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Angel Gilizquierdo – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
Alcoholic Fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juiceJournal of Pineal Research, 2014Co-Authors: Mariasoledad Fernandezpachon, S. Medina, I. Cerrillo, Genoveva Berná, Federico Ferreres, F. Martin, Griselda Herreromartin, Blanca Escuderolopez, M C Garciaparrilla, Angel GilizquierdoAbstract:
juice Abstract: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during Alcoholic Fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before Fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during Alcoholic Fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the Alcoholic Fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ- MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout Fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during Fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound.
melatonin is synthesised by yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation in winesFood Chemistry, 2011Co-Authors: Isabel M Rodrigueznaranjo, Angel Gilizquierdo, Ana M. Troncoso, Emma Cantosvillar, Carmen M GarciaparrillaAbstract:
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a neurohormone produced in the pineal gland. Its biological properties are related to the circadian rhythm. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) accepted the health claim related to melatonin and the alleviation of subjective feelings of jet lag. This molecule has been detected in some foods. In this work, 13 grape varieties were studied; 7 monovarietal wines were produced in an experimental winery under strictly controlled conditions and were sampled in different steps. The grape varieties used to make the wines were: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Tempranillo, Tintilla de Rota, Palomino Fino and Alpha red. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) unequivocally confirmed the presence of melatonin in wines. The main contribution of this paper is the results that clearly show that melatonin is synthesised during the winemaking process, specifically after the Alcoholic Fermentation. Indeed, melatonin is absent in grapes and musts and is formed during Alcoholic Fermentation.
João Carlos M Carvalho – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
CO2 from Alcoholic Fermentation for continuous cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in tubular photobioreactor using urea as nitrogen sourceBiotechnology Progress, 2011Co-Authors: Marcelo Chuei Matsudo, Raquel Pedrosa Bezerra, Attilio Converti, Sunao Sato, João Carlos M CarvalhoAbstract:
Carbon dioxide released from Alcoholic Fermentation accounts for 33% of the whole CO(2) involved in the use of ethanol as fuel derived from glucose. As Arthrospira platensis can uptake this greenhouse gas, this study evaluates the use of the CO(2) released from Alcoholic Fermentation for the production of Arthrospira platensis. For this purpose, this cyanobacterium was cultivated in continuous process using urea as nitrogen source, either using CO(2) from Alcoholic Fermentation, without any treatment, or using pure CO(2) from cylinder. The experiments were carried out at 120 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) in tubular photobioreactor at different dilution rates (0.2 ≤ D ≤ 0.8 d(-1) ). Using CO(2) from Alcoholic Fermentation, maximum steady-state cell concentration (2661 ± 71 mg L(-1) ) was achieved at D = 0.2 d(-1) , whereas higher dilution rate (0.6 d(-1) ) was needed to maximize cell productivity (839 mg L(-1) d(-1) ). This value was 10% lower than the one obtained with pure CO(2) , and there was no significant difference in the biomass protein content. With D = 0.8 d(-1) , it was possible to obtain 56% ± 1.5% and 50% ± 1.2% of protein in the dry biomass, using pure CO(2) and CO(2) from Alcoholic Fermentation, respectively. These results demonstrate that the use of such cost free CO(2) from Alcoholic Fermentation as carbon source, associated with low cost nitrogen source, may be a promising way to reduce costs of continuous cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms, contributing at the same time to mitigate the greenhouse effect.
Hiroshi Kitagaki – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during Alcoholic FermentationPeerJ, 2016Co-Authors: Kazutaka Sawada, Hiroshi KitagakiAbstract:
Oxygen, a key nutrient in Alcoholic Fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake Fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during Alcoholic Fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation.
Mitochondrial activity of sake brewery yeast affects malic and succinic acid production during Alcoholic FermentationJournal of The Institute of Brewing, 2012Co-Authors: Saori Motomura, Kenta Horie, Hiroshi KitagakiAbstract:
The mitochondrial states and activities of production yeasts used in the Fermentation industry vary according to the availability of oxygen, size of the Fermentation tank and temperature of the raw material. However, the involvement of the mitochondrial states of these yeasts in the production profile of organic acids during Alcoholic Fermentation has not been investigated in detail. In this study, the effects of the mitochondrial state of a sake brewing yeast on the organic acid production profile during an Alcoholic Fermentation process were investigated. It was elucidated that the mitochondrial state during the propagation stage significantly affected the mitochondrial morphology and the organic acid production profile during the Alcoholic Fermentation. When yeast mitochondria were active, they were highly branched in the propagation stage, and the yeast cells produced significantly more succinate and less malate. In contrast, when the yeast mitochondria were inactive, they were long and filamentous in appearance, and the yeast produced significantly less succinate and more malate. The change in malic acid content was reversed when an uncoupler of mitochondrial membrane potential, carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, was added to the culture, indicating that the change in the organic acid production profile could be attributed to mitochondrial activity. Furthermore, the content of malic acid and succinic acid could be converted from a respirative to a fermentative profile by exposing the yeast to a mitochondrion-inactivating environment for 12 or 24 h. Taken together, it was shown that the mitochondrial status of the yeast affects malic acid production during Alcoholic Fermentation. Copyright © 2012 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling