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Daeyong Lee – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The effect of tooling temperature on the formability of sheet Steel
    Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 1994
    Co-Authors: D.e. Leighton, Daeyong Lee

    Abstract:

    Abstract This paper describes the results of an investigation that was made to determine the effect of controlling the punch and die temperatures on the drawability of cylindrical sheet metal cups. Tooling temperatures may reach 100 to 200°C in commercial press forming operations due to the work of deformation and interference friction. For this reason, circular blanks of AluminumKilled drawing quality (AKDQ) Steel sheet were press formed into cylindrical cups using various punch and die temperature combinations in an attempt to control the strength and drawability of the sheet metal. Increasing the die temperature from 20°C to 125°C had little or no effect on sheet formability regardless of punch temperature. Cooling the punch to temperatures between 5 and 10°C, however, increased the limiting drawing ratio by about 15% and increased the forming height by approximately 50%. These observations are rationalized on the basis of the strength vs. temperature relationship for the AluminumKilled Steel.

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D.e. Leighton – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The effect of tooling temperature on the formability of sheet Steel
    Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 1994
    Co-Authors: D.e. Leighton, Daeyong Lee

    Abstract:

    Abstract This paper describes the results of an investigation that was made to determine the effect of controlling the punch and die temperatures on the drawability of cylindrical sheet metal cups. Tooling temperatures may reach 100 to 200°C in commercial press forming operations due to the work of deformation and interference friction. For this reason, circular blanks of AluminumKilled drawing quality (AKDQ) Steel sheet were press formed into cylindrical cups using various punch and die temperature combinations in an attempt to control the strength and drawability of the sheet metal. Increasing the die temperature from 20°C to 125°C had little or no effect on sheet formability regardless of punch temperature. Cooling the punch to temperatures between 5 and 10°C, however, increased the limiting drawing ratio by about 15% and increased the forming height by approximately 50%. These observations are rationalized on the basis of the strength vs. temperature relationship for the AluminumKilled Steel.

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Richard J. Fruehan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Liquid Inclusion Distortion by Lens Shape Effect: In Situ Observation and Quantification on LCAK Steels Using HT-CSLM
    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2019
    Co-Authors: Mauro E. Ferreira, Petrus Christiaan Pistorius, Richard J. Fruehan

    Abstract:

    Because of interfacial and surface tension, micron-sized liquid oxide droplets are expected to change from spherical (when fully immersed in liquid Steel) to lens shape on top of Steel. Inclusion sizes were measured by automated analysis of polished sections of calcium-treated AluminumKilled Steel. A sample of the same Steel was remelted and observed using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Droplets on the Steel surface appear to have approximately twice the diameter of fully immersed spherical inclusions.

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  • Effect of Silicon on the Desulfurization of Al-Killed Steels: Part I. Mathematical Model
    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2013
    Co-Authors: Petrus Christiaan Pistorius, Richard J. Fruehan

    Abstract:

    Recent observations suggest that increased silicon levels improve ladle desulfurization of AluminumKilled Steel. While the overall desulfurization reaction of Al-Killed Steels does not show a direct role of silicon in desulfurization, model calculations are presented which test the idea that silicon suppresses the reduction of silica which can consume Aluminum at the slag/metal interface. Consumption of Aluminum would increase the oxygen potential at the slag/metal interface and decrease the sulfur partition coefficient between slag and metal. The model considers the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, iron oxide, and manganese oxide in the slag and desulfurization of the Steel by Aluminum. The results show that silicon can indeed suppress consumption of Aluminum at the slag/metal interface by side reactions other than desulfurization, with silicon affecting both the kinetics and the equilibrium of desulfurization.

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  • Effect of Silicon on the Desulfurization of Al-Killed Steels: Part II. Experimental Results and Plant Trials
    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2013
    Co-Authors: Petrus Christiaan Pistorius, Richard J. Fruehan

    Abstract:

    Recent observations suggest that increased silicon levels improve ladle desulfurization of AluminumKilled Steel. A kinetic model was developed and presented in part I of this paper, demonstrating that increased silicon levels in Steel suppress the consumption of Aluminum by parasitic reactions like silica reduction and FeO/MnO reduction, thus making more Aluminum available at the interface for desulfurization. The results are increases in the rate and the extent of desulfurization. Predictions were compared with laboratory induction furnace melts using 1 kg of Steel and 0.1 kg slag. The experimental results demonstrate the beneficial effect of silicon on the desulfurization reaction and that alumina can be reduced out of the slag and Aluminum picked up by the Steel, if the silicon content in the Steel is high enough. The experimental results are in close agreement with the model predictions. Plant trials also show that with increased silicon content, both the rate and extent of desulfurization increase; incorporating silicon early into the ladle desulfurization process leads to considerable savings in Aluminum consumption.

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