated currents and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents showed significantly lower amplitudes in neurons of layer V in visual cortex of Albinos as compared with pigmented rats. The reversal potential of the GABA(A)R-mediated currents (E(GABA)) was significantly shifted to more positive values in Albinos. Pharmacological experiments showed that this shift could be caused by an increased action of the inward chloride co-transporter NKCC1 and reduced action of the outward chloride co-transporter KCC2 in Albino rats. This difference seems to be restricted to the visual cortex because in pyramidal neurons from frontal cortex E(GABA) was not significantly different in Albinos as compared with pigmented rats. These results are discussed in relation to functional alterations in the Albino visual system.

  • morphological changes in the neuronal substrate for the optokinetic reflex in Albino ferrets
    Experimental Brain Research, 2001
    Co-Authors: Ildiko Telkes, N Garipis, Klauspeter Hoffmann
    Abstract:

    Albino mammals show very characteristic deficits in their optokinetic system, and Albino ferrets are even optokinetically blind. To investigate the neuronal causes for this defect we compared the morphology of retinal slip cells in the pretectal nucleus of the optic tract and the dorsal terminal nucleus of the accessory optic system (NOT-DTN) in pigmented and Albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) using retrograde tracing techniques. After tracer injections into the inferior olive, equal numbers of NOT-DTN neurons were retrogradely labelled in pigmented and Albino animals. However, NOT-DTN cells in Albino ferrets had fewer stem dendrites, and the cumulative dendritic length was reduced by 30% when compared with NOT-DTN neurons in pigmented animals. In addition, the prominent network formed by distal dendrites observed in the NOT-DTN of pigmented ferrets was largely diminished in Albinos. Taken together with behavioural and physiological data, these findings indicate that the NOT-DTN as the main visuomotor interface in the optokinetic system is clearly defective in Albino ferrets.

Blaine Hilton – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • INCIDENCE OF AlbinoS AS A MONITOR FOR INDUCED TRIPLOIDY IN RAINBOW TROUT
    Aquaculture, 1995
    Co-Authors: Gary H. Thorgaard, Paul Spruell, Paul A. Wheeler, Paul D. Scheerer, Andrew S. Peek, Joseph J. Valentine, Blaine Hilton
    Abstract:

    Abstract Albinism is a recessive trait in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ). We tested for complementation at the Albino locus among six USA rainbow trout strains and found that Albinos from four domesticated strains and one Idaho steelhead strain are mutant at the same locus. These strains apparently are tyrosinase-deficient Albinos. An Albino steelhead strain from Washington State and an Albino brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) strain are apparently mutant at other loci because they produce pigmented progeny when crossed to the common form of Albino rainbow trout. We determined using gynogenesis that the Albino locus common in domesticated rainbow trout maps very near the end of a chromosome; virtually all the gynogenetic progeny of heterozygous females were pigmented. In contrast, the Golden locus of rainbow trout appears centromere-linked. Female rainbow trout heterozygous for the Albino gene have 50% Albino offspring when crossed to Albino males but a high proportion of pigmented offspring after a heat shock is applied to induce triploidy. The proportion of pigmented offspring would be expected to correlate directly to the proportion of triploid individuals in such crosses. However, pigmented diploids can sometimes be found in such crosses in higher than predicted frequencies, apparently because heat shock can sometimes induce rejection of the sperm. This indicates that diploids observed among lots treated to induce triploidy may result from sperm rejection as well as from failure of second polar body retention.