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Amanita phalloides

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Zeki Severoglu – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var alba mushroom
    Toxicon, 2013
    Co-Authors: Ertugrul Kaya, Ayhan Saritas, Selim Karahan, Recep Bayram, Kursat Oguz Yaykasli, Serdar Colakoglu, Ismail Yilmaz, Zeynep Aydin Sinirlioglu, Zeki Severoglu

    Abstract:

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time.

Nicola Sicolo – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Effects of Amanita phalloides toxins on insulin release: in vivo and in vitro studies
    Archives of Toxicology, 2003
    Co-Authors: Eugenio Carlo, Anna Milanesi, Chiara Martini, Pietro Maffei, Gianluca Tamagno, Pier Paolo Parnigotto, Cesare Scandellari, Nicola Sicolo

    Abstract:

    The clinical picture of Amanita phalloides poisoning includes hypoglycaemia, usually related to hepatic damage. In fact, Amanita toxins induce hepatic glycogen depletion in humans and animals. However, in animals morphological changes of pancreatic β cells are reported, suggesting that an alteration of insulin secretion might be involved in the pathogenesis of hypoglycaemia. Therefore, we determined fasting glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels in ten patients intoxicated by Amanita phalloides and in ten control subjects. Fasting blood samples were drawn on 3 consecutive days, beginning 48–72 h after mushroom ingestion, and glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations were determined by routine methods. Serum glucose concentrations did not differ between poisoned subjects and controls, whereas insulin and C-peptide concentrations were significantly higher in poisoned subjects ( P

  • effects of Amanita phalloides toxins on insulin release in vivo and in vitro studies
    Archives of Toxicology, 2003
    Co-Authors: Eugenio Carlo, Anna Milanesi, Chiara Martini, Pietro Maffei, Gianluca Tamagno, Pier Paolo Parnigotto, Cesare Scandellari, Nicola Sicolo

    Abstract:

    The clinical picture of Amanita phalloides poisoning includes hypoglycaemia, usually related to hepatic damage. In fact, Amanita toxins induce hepatic glycogen depletion in humans and animals. However, in animals morphological changes of pancreatic beta cells are reported, suggesting that an alteration of insulin secretion might be involved in the pathogenesis of hypoglycaemia. Therefore, we determined fasting glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels in ten patients intoxicated by Amanita phalloides and in ten control subjects. Fasting blood samples were drawn on 3 consecutive days, beginning 48-72 h after mushroom ingestion, and glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations were determined by routine methods. Serum glucose concentrations did not differ between poisoned subjects and controls, whereas insulin and C-peptide concentrations were significantly higher in poisoned subjects ( P<0.01), with a significant positive correlation ( R=0.97, P<0.001). We also evaluated the effects of alpha-amanitin, the main amatoxin, on in vitro insulin release. Rat islets were incubated with 5 and 50 mg/l alpha-amanitin, in the presence or absence of 5.6 mM glucose. In another protocol, islets were preincubated for 2 h with 5 and 50 mg/l alpha-amanitin in medium containing 5.6 mM glucose. After lavage, islets were incubated with increasing glucose (2.8-22.0 mM) to evaluate insulin release. In vitro, both concentrations of toxin induced insulin release (5 mg/l P<0.02, 50 mg/l P<0.01 vs controls), in the presence of 5.6 mM glucose. Islets preincubated with 5 mg/l alpha-amanitin showed a pattern of glucose-stimulated insulin release similar to controls, whereas islets preincubated with 50 mg/l alpha-amanitin showed an increased basal release with a reduced response to glucose stimulation. These observations show that Amanita toxins might play a role in the clinical context of Amanita poisoning. We demonstrate, for the first time, that alpha-amanitin induces insulin release and may exert a cytotoxic effect on beta cells.

Felix Carvalho – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Amanita phalloides poisoning mechanisms of toxicity and treatment
    Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Juliana Garcia, Vera Marisa Costa, Alexandra T P Carvalho, Paula Baptista, Paula Guedes De Pinho, Maria De Lourdes Bastos, Felix Carvalho

    Abstract:

    Amanita phalloides, also known as ‘death cap’, is one of the most poisonous mushrooms, being involved in the majority of human fatal cases of mushroom poisoning worldwide. This species contains three main groups of toxins: amatoxins, phallotoxins, and virotoxins. From these, amatoxins, especially α-amanitin, are the main responsible for the toxic effects in humans. It is recognized that α-amanitin inhibits RNA polymerase II, causing protein deficit and ultimately cell death, although other mechanisms are thought to be involved. The liver is the main target organ of toxicity, but other organs are also affected, especially the kidneys. Intoxication symptoms usually appear after a latent period and may include gastrointestinal disorders followed by jaundice, seizures, and coma, culminating in death. Therapy consists in supportive measures, gastric decontamination, drug therapy and, ultimately, liver transplantation if clinical condition worsens. The discovery of an effective antidote is still a major unsolved issue. The present paper examines the clinical toxicology of A. phalloides, providing the currently available information on the mechanisms of toxicityinvolved and on the current knowledge on the treatment prescribed against this type of mushrooms. Antidotal perspectives will be raised as to set the pace to new and improved therapy against these mushrooms.

  • determination of amatoxins and phallotoxins in Amanita phalloides mushrooms from northeastern portugal by hplc dad ms
    Mycologia, 2015
    Co-Authors: Juliana Garcia, Alexandra T P Carvalho, Paula Baptista, Paula Guedes De Pinho, Maria De Lourdes Bastos, Ana Cristina Palmeira De Oliveira, Victor De Freitas, Eric Pereira, Felix Carvalho

    Abstract:

    Amanita phalloides is a toxic mushroom responsible for the majority of deaths occurring after mushrooms ingestion, mainly due to amatoxins. In the present study the contents and distribution of the major amatoxins and phallotoxins in different tissues of A. phalloides from two different sites of Portugal were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to diode array (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. The main toxins were separated by LC and its chemical structures confirmed by MS. α-Amanitin contents in caps, stipe and volva tissues were quantified by RP-HPLC. The results show that caps have the highest content of amatoxins, whereas the volva was richest in phallotoxins. Moreover variability in the toxins composition from different geographic sites was also observed. This study provides for the first time the content of toxins in A. phalloides from Portugal.