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Ken E. Olson – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • ral ssBioMed CentBMC Microbiology Open AcceResearch article Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
    , 2016
    Co-Authors: Chris M. Cirimotich, Ken E. Olson, Jaclyn C. Scott, Aaron T. Phillips, Brian J. Geiss

    Abstract:

    Background: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. Results: B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/3'2J) inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/3'2J virus expressing B2 (TE/3'2J/B2) compared to TE/3'2J and TE/3'2J virus expressing GFP. TE/3'2J/B2 exhibited increased infection rates, dissemination rates, and infectious virus titers in mosquitoes following oral bloodmeal. Following infectious oral bloodmeal, significantly more mosquitoes died when TE/3'2J/B2 was ingested. The virus was 100

  • Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
    BMC Microbiology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Chris M. Cirimotich, Jaclyn C. Scott, Aaron T. Phillips, Brian J. Geiss, Ken E. Olson

    Abstract:

    Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae ; genus Alphavirus ) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae ; genus Alphanodavirus ), a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. Results B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/3’2J) inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/3’2J virus expressing B2 (TE/3’2J/B2) compared to TE/3’2J and TE/3’2J virus expressing GFP. TE/3’2J/B2 exhibited increased infection rates, dissemination rates, and infectious virus titers in mosquitoes following oral bloodmeal. Following infectious oral bloodmeal, significantly more mosquitoes died when TE/3’2J/B2 was ingested. The virus was 100% lethal following intrathoracic inoculation of multiple mosquito species and lethality was dose-dependent in Ae. aegypti . Conclusion We show that RNAi is active in Ae. aegypti cell culture and that B2 protein inhibits RNAi in mosquito cells when expressed by a recombinant SINV. Also, SINV more efficiently replicates in mosquito cells when RNAi is inhibited. Finally, TE/3’2J/B2 kills mosquitoes in a dose-dependent manner independent of infection route and mosquito species.

  • Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
    BMC Microbiology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Chris M. Cirimotich, Jaclyn C. Scott, Aaron T. Phillips, Brian J. Geiss, Ken E. Olson

    Abstract:

    Background
    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition.

David J. Miller – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • 2005. In vivo self-interaction of nodavirus RNA replicase protein a revealed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer
    , 2015
    Co-Authors: Billy T. Dye, David J. Miller, Paul Ahlquist

    Abstract:

    Flock house virus (FHV) is the best-characterized member of the Nodaviridae, a family of small, positive-strand RNA viruses. Unlike most RNA viruses, FHV encodes only a single polypeptide, protein A, that is required for RNA replication. Protein A contains a C-proximal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain and localizes via an N-terminal transmembrane domain to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where FHV RNA replication takes place in association with invaginations referred to as spherules. We demonstrate here that protein A self-interacts in vivo by using flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), spectrofluorometric analysis of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, and coimmunoprecipita-tion. Several nonoverlapping protein A sequences were able to independently direct protein-protein interaction, including an N-terminal region previously shown to be sufficient for localization to the outer mitochondrial membrane (D. J. Miller and P. Ahlquist, J. Virol. 76:9856–9867, 2000). Mutations in protein A that diminished FRET also diminished FHV RNA replication, a finding consistent with an important role for protein A self-interaction in FHV RNA synthesis. Thus, the results imply that FHV protein A functions as a multimer rather than as a monomer at one or more steps in RNA replication. Flock house virus (FHV) is an Alphanodavirus with a 4.5-kb positive-strand RNA genome. In addition to its natural host

  • Complementary transcriptomic, lipidomic, and targeted functional genetic analyses in cultured Drosophila cells highlight the role of glycerophospholipid metabolism in Flock House virus RNA replication
    BMC Genomics, 2010
    Co-Authors: Kathryn M Castorena, Kenneth A Stapleford, David J. Miller

    Abstract:

    Background Cellular membranes are crucial host components utilized by positive-strand RNA viruses for replication of their genomes. Published studies have suggested that the synthesis and distribution of membrane lipids are particularly important for the assembly and function of positive-strand RNA virus replication complexes. However, the impact of specific lipid metabolism pathways in this process have not been well defined, nor have potential changes in lipid expression associated with positive-strand RNA virus replication been examined in detail. Results In this study we used parallel and complementary global and targeted approaches to examine the impact of lipid metabolism on the replication of the well-studied model Alphanodavirus Flock House virus (FHV). We found that FHV RNA replication in cultured Drosophila S2 cells stimulated the transcriptional upregulation of several lipid metabolism genes, and was also associated with increased phosphatidylcholine accumulation with preferential increases in lipid molecules with longer and unsaturated acyl chains. Furthermore, targeted RNA interference-mediated downregulation of candidate glycerophospholipid metabolism genes revealed a functional role of several genes in virus replication. In particular, we found that downregulation of Cct1 or Cct2 , which encode essential enzymes for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis, suppressed FHV RNA replication. Conclusion These results indicate that glycerophospholipid metabolism, and in particular phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis, plays an important role in FHV RNA replication. Furthermore, they provide a framework in which to further explore the impact of specific steps in lipid metabolism on FHV replication, and potentially identify novel cellular targets for the development of drugs to inhibit positive-strand RNA viruses.

  • Complementary transcriptomic, lipidomic, and targeted functional genetic analyses in cultured Drosophila cells highlight the role of glycerophospholipid metabolism in Flock House virus RNA replication
    BMC Genomics, 2010
    Co-Authors: Kathryn M Castorena, Kenneth A Stapleford, David J. Miller

    Abstract:

    Cellular membranes are crucial host components utilized by positive-strand RNA viruses for replication of their genomes. Published studies have suggested that the synthesis and distribution of membrane lipids are particularly important for the assembly and function of positive-strand RNA virus replication complexes. However, the impact of specific lipid metabolism pathways in this process have not been well defined, nor have potential changes in lipid expression associated with positive-strand RNA virus replication been examined in detail. In this study we used parallel and complementary global and targeted approaches to examine the impact of lipid metabolism on the replication of the well-studied model Alphanodavirus Flock House virus (FHV). We found that FHV RNA replication in cultured Drosophila S2 cells stimulated the transcriptional upregulation of several lipid metabolism genes, and was also associated with increased phosphatidylcholine accumulation with preferential increases in lipid molecules with longer and unsaturated acyl chains. Furthermore, targeted RNA interference-mediated downregulation of candidate glycerophospholipid metabolism genes revealed a functional role of several genes in virus replication. In particular, we found that downregulation of Cct1 or Cct2, which encode essential enzymes for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis, suppressed FHV RNA replication. These results indicate that glycerophospholipid metabolism, and in particular phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis, plays an important role in FHV RNA replication. Furthermore, they provide a framework in which to further explore the impact of specific steps in lipid metabolism on FHV replication, and potentially identify novel cellular targets for the development of drugs to inhibit positive-strand RNA viruses.

L. Andrew Ball – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Virions of Pariacoto virus contain a minor protein translated from the second AUG codon of the capsid protein open reading frame.
    Journal of General Virology, 2003
    Co-Authors: Karyn N. Johnson, L. Andrew Ball

    Abstract:

    Virions of the Alphanodavirus Pariacoto virus (PaV) have T=3 icosahedral symmetry and are assembled from multiple copies of a precursor protein that is cleaved into two mature capsid proteins after assembly. The crystal structure of PaV shows that the N-terminal similar to30 amino acid residues of the subunits surrounding the 5-fold axes interact extensively with icosahedrally ordered regions of the encapsidated positive-sense genomic RNAs. We found that wild-type PaV particles also contain a minor capsid protein that is truncated by 24 residues at its N terminus. Reverse genetic experiments showed that translation of this protein initiated at the second AUG of the capsid protein open reading frame. When either the longer or shorter version of the capsid protein was expressed independently of the other, it assembled into virus particles and underwent maturational cleavage. Virions that lacked the shorter capsid protein retained infectivity for cultured insect cells and Galleria mellonella larvae.

  • Virions of Pariacoto virus contain a minor protein translated from the second AUG codon of the capsid protein open reading frame.
    The Journal of general virology, 2003
    Co-Authors: Karyn N. Johnson, L. Andrew Ball

    Abstract:

    Virions of the Alphanodavirus Pariacoto virus (PaV) have T=3 icosahedral symmetry and are assembled from multiple copies of a precursor protein that is cleaved into two mature capsid proteins after assembly. The crystal structure of PaV shows that the N-terminal approximately 30 amino acid residues of the subunits surrounding the 5-fold axes interact extensively with icosahedrally ordered regions of the encapsidated positive-sense genomic RNAs. We found that wild-type PaV particles also contain a minor capsid protein that is truncated by 24 residues at its N terminus. Reverse genetic experiments showed that translation of this protein initiated at the second AUG of the capsid protein open reading frame. When either the longer or shorter version of the capsid protein was expressed independently of the other, it assembled into virus particles and underwent maturational cleavage. Virions that lacked the shorter capsid protein retained infectivity for cultured insect cells and Galleria mellonella larvae.

  • Recovery of infectivity from cDNA clones of nodamura virus and identification of small nonstructural proteins.
    Virology, 2003
    Co-Authors: Kyle L Johnson, B. Duane Price, L. Andrew Ball

    Abstract:

    Nodamura virus (NoV) was the first isolated member of the Nodaviridae, and is the type species of the Alphanodavirus genus. The Alphanodaviruses infect insects; NoV is unique in that it can also lethally infect mammals. Nodaviruses have bipartite positive-sense RNA genomes in which RNA1 encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the smaller genome segment, RNA2, encodes the capsid protein precursor. To facilitate the study of NoV, we generated infectious cDNA clones of its two genomic RNAs. Transcription of these NoV1 and NoV2 cDNAs in mammalian cells led to viral RNA replication, protein synthesis, and production of infectious virus. Subgenomic RNA3 was produced during RNA replication and encodes nonstructural proteins B1 and B2 in overlapping ORFs. Site-directed mutagenesis of these ORFs, followed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses, showed synthesis of B1 and two forms of B2 (B2-134 and B2-137) during viral replication. We also characterized a point mutation in RNA1 far upstream of the RNA3 region that resulted in decreased RNA3 synthesis and RNA2 replication, and a reduced yield of infectious particles. The ability to reproduce the entire life cycle of this unusual nodavirus from cDNA clones will facilitate further analysis of NoV RNA replication and pathogenesis.