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Alpha Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone

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D Rotondo – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Alpha melanocyte stimulating Hormone suppresses fever and increases in plasma levels of prostaglandin e2 in the rabbit
    The Journal of Physiology, 1992
    Co-Authors: J Davidson, A S Milton, D Rotondo

    Abstract:

    1. The effect of AlphaMelanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (Alpha-MSH) on changes in body temperature and plasma levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured in the rabbit following intravenous injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), rabbit endogenous pyrogen (EP), human recombinant tumour necrosis factor-Alpha (TNF-Alpha), human recombinant interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and intracerebroventricular injection of PGE2. 2. LPS (25 ng kg-1), EP (25 microliters kg-1), TNF-Alpha (11 micrograms kg-1) and IL-1 beta (5 ng kg-1) produced increases in body temperature simultaneously with increases in plasma PGE2 levels. Alpha-MSH (5 or 10 micrograms kg-1) attenuated both the increase in body temperature and increases in plasma levels of PGE2. 3. Intracerebroventricular injection of PGE2 (500 ng) produced a monophasic increase in body temperature. Alpha-MSH (5 micrograms kg-1) administered 20 min after PGE2 had no effect on the hyperthermic response. 4. Alpha-MSH (10 micrograms kg-1) had no effect on either body temperature or plasma levels of PGE2 in response to I.V. injection of sterile saline. 5. These data demonstrate that Alpha-MSH inhibits both the pyrogenic actions of LPS, EP, TNF-Alpha and IL-1 beta and their ability to increase PGE2 release without affecting the direct actions of PGE2, suggesting the possibility that Alpha-MSH may prevent the synthesis of PGE2 either by preventing the actions or release of mediators such as TNF-Alpha and IL-1 in response to LPS.

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S A Stanley – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • hypothalamic localization of the feeding effect of agouti related peptide and Alpha melanocyte stimulating Hormone
    Diabetes, 2000
    Co-Authors: M. S. Kim, Michela Rossi, S Abusnana, D Sunter, D G A Morgan, Caroline Jane Small, C M B Edwards, M. M. Heath, S A Stanley, Leighton J. Seal

    Abstract:

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) in the hypothalamus is thought to be important in physiological regulation of food intake. We investigated which hypothalamic areas known to express MC4R are involved in the regulation of feeding by using AlphaMelanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (Alpha-MSH), an endogenous MC4R agonist, and agouti-related peptide (Agrp), an endogenous MC4R antagonist. Cannulae were inserted into the rat hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN), arcuate (Arc), dorsomedial (DMN), and ventromedial (VMN) nuclei; the medial preoptic (MPO), anterior hypothalamic (AHA), and lateral hypothalamic (LHA) areas; and the extrahypothalamic central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Agrp (83-132) (0.1 nmol) and [Nle4, D-Phe7]Alpha(-MSH (NDP-MSH) (0.1 nmol), a stable Alpha-MSH analog, were administered to fed and fasted rats, respectively. The PVN, DMN, and MPO were the areas with the greatest response to Agrp and NDP-MSH. At 8 h postinjection, Agrp increased feeding in the PVN by 218 +/- 23% (P < 0.005), in the DMN by 268 +/- 42% (P < 0.005), and in the MPO by 236 +/- 31% (P < 0.01) compared with a saline control group for each nucleus. NDP-MSH decreased food intake in the PVN by 52 +/- 6% (P < 0.005), in the DMN by 44 +/- 6% (P < 0.0001), and in the MPO by 55 +/- 6% (P < 0.0001) at 1 h postinjection. Injection into the AHA and CeA resulted in smaller alterations in food intake. No changes in feeding were seen after the administration of Agrp into the Arc, LHA, or VMN, but NDP-MSH suppressed food intake in the Arc and LHA. This study indicates that the hypothalamic nuclei expressing MC4R vary in their sensitivity to Agrp and Alpha-MSH with regard to their effect on feeding.

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  • a c terminal fragment of agouti related protein increases feeding and antagonizes the effect of Alpha melanocyte stimulating Hormone in vivo
    Endocrinology, 1998
    Co-Authors: Michela Rossi, M. S. Kim, S Abusnana, D Sunter, D G A Morgan, Caroline Jane Small, C M B Edwards, Anthony P Goldstone, S H Russell, S A Stanley

    Abstract:

    Agouti-related protein (Agrp) is present in rat and human hypothalamus and is structurally related to agouti protein. Over-expression of either of these proteins results in obesity. However the effect of exogenous Agrp and its in vivo interaction with Alpha-melanocyte stimulating Hormone (αMSH), the likely endogenous melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor (MC3-R and MC4-R) agonist, have not been demonstrated. We report that 1 nmol of Agrp(83-132), a C-terminal fragment of Agrp, when administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into rats, increased food intake over a 24-h period (23.0±1.4 g saline vs 32.9±2.3 g Agrp, p<0.05). The hyperphagia was similar to that seen when 1 nmol of the synthetic MC3-R and MC4-R antagonist SHU9119 was given ICV (19.6±1.8 g saline vs 32.5±1.7 g SHU9119, p<0.001). Both Agrp(83-132) and SHU9119 blocked the reduction in 1-h food intake of ICV αMSH at the beginning of the dark phase. This effect occurred independently of whether the antagonists were administered simultaneously, or nine ho...

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Michela Rossi – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • hypothalamic localization of the feeding effect of agouti related peptide and Alpha melanocyte stimulating Hormone
    Diabetes, 2000
    Co-Authors: M. S. Kim, Michela Rossi, S Abusnana, D Sunter, D G A Morgan, Caroline Jane Small, C M B Edwards, M. M. Heath, S A Stanley, Leighton J. Seal

    Abstract:

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) in the hypothalamus is thought to be important in physiological regulation of food intake. We investigated which hypothalamic areas known to express MC4R are involved in the regulation of feeding by using AlphaMelanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (Alpha-MSH), an endogenous MC4R agonist, and agouti-related peptide (Agrp), an endogenous MC4R antagonist. Cannulae were inserted into the rat hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN), arcuate (Arc), dorsomedial (DMN), and ventromedial (VMN) nuclei; the medial preoptic (MPO), anterior hypothalamic (AHA), and lateral hypothalamic (LHA) areas; and the extrahypothalamic central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Agrp (83-132) (0.1 nmol) and [Nle4, D-Phe7]Alpha(-MSH (NDP-MSH) (0.1 nmol), a stable Alpha-MSH analog, were administered to fed and fasted rats, respectively. The PVN, DMN, and MPO were the areas with the greatest response to Agrp and NDP-MSH. At 8 h postinjection, Agrp increased feeding in the PVN by 218 +/- 23% (P < 0.005), in the DMN by 268 +/- 42% (P < 0.005), and in the MPO by 236 +/- 31% (P < 0.01) compared with a saline control group for each nucleus. NDP-MSH decreased food intake in the PVN by 52 +/- 6% (P < 0.005), in the DMN by 44 +/- 6% (P < 0.0001), and in the MPO by 55 +/- 6% (P < 0.0001) at 1 h postinjection. Injection into the AHA and CeA resulted in smaller alterations in food intake. No changes in feeding were seen after the administration of Agrp into the Arc, LHA, or VMN, but NDP-MSH suppressed food intake in the Arc and LHA. This study indicates that the hypothalamic nuclei expressing MC4R vary in their sensitivity to Agrp and Alpha-MSH with regard to their effect on feeding.

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  • a c terminal fragment of agouti related protein increases feeding and antagonizes the effect of Alpha melanocyte stimulating Hormone in vivo
    Endocrinology, 1998
    Co-Authors: Michela Rossi, M. S. Kim, S Abusnana, D Sunter, D G A Morgan, Caroline Jane Small, C M B Edwards, Anthony P Goldstone, S H Russell, S A Stanley

    Abstract:

    Agouti-related protein (Agrp) is present in rat and human hypothalamus and is structurally related to agouti protein. Over-expression of either of these proteins results in obesity. However the effect of exogenous Agrp and its in vivo interaction with Alpha-melanocyte stimulating Hormone (αMSH), the likely endogenous melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor (MC3-R and MC4-R) agonist, have not been demonstrated. We report that 1 nmol of Agrp(83-132), a C-terminal fragment of Agrp, when administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into rats, increased food intake over a 24-h period (23.0±1.4 g saline vs 32.9±2.3 g Agrp, p<0.05). The hyperphagia was similar to that seen when 1 nmol of the synthetic MC3-R and MC4-R antagonist SHU9119 was given ICV (19.6±1.8 g saline vs 32.5±1.7 g SHU9119, p<0.001). Both Agrp(83-132) and SHU9119 blocked the reduction in 1-h food intake of ICV αMSH at the beginning of the dark phase. This effect occurred independently of whether the antagonists were administered simultaneously, or nine ho...

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