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Faiez Zannad – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Alogliptin after acute coronary syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes a renal function stratified analysis of the examine trial
    BMC Medicine, 2020
    Co-Authors: Faiez Zannad, Cyrus R Mehta, Steven E Nissen, Joao Pedro Ferreira, Abhinav Sharma, Patrick Rossignol

    Abstract:

    The EXAMINE trial tested the efficacy and safety of Alogliptin, an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase 4, compared with placebo in 5380 patients with type 2 diabetes and a recent acute coronary syndrome. Because Alogliptin is cleared by the kidney, patients were stratified according to screening renal function within two independently randomized strata: (1) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and (2) eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of Alogliptin vs. placebo according to the renal function strata. Cox-proportional hazard models with an interaction term by renal function strata were used. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or nonfatal stroke. Patient characteristics were balanced within each renal function strata. In total, 3946 patients were randomized within the eGFR ≥ 60 stratum, and 1434 patients within the eGFR < 60 stratum. The effect of Alogliptin was modified by the renal function strata. Primary outcome: eGFR ≥ 60 HR = 0.81, 95%CI, 0.65–0.99, and eGFR < 60 HR = 1.20, 95%CI, 0.95–1.53; interactionp = 0.014. Cardiovascular death: eGFR ≥ 60 HR = 0.61, 95%CI, 0.42–0.88, and eGFR < 60 HR = 1.16, 95%CI, 0.82–1.65; interactionp = 0.013. Non-fatal MI: eGFR ≥ 60 HR = 0.86, 95%CI, 0.66–1.13, and eGFR < 60 HR = 1.48, 95%CI, 1.07–2.06; interactionp = 0.013. Alogliptin may benefit patients with eGFR ≥ 60, but may be detrimental to patients with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2. These hypothesis-generating findings require further validation to assess the potential benefit and risk of Alogliptin across the renal function spectrum among patients with type 2 diabetes and a recent acute coronary syndrome. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00968708

  • angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor use and major cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor Alogliptin
    Hypertension, 2016
    Co-Authors: William B White, C Wilson, George L Bakris, Richard M Bergenstal, Christopher P Cannon, William C Cushman, Simon K Heller, Cyrus R Mehta, Steven E Nissen, Faiez Zannad

    Abstract:

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system when there is dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition in the presence of high-dose angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition has led to concerns of potential increases in cardiovascular events when the 2 classes of drugs are coadministered. We evaluated cardiovascular outcomes from the EXAMINE (Examination of Cardiovascular Outcomes With Alogliptin versus Standard of Care) trial according to ACE inhibitor use. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a recent acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to receive the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor Alogliptin or placebo added to existing antihyperglycemic and cardiovascular prophylactic therapies. Risks of adjudicated cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke, and hospitalized heart failure were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model in patients according to ACE inhibitor use and dose. There were 3323 (62%) EXAMINE patients treated with an ACE inhibitor (1681 on Alogliptin and 1642 on placebo). The composite rates of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke were comparable for Alogliptin and placebo with ACE inhibitor (11.4% versus 11.8%; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.79–1.19; P =0.76) and without ACE inhibitor use (11.2% versus 11.9%; hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.73–1.21; P =0.62). Composite rates for cardiovascular death and heart failure in patients on ACE inhibitor occurred in 6.8% of patients on Alogliptin versus 7.2% on placebo (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.72–1.2; P =0.57). There were no differences for these end points nor for blood pressure or heart rate in patients on higher doses of ACE inhibitor. Cardiovascular outcomes were similar for Alogliptin and placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary disease treated with ACE inhibitors.

  • Heart failure and mortality outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes taking Alogliptin versus placebo in EXAMINE: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial
    The Lancet, 2015
    Co-Authors: Faiez Zannad, George L Bakris, Venu Menon, Alfonso Perez, Christopher Cannon, William Cushman, Penny Fleck, Cyrus Mehta, Stuart Kupfer, Craig Wilson

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: The EXAMINE trial showed non-inferiority of the DPP-4 inhibitor Alogliptin to placebo on major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates in patients with type 2 diabetes and recent acute coronary syndromes. Concerns about excessive rates of in-hospital heart failure in another DPP-4 inhibitor trial have been reported. We therefore assessed hospital admission for heart failure in the EXAMINE trial. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes and an acute coronary syndrome event in the previous 15-90 days were randomly assigned Alogliptin or placebo plus standard treatment for diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevention. The prespecified exploratory extended MACE endpoint was all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, urgent revascularisation due to unstable angina, and hospital admission for heart failure. The post-hoc analyses were of cardiovascular death and hospital admission for heart failure, assessed by history of heart failure and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration at baseline. We also assessed changes in N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP) from baseline to 6 months. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00968708. FINDINGS: 5380 patients were assigned to Alogliptin (n=2701) or placebo (n=2679) and followed up for a median of 533 days (IQR 280-751). The exploratory extended MACE endpoint was seen in 433 (16·0%) patients assigned to Alogliptin and in 441 (16·5%) assigned to placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·86-1·12). Hospital admission for heart failure was the first event in 85 (3·1%) patients taking Alogliptin compared with 79 (2·9%) taking placebo (HR 1·07, 95% CI 0·79-1·46). Alogliptin had no effect on composite events of cardiovascular death and hospital admission for heart failure in the post hoc analysis (HR 1·00, 95% CI 0·82-1·21) and results did not differ by baseline BNP concentration. NT-pro-BNP concentrations decreased significantly and similarly in the two groups. INTERPRETATION: In patients with type 2 diabetes and recent acute coronary syndromes, Alogliptin did not increase the risk of heart failure outcomes.

Penny R Fleck – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • ON BEHALF OF THE Alogliptin STUDY 010
    , 2016
    Co-Authors: Ralph A. Defronzo, Penny R Fleck, Craig A Wilson

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE — To evaluate the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor Alogliptin in drug-naïve patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. RESEARCHDESIGNANDMETHODS — This double-blind, placebo-controlled, mul-ticenter study included 329 patients with poorly controlled diabetes randomized to once-daily treatment with 12.5 mg Alogliptin (n 133), 25 mg Alogliptin (n 131), or placebo (n 65) for 26 weeks. Primary efficacy end point was mean change from baseline in A1C at the final visit. RESULTS — At week 26, mean change in A1C was significantly greater (P 0.001) for 12.5 mg (0.56%) and 25 mg (0.59%) Alogliptin than placebo (0.02%). Reductions in fasting plasma glucose were also greater (P 0.001) in Alogliptin-treated patients than in those receiv-ing placebo. Overall, incidences of adverse events (67.4–70.3%) and hypoglycemia (1.5–3.0%) were similar across treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS — Alogliptin monotherapy was well tolerated and significantly improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, without raising the incidence of hypoglycemia. Diabetes Care 31:2315–2317, 2008 I nhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP-4) increases the concentration ofglucagon-like peptide-1, an increti

  • Comparison of Alogliptin and glipizide for composite endpoint of glycated haemoglobin reduction, no hypoglycaemia and no weight gain in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Diabetes obesity & metabolism, 2016
    Co-Authors: S Del Prato, C Wilson, Penny R Fleck, P. Chaudhari

    Abstract:

    This was a post hoc analysis of a 2-year, double-blind study of 2639 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy, which assessed achievement of a composite endpoint of sustained glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction (≤7.0% at week 104 or ≥0.5% decrease from baseline) with no weight gain and no hypoglycaemic events with Alogliptin 12.5 and 25 mg daily or glipizide (≤20 mg daily), each added to metformin. With an HbA1c target of ≤7.0%, 24.2 and 26.9% of patients treated with Alogliptin 12.5 and 25 mg, respectively, achieved the composite endpoint versus 10.7% of patients treated with glipizide (both p < 0.001). With a criterion of ≥0.5% decrease in HbA1c, the composite endpoint was reached in 22.5, 25.2 and 10.4% of patients treated with Alogliptin 12.5 mg, Alogliptin 25 mg and glipizide, respectively. Odds ratios for achieving the composite endpoint favoured Alogliptin in the primary analysis set and in all subgroups of patients. Patients with T2DM failing metformin monotherapy were more likely to achieve sustained glycaemic control with no hypoglycaemia or weight gain at 2 years with Alogliptin than with glipizide.

  • durability of the efficacy and safety of Alogliptin compared with glipizide in type 2 diabetes mellitus a 2 year study
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism, 2014
    Co-Authors: S Del Prato, C Wilson, R Camisasca, Penny R Fleck

    Abstract:

    Aims
    To evaluate the long-term durability of the efficacy of Alogliptin compared with glipizide in combination with metformin in people with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on stable-dose metformin.

    Methods
    This multicentre, double-blind, active-controlled study randomized 2639 patients aged 18–80 years to 104 weeks of treatment with metformin in addition to Alogliptin 12.5 mg once daily (n = 880), Alogliptin 25 mg once daily (n = 885) or glipizide 5 mg once daily, titrated to a maximum of 20 mg (n = 874). The primary endpoint was least square mean change from baseline in HbA1c level at 104 weeks.

    Results
    The mean patient age was 55.4 years, the mean diabetes duration was 5.5 years and the mean baseline HbA1c was 7.6%. HbA1c reductions at week 104 were −0.68%, −0.72% and −0.59% for Alogliptin 12.5 and 25 mg and glipizide, respectively [both doses met the criteria for non-inferiority to glipizide (p<0.001); Alogliptin 25 mg met superiority criteria (p=0.010)]. Fasting plasma glucose concentration decreased by 0.05 and 0.18 mmol/l for Alogliptin 12.5 and 25 mg, respectively, and increased by 0.30 mmol/l for glipizide (p < 0.001 for both comparisons with glipizide). Mean weight changes were −0.68, −0.89 and 0.95 kg for Alogliptin 12.5 and 25 mg and glipizide, respectively (p < 0.001 for both comparisons with glipizide). Hypoglycaemia occurred in 23.2% of patients in the glipizide group vs. 2.5 and 1.4% of patients in the Alogliptin 12.5 and 25 mg groups, respectively. Pancreatitis occurred in one patient in the Alogliptin 25 mg group and three in the glipizide group.

    Conclusions
    Alogliptin efficacy was sustained over 2 years in patients with inadequate glycaemic control on metformin alone.

Tomoko Asakawa – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • A novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, Alogliptin (SYR-322), is effective in diabetic rats with sulfonylurea-induced secondary failure.
    Life Sciences, 2009
    Co-Authors: Tomoko Asakawa, Yusuke Moritoh, Koji Takeuchi, Osamu Kataoka, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Hiroyuki Odaka

    Abstract:

    Abstract Aims Loss of efficacy over time or secondary failure occurs somewhat often and remains a major concern of sulfonylurea (SU) therapy. In this study, we investigated the benefits of Alogliptin, an oral, potent and highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, in a rat model exhibiting SU secondary failure. Main methods Neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (N-STZ-1.5 rats), a non-obese model of type 2 diabetes, were used in these studies. The effects of Alogliptin on DPP-4 activity and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentration were determined by measuring their levels in plasma. In addition, the effects of Alogliptin on an oral glucose tolerance test were investigated by using an SU secondary failure model. Key findings Alogliptin dose dependently suppressed plasma DPP-4 activity leading to an increase in the plasma active form of GLP-1 and improved glucose excursion in N-STZ-1.5 rats. Repeated administration of glibenclamide resulted in unresponsiveness or loss of glucose tolerance typical of secondary failure. In these rats, Alogliptin exhibited significant improvement of glucose excursion with significant increase in insulin secretion. By contrast, glibenclamide and nateglinide had no effect on the glucose tolerance of these rats. Significance The above findings suggest that Alogliptin was effective at improving glucose tolerance and therefore overcoming SU induced secondary failure in N-STZ-1.5 rats.

  • The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor Alogliptin in combination with pioglitazone improves glycemic control, lipid profiles, and increases pancreatic insulin content in ob/ob mice.
    European journal of pharmacology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Yusuke Moritoh, Koji Takeuchi, Tomoko Asakawa, Osamu Kataoka, Hiroyuki Odaka

    Abstract:

    The combination of two agents with different but complementary mechanisms of action is a logical approach for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. Thus, we evaluated chronic combination therapy with Alogliptin, a highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor that enhances the action of incretins, and pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione that improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Studies were designed to investigate the chronic metabolic and pancreatic effects of Alogliptin (0.03%) plus pioglitazone (0.003%) combination treatment in obese ob/ob mice. After 4-5 weeks of treatment, Alogliptin significantly increased plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 levels up to 4.1-fold and decreased plasma glucagon up to 25%, whereas pioglitazone significantly increased plasma adiponectin up to 1.3-fold. Combination treatment exhibited a complementary effect, increasing plasma insulin levels by 3.2-fold (Alogliptin alone, 1.6-fold; pioglitazone alone, 1.5-fold) and decreasing glycosylated hemoglobin by 2.3% (Alogliptin alone, 1.0%; pioglitazone alone, 1.5%), and non-fasting and fasting plasma glucose by 37% and 62% (Alogliptin alone, 17% and 24%; pioglitazone alone, 30% and 45%), respectively. Combination treatment also decreased plasma triglycerides by 67% and non-esterified fatty acids by 25% (Alogliptin alone, 24% and 11%; pioglitazone alone, 54% and 8%). Moreover, combination treatment increased pancreatic insulin content by 2.2-fold (Alogliptin alone, 1.3-fold; pioglitazone alone, 1.6-fold), with no significant changes in body weight. These results indicate that combination treatment with Alogliptin and pioglitazone improved glycemic control, lipid profiles and increased pancreatic insulin content in ob/ob mice by preventing incretin inactivation and improving insulin resistance. These results provide a strong argument for using Alogliptin in combination with pioglitazone.

  • chronic administration of Alogliptin a novel potent and highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor improves glycemic control and beta cell function in obese diabetic ob ob mice
    European Journal of Pharmacology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Yusuke Moritoh, Koji Takeuchi, Tomoko Asakawa, Osamu Kataoka, Hiroyuki Odaka

    Abstract:

    Abstract Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes by increasing plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide levels. However, the effects of chronic DPP-4 inhibition on in vivo beta-cell function are poorly characterized. We thus evaluated the chronic effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor Alogliptin benzoate (formerly SYR-322) on metabolic control and beta-cell function in obese diabetic ob/ob mice. Alogliptin (0.002%, 0.01%, or 0.03%) was administered in the diet to ob/ob mice for 2 days to determine effects on plasma DPP-4 activity and active GLP-1 levels and for 4 weeks to determine chronic effects on metabolic control and beta-cell function. After 2 days, Alogliptin dose-dependently inhibited DPP-4 activity by 28–82% and increased active GLP-1 by 3.2–6.4-fold. After 4 weeks, Alogliptin dose-dependently decreased glycosylated hemoglobin by 0.4–0.9%, plasma glucose by 7–28% and plasma triglycerides by 24–51%, increased plasma insulin by 1.5–2.0-fold, and decreased plasma glucagon by 23–26%, with neutral effects on body weight and food consumption. In addition, after drug washout, Alogliptin (0.03% dose) increased early-phase insulin secretion by 2.4-fold and improved oral meal tolerance (25% decrease in glucose area under the concentration–time curve), despite the lack of measurable plasma DPP-4 inhibition. Importantly, Alogliptin also increased pancreatic insulin content up to 2.5-fold, and induced intense insulin staining of islets, suggestive of improved beta-cell function. In conclusion, chronic treatment with Alogliptin improved glycemic control, decreased triglycerides, and improved beta-cell function in ob/ob mice, and may exhibit similar effects in patients with type 2 diabetes.