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Andrzej Wasik – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Goran Hellekant – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Responses of single chorda tympani taste fibers of the calf (Bos taurus).
    Chemical senses, 2010
    Co-Authors: Goran Hellekant, Thomas W. Roberts, Donald Elmer, Tiffany Cragin, Vicktoria Danilova
    Abstract:

    In spite of a wealth of information on feed and nutrition in cattle, there little is published of what they actually can taste. Here, we attempt to remedy some of this deficiency by presenting recordings of the chorda tympani proper nerve of young Holstein calves during stimulation of approximately 30 compounds. Hierarchical cluscluster analysis of 46 single taste fibers separated 4 fiber clusters: N (salt best), H (sour best), and 2 clusters, which could not be related to any human taste quality. The N fibers responded best to LiCl, NaCl, urea, monosodium glutglutamate, and KCl, whereas the H fibers responded strongly to citric and ascorbic acid. Interestingly, propionic and butyric acid stimulated best the 3rd cluster, whereas the 4th cluster responded best to denatonium benzoate and only to a small extent to quinine hydrochloride. Sweeteners stimulated moderately all clusters. Beginning with the largest response to sweet, the order between the responses was: acesulfame-K, saccharin, D-phenphenylalanine, glycine, sucrose, fructose, erythritol, cyclamate, and lactose. Alitame, aspartame, and super-aspartame evoked no or little responses. Three and 5 M ethanol stimulated all clusters. Comparison with taste fibers in other species suggests that the taste world of cattle is quite different from other species’.

  • Behavioral study in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) using compounds considered sweet by humans.
    American journal of primatology, 2004
    Co-Authors: Alain Schilling, Vicktoria Danilova, Goran Hellekant
    Abstract:

    This study presents the results from two-bottle preference (TBP) tests performed on the gray mouse lemulemur (Microcebus murinus), a small Malagasy primate. We found that of 18 compounds considered sweet by humans, M. murinus preferred only six: D-tryptryptophan, dulcin, fructose, sucrose, SC45647, and xylitol. The animals neither preferred nor rejected acesulfame-K, Alitame, aspartame, N-4-cyanophenyl-N’-cyanoguanidineacetate (CCGA), cyanosuosan, cyclamate, monellin, saccharin, suosan, super-aspartame, N-trifluoroacetyl-L-glutamyl-4-aminophenylcarbonitrile (TGC), and thaumatin. Together with previously recorded taste-nerve responses in M. murinus to acesulfame-K, Alitame, aspartame, cyclamate, monellin, saccharin, and suosan [Hellekant et al., Chem Senses 18:307-320, 1993b], the current results suggest that these compounds either do not taste sweet to M. murinus or they have an aversive taste component. In this work we also relate these findings to phylogeny.

  • taste in domestic pig sus scrofa
    Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 1999
    Co-Authors: Goran Hellekant, Vicktoria Danilova
    Abstract:

    Introduction  The fact that taste is not even indexed in ‘Swine Production and Nutrition’, a major textbook on swine nutrition (P ond and M aner 1984), supports the notion that taste is considered to be of no consequence in pig production. Not only does this omission underestimate the consequences of millions of years of evolution of the chemical senses, it also neglects the existence of a sensory apparatus for high taste acuity in the pig (T uckerman 1888; C hamorro et al. 1993) as will be shown in the following. Oral compounds stimulate the taste buds. In the pig, as in most mammals, these are located in fungiform papillae on the tip of the tongue, and foliate and vallate papillae on the back of the tongue. The pig differs, however, from most mammals in the number of taste buds, which exceeds most species, including the human (B radley 1971). Thus the domesticated pig possesses at least 10 000 vallate taste buds, whereas the human has 6000 (C hamorro et al. 1993), and about 4800 foliate taste buds (T uckerman 1888), compared with 3000 in human. The discrepancy between the human taste apparatus and that of the pig becomes even more evident when one compares the 1600 human fungiform taste buds with the 5000 found in pig (M iller 1986). As a result of this, the pig tongue has three to four times more taste buds than the human tongue. In humans there is a positive correlation between the number of fungiform taste buds and ability to taste (M iller and R eedy 1990; B artoshuk et al. 1996). Provided a similar relationship exists between species, with regard to number of taste buds and tasting ability, then the pig’s ability to taste is superior to that of humans. It thus seems that if it is assumed that the sense of taste plays no role in the feed consumption of pigs, the same conclusion will have to be drawn on its role in human consumption. Taste information from the fungiform taste buds is conveyed in the chorda tympani nerve (CT) and from the foliate and vallate taste buds through the glossopharyngeal nerve (NG). Recordings of nerve impulses in these nerves have been used in many species to assess a species’ ability to taste. If one considers the above data, suggesting an excellent sense of taste in the pig, coupled with the importance of unperturbed growth of the pig, one would expect a large number of recordings from the pig’s taste nerves in the literature. However, this is not the case. There are only three published studies which include recordings of the pig’s CT nerve (K itchell 1963; H ellekant 1976a, b) and one from its NG (K itchell 1963). The number of tastants used is also limited to the four standard taste stimuli: NaCl, quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), citric acid and sucrose, with the exception of an earlier study by the present authors which included thaumatin (H ellekant 1976a). No commercial feed additives nor any of the many new sweeteners, such as acesulfame-K, Alitame, aspartame, etc., which, due to their high potency and pig’s sweet tooth (A umaitre 1980) could have potential use in the diet of the pig, have been included. Ten years ago one might think that data from other species could be applied to the pig’s sense of taste. However, there are large differences in the sense of taste between species. This was pointed out already by K are and K itchell some 30 years ago (K are 1960, 1961; K itchell 1963, 1965; K are et al. 1965; K are 1966) and has been increasingly documented when taste stimuli outside the usual array above have been used (J akinovich and S ugarman 1988; H ellekant and D anilova 1996; D anilova et al. 1998). For example, in an array consisting of 13 compounds that are sweet to humans, three were found to be sweet, three marginally sweet, and seven not-sweet to the pig (H ellekant and D anilova 1996). Data are presented of whole nerve and single taste fibre recordings from both the CT and NG nerves during taste stimulation with approximately 30 compounds. The data presented here show that conclusions on how a compound tastes to the pig have to be based on data acquired in pigs. Data from humans or other species are not sufficient.

C. Nofre – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Gustatory responses of pigs to various natural and artificial compounds known to be sweet in man
    Food Chemistry, 2000
    Co-Authors: D. Glaser, J. M. Tinti, M. Wanner, C. Nofre
    Abstract:

    Abstract The gustatory preferences in pigs towards 33 compounds known to be sweet in humans were evaluated through a specific two-choice preference method. All the 14 carbohydrates tested are preferred over water, sucrose being the most effective. Sucrose and fructose response intensities are identical in pigs and humans but lactose, maltose, d -glucose and d –galactose are two times less efficient in pigs. The molar order of effectiveness is sucrose > d –fructose > maltose=lactose > d -glucose > d –galactose, roughly similar to humans. As in humans, d -glucose, l -glucose and methyl α- d -glucopyranoside display equal potency, while methyl β- d -glucopyranoside is ineffective. The 7 polyols tested are attractive; xylitol is the preferred one, being as effective as sucrose. Out of 12 intense sweeteners tested, 7 are ineffective (aspartame, cyclamate, monellin, NHDC, P-4000, perillartine, thaumatin), and 5 are attractive (acesulfame-K, saccharin, Alitame, dulcin, sucralose), but with a much weaker efficiency (acesulfame, 18×less; saccharin, 65×less) than with humans.

  • Evolution of the sweetness receptor in primates. II. Gustatory responses of non-human primates to nine compounds known to be sweet in man.
    Chemical senses, 1996
    Co-Authors: C. Nofre, J. M. Tinti, D. Glaser
    Abstract:

    The gustatory responses of nine compounds, namely glycine, D-phenphenylalanine, D-tryptryptophan, cyanosuosan, magapame, sucrononate, campame, cyclamate and superaspartame, all known as sweet in man, were studied in 41 species or subspecies of non-human primates, selected among Prosimii (Lemuridae and Lorisidae), Platyrrhini (Callitrichidae and Cebidae) and Catarrhini (Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae and Pongidae). The first six compounds are generally sweet to all primates, which implies that they interact with the primate sweetness receptors essentially through constant recognition sites. Campame is sweet only to Cebidae and Catarrhini, cyclamate only to Catarrhini, superaspartame principally to Callitrichidae and Catarrhini, which implies that all these compounds interact with the receptors partly through variable recognition sites. From the present work, from other previous results (where notably it was observed that Alitame is sweet to all primates, ampame only to Prosimii and Catarrhini, and aspartame only to Catarrhini), and from the multipoint attachment (MPA) theory of sweetness reception (as elaborated by Nofre and Tinti from a detailed study of structure-activity relationships of various sweeteners in man), it is inferred that the primate sweetness receptors are very likely made up of eight recognition sites, of which the first, second, third, fourth, seventh and eighth are constant, and the fifth and sixth variable. From these results and from the MPA theory, it is also inferred that the recognition sites of the primate sweetness receptors could be: Asp-1 or Glu-1, Lys-2, Asp-3 or Glu-3, Thr-4, X-5, X-6, Thr-7, Ser-8, where the variable recognition sites X-5 and X-6 would be: Ala-5 and Ala-6 for Callitrichidae, Ser-5 and Ala-6 for Cebidae, Ala-5 and Thr-6 for Prosimii, and Thr-5 and Thr-6 for Catarrhini. By using Tupaiidae (tree shrews) as a reference outgroup and by means of other structural and functional molecular considerations, it appears that Callitrichidae have retained the most primitive receptor among the four types of primate receptors. The possible taxonomic and phylogenetic implications of these findings are discussed.

  • Evolution of the sweetness receptor in primates. II. Gustatory responses of non-human primates to nine compounds known to be sweet in man. Chem. Senses 21:747–762
    , 1996
    Co-Authors: C. Nofre, J. M. Tinti, D. Glaser
    Abstract:

    The gustatory responses of nine compounds, namely glycine, D-phenphenylalanine, r>tryptophan, cyanosuosan, magapame, sucrononate, campame, cyclamate and superaspartame, all known as sweet in man, were studied in 41 species or subspecies of non-human primates, selected among Prosimii (Lemuridae and Lorisidae), Platyrrhini (Callitrichidae and Cebidae) and Catarrhini (Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae and Pongidae). The first six compounds are generally sweet to all primates, which implies that they interact with the primate sweetness receptors essentially through constant recognition sites. Campame is sweet only to Cebidae and Catarrhini, cyclamate only to Catarrhini, superaspartame principally to Callitrichidae and Catarrhini, which implies that all these compounds interact with the receptors partly through variable recognition sites. From the present work, from other previous results (where notably it was observed that Alitame is sweet to all primates, ampame only to Prosimii and Catarrhini, and aspartame only to Catarrhini), and from the multipoint attachment (MPA) theory of sweetness reception (as elaborated by Nofre and Tinti from a detailed study of structure-activity relationships of various sweeteners in man), it is inferred that the primate sweetness receptors are very likely made up of eight recognition sites, of which the first, second, third

Vicktoria Danilova – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Responses of single chorda tympani taste fibers of the calf (Bos taurus).
    Chemical senses, 2010
    Co-Authors: Goran Hellekant, Thomas W. Roberts, Donald Elmer, Tiffany Cragin, Vicktoria Danilova
    Abstract:

    In spite of a wealth of information on feed and nutrition in cattle, there little is published of what they actually can taste. Here, we attempt to remedy some of this deficiency by presenting recordings of the chorda tympani proper nerve of young Holstein calves during stimulation of approximately 30 compounds. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 46 single taste fibers separated 4 fiber clusters: N (salt best), H (sour best), and 2 clusters, which could not be related to any human taste quality. The N fibers responded best to LiCl, NaCl, urea, monosodium glutamate, and KCl, whereas the H fibers responded strongly to citric and ascorbic acid. Interestingly, propionic and butyric acid stimulated best the 3rd cluster, whereas the 4th cluster responded best to denatonium benzoate and only to a small extent to quinine hydrochloride. Sweeteners stimulated moderately all clusters. Beginning with the largest response to sweet, the order between the responses was: acesulfame-K, saccharin, D-phenylalanine, glycine, sucrose, fructose, erythritol, cyclamate, and lactose. Alitame, aspartame, and super-aspartame evoked no or little responses. Three and 5 M ethanol stimulated all clusters. Comparison with taste fibers in other species suggests that the taste world of cattle is quite different from other species’.

  • Behavioral study in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) using compounds considered sweet by humans.
    American journal of primatology, 2004
    Co-Authors: Alain Schilling, Vicktoria Danilova, Goran Hellekant
    Abstract:

    This study presents the results from two-bottle preference (TBP) tests performed on the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a small Malagasy primate. We found that of 18 compounds considered sweet by humans, M. murinus preferred only six: D-tryptophan, dulcin, fructose, sucrose, SC45647, and xylitol. The animals neither preferred nor rejected acesulfame-K, Alitame, aspartame, N-4-cyanophenyl-N’-cyanoguanidineacetate (CCGA), cyanosuosan, cyclamate, monellin, saccharin, suosan, super-aspartame, N-trifluoroacetyl-L-glutamyl-4-aminophenylcarbonitrile (TGC), and thaumatin. Together with previously recorded taste-nerve responses in M. murinus to acesulfame-K, Alitame, aspartame, cyclamate, monellin, saccharin, and suosan [Hellekant et al., Chem Senses 18:307-320, 1993b], the current results suggest that these compounds either do not taste sweet to M. murinus or they have an aversive taste component. In this work we also relate these findings to phylogeny.

  • taste in domestic pig sus scrofa
    Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 1999
    Co-Authors: Goran Hellekant, Vicktoria Danilova
    Abstract:

    Introduction  The fact that taste is not even indexed in ‘Swine Production and Nutrition’, a major textbook on swine nutrition (P ond and M aner 1984), supports the notion that taste is considered to be of no consequence in pig production. Not only does this omission underestimate the consequences of millions of years of evolution of the chemical senses, it also neglects the existence of a sensory apparatus for high taste acuity in the pig (T uckerman 1888; C hamorro et al. 1993) as will be shown in the following. Oral compounds stimulate the taste buds. In the pig, as in most mammals, these are located in fungiform papillae on the tip of the tongue, and foliate and vallate papillae on the back of the tongue. The pig differs, however, from most mammals in the number of taste buds, which exceeds most species, including the human (B radley 1971). Thus the domesticated pig possesses at least 10 000 vallate taste buds, whereas the human has 6000 (C hamorro et al. 1993), and about 4800 foliate taste buds (T uckerman 1888), compared with 3000 in human. The discrepancy between the human taste apparatus and that of the pig becomes even more evident when one compares the 1600 human fungiform taste buds with the 5000 found in pig (M iller 1986). As a result of this, the pig tongue has three to four times more taste buds than the human tongue. In humans there is a positive correlation between the number of fungiform taste buds and ability to taste (M iller and R eedy 1990; B artoshuk et al. 1996). Provided a similar relationship exists between species, with regard to number of taste buds and tasting ability, then the pig’s ability to taste is superior to that of humans. It thus seems that if it is assumed that the sense of taste plays no role in the feed consumption of pigs, the same conclusion will have to be drawn on its role in human consumption. Taste information from the fungiform taste buds is conveyed in the chorda tympani nerve (CT) and from the foliate and vallate taste buds through the glossopharyngeal nerve (NG). Recordings of nerve impulses in these nerves have been used in many species to assess a species’ ability to taste. If one considers the above data, suggesting an excellent sense of taste in the pig, coupled with the importance of unperturbed growth of the pig, one would expect a large number of recordings from the pig’s taste nerves in the literature. However, this is not the case. There are only three published studies which include recordings of the pig’s CT nerve (K itchell 1963; H ellekant 1976a, b) and one from its NG (K itchell 1963). The number of tastants used is also limited to the four standard taste stimuli: NaCl, quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), citric acid and sucrose, with the exception of an earlier study by the present authors which included thaumatin (H ellekant 1976a). No commercial feed additives nor any of the many new sweeteners, such as acesulfame-K, Alitame, aspartame, etc., which, due to their high potency and pig’s sweet tooth (A umaitre 1980) could have potential use in the diet of the pig, have been included. Ten years ago one might think that data from other species could be applied to the pig’s sense of taste. However, there are large differences in the sense of taste between species. This was pointed out already by K are and K itchell some 30 years ago (K are 1960, 1961; K itchell 1963, 1965; K are et al. 1965; K are 1966) and has been increasingly documented when taste stimuli outside the usual array above have been used (J akinovich and S ugarman 1988; H ellekant and D anilova 1996; D anilova et al. 1998). For example, in an array consisting of 13 compounds that are sweet to humans, three were found to be sweet, three marginally sweet, and seven not-sweet to the pig (H ellekant and D anilova 1996). Data are presented of whole nerve and single taste fibre recordings from both the CT and NG nerves during taste stimulation with approximately 30 compounds. The data presented here show that conclusions on how a compound tastes to the pig have to be based on data acquired in pigs. Data from humans or other species are not sufficient.

D. Glaser – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Gustatory responses of pigs to various natural and artificial compounds known to be sweet in man
    Food Chemistry, 2000
    Co-Authors: D. Glaser, J. M. Tinti, M. Wanner, C. Nofre
    Abstract:

    Abstract The gustatory preferences in pigs towards 33 compounds known to be sweet in humans were evaluated through a specific two-choice preference method. All the 14 carbohydrates tested are preferred over water, sucrose being the most effective. Sucrose and fructose response intensities are identical in pigs and humans but lactose, maltose, d -glucose and d -galactose are two times less efficient in pigs. The molar order of effectiveness is sucrose > d -fructose > maltose=lactose > d -glucose > d -galactose, roughly similar to humans. As in humans, d -glucose, l -glucose and methyl α- d -glucopyranoside display equal potency, while methyl β- d -glucopyranoside is ineffective. The 7 polyols tested are attractive; xylitol is the preferred one, being as effective as sucrose. Out of 12 intense sweeteners tested, 7 are ineffective (aspartame, cyclamate, monellin, NHDC, P-4000, perillartine, thaumatin), and 5 are attractive (acesulfame-K, saccharin, Alitame, dulcin, sucralose), but with a much weaker efficiency (acesulfame, 18×less; saccharin, 65×less) than with humans.

  • Evolution of the sweetness receptor in primates. II. Gustatory responses of non-human primates to nine compounds known to be sweet in man.
    Chemical senses, 1996
    Co-Authors: C. Nofre, J. M. Tinti, D. Glaser
    Abstract:

    The gustatory responses of nine compounds, namely glycine, D-phenylalanine, D-tryptophan, cyanosuosan, magapame, sucrononate, campame, cyclamate and superaspartame, all known as sweet in man, were studied in 41 species or subspecies of non-human primates, selected among Prosimii (Lemuridae and Lorisidae), Platyrrhini (Callitrichidae and Cebidae) and Catarrhini (Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae and Pongidae). The first six compounds are generally sweet to all primates, which implies that they interact with the primate sweetness receptors essentially through constant recognition sites. Campame is sweet only to Cebidae and Catarrhini, cyclamate only to Catarrhini, superaspartame principally to Callitrichidae and Catarrhini, which implies that all these compounds interact with the receptors partly through variable recognition sites. From the present work, from other previous results (where notably it was observed that Alitame is sweet to all primates, ampame only to Prosimii and Catarrhini, and aspartame only to Catarrhini), and from the multipoint attachment (MPA) theory of sweetness reception (as elaborated by Nofre and Tinti from a detailed study of structure-activity relationships of various sweeteners in man), it is inferred that the primate sweetness receptors are very likely made up of eight recognition sites, of which the first, second, third, fourth, seventh and eighth are constant, and the fifth and sixth variable. From these results and from the MPA theory, it is also inferred that the recognition sites of the primate sweetness receptors could be: Asp-1 or Glu-1, Lys-2, Asp-3 or Glu-3, Thr-4, X-5, X-6, Thr-7, Ser-8, where the variable recognition sites X-5 and X-6 would be: Ala-5 and Ala-6 for Callitrichidae, Ser-5 and Ala-6 for Cebidae, Ala-5 and Thr-6 for Prosimii, and Thr-5 and Thr-6 for Catarrhini. By using Tupaiidae (tree shrews) as a reference outgroup and by means of other structural and functional molecular considerations, it appears that Callitrichidae have retained the most primitive receptor among the four types of primate receptors. The possible taxonomic and phylogenetic implications of these findings are discussed.

  • Evolution of the sweetness receptor in primates. II. Gustatory responses of non-human primates to nine compounds known to be sweet in man. Chem. Senses 21:747–762
    , 1996
    Co-Authors: C. Nofre, J. M. Tinti, D. Glaser
    Abstract:

    The gustatory responses of nine compounds, namely glycine, D-phenylalanine, r>tryptophan, cyanosuosan, magapame, sucrononate, campame, cyclamate and superaspartame, all known as sweet in man, were studied in 41 species or subspecies of non-human primates, selected among Prosimii (Lemuridae and Lorisidae), Platyrrhini (Callitrichidae and Cebidae) and Catarrhini (Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae and Pongidae). The first six compounds are generally sweet to all primates, which implies that they interact with the primate sweetness receptors essentially through constant recognition sites. Campame is sweet only to Cebidae and Catarrhini, cyclamate only to Catarrhini, superaspartame principally to Callitrichidae and Catarrhini, which implies that all these compounds interact with the receptors partly through variable recognition sites. From the present work, from other previous results (where notably it was observed that Alitame is sweet to all primates, ampame only to Prosimii and Catarrhini, and aspartame only to Catarrhini), and from the multipoint attachment (MPA) theory of sweetness reception (as elaborated by Nofre and Tinti from a detailed study of structure-activity relationships of various sweeteners in man), it is inferred that the primate sweetness receptors are very likely made up of eight recognition sites, of which the first, second, third