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Amitermes

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Peter Jacklyn – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Isolated in an ocean of grass: low levels of gene flow between termite subpopulations
    Molecular Ecology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Anna M. Schmidt, Peter Jacklyn, Judith Korb

    Abstract:

    : Habitat fragmentation is one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss, but many species are distributed in naturally patchy habitats. Such species are often organized in highly dynamic metapopulations or in patchy populations with high gene flow between subpopulations. Yet, there are also species that exist in stable patchy habitats with small subpopulations and presumably low dispersal rates. Here, we present population genetic data for the ‘magnetic’ termite Amitermes meridionalis, which show that short distances between subpopulations do not hinder exceptionally strong genetic differentiation (FST : 0.339; RST : 0.636). Despite the strong genetic differentiation between subpopulations, we did not find evidence for genetic impoverishment. We propose that loss of genetic diversity might be counteracted by a long colony life with low colony turnover. Indeed, we found evidence for the inheritance of colonies by so-called ‘replacement reproductives’. Inhabiting a mound for several generations might result in loss of gene diversity within a colony but maintenance of gene diversity at the subpopulation level.

  • phylogeography of an australian termite Amitermes laurensis isoptera termitidae with special reference to the variety of mound shapes
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2007
    Co-Authors: Masato Ozeki, Peter Jacklyn, Yuji Isagi, Hiromi Tsubota, David M J S Bowman

    Abstract:

    In northern Australia, the debris-feeding termite Amitermes laurensis builds tall, wedge-shaped mounds in the northern part of Cape York Peninsula and Arnhem Land, where their habitats are seasonally flooded, and small dome shaped mounds in the southeastern part of Cape York Peninsula, where their habitats are well-drained. Phylogeographic analyses were conducted in 238 individuals from 30 populations using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene. DNA sequences of 50 haplotypes were used to construct NJ, MP and ML trees. Phylogenetic trees for 16 Amitermes species showed monophyly of A. laurensis and the variation of A. laurensis mounds did not strongly correspond to the intraspecific phylogeny. It was observed that mounds with the same shape were constructed by phylogenetically different groups under similar environmental conditions and different mounds shapes were built by phylogenetically closely related groups under the different environmental conditions. Thus, phylogenetically close groups of A. laurensis, in different habitats, may adapt to environmental conditions by constructing different mound shapes. We also investigated the phylogeographic structure of A. laurensis. The significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated isolation by distance, reflecting restricted dispersal ability of alates. Although the overall genetic structure of A. laurensis showed isolation by distance, we also identified two exceptions: (i) secondary contacts of genetically divergent lineages in southern Cape York Peninsula, and (ii) low genetic differences between geographically separated populations of Cape York Peninsula and Arnhem Land. Therefore, the phylogeography of A. laurensis may reflect continuous gene flow restricted to short distances and past changes of gene flow associated with the fluctuation of environmental conditions accompanying the changing sea levels in the Quaternary.

  • evidence for the use of magnetic cues in mound construction by the termite Amitermes meridionalis isoptera termitinae
    Australian Journal of Zoology, 2002
    Co-Authors: Peter Jacklyn, Ursula Munro

    Abstract:

    The termite Amitermes meridionalis builds meridionally elongated mounds. We removed the tops of such mounds and then allowed the termites to repair their mounds in the natural geomagnetic field and in artificial magnetic fields with different magnetic declinations. Cross-sections of repaired mounds were taken and the arrangement of the small, elongated cells that form the basis of mound architecture was assessed. The results suggest that the termites align mound cells along the existing axis of the mound and the cardinal axes of the horizontal component of the applied magnetic field.

Rudolf H Scheffrahn – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of hindgut paunch microbiota in wood and dung feeding higher termites
    PLOS ONE, 2013
    Co-Authors: Rudolf H Scheffrahn, Shaomei He, Natalia Ivanova, Edward Kirton, Martin Allgaier, Claudia Bergin, Nikos C Kyrpides

    Abstract:

    Termites effectively feed on many types of lignocellulose assisted by their gut microbial symbionts. To better understand the microbial decomposition of biomass with varied chemical profiles, it is important to determine whether termites harbor different microbial symbionts with specialized functionalities geared toward different feeding regimens. In this study, we compared the microbiota in the hindgut paunch of Amitermes wheeleri collected from cow dung and Nasutitermes corniger feeding on sound wood by 16S rRNA pyrotag, comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses. We found that Firmicutes and Spirochaetes were the most abundant phyla in A. wheeleri, in contrast to N. corniger where Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres dominated. Despite this community divergence, a convergence was observed for functions essential to termite biology including hydrolytic enzymes, homoacetogenesis and cell motility and chemotaxis. Overrepresented functions in A. wheeleri relative to N. corniger microbiota included hemicellulose breakdown and fixed-nitrogen utilization. By contrast, glycoside hydrolases attacking celluloses and nitrogen fixation genes were overrepresented in N. corniger microbiota. These observations are consistent with dietary differences in carbohydrate composition and nutrient contents, but may also reflect the phylogenetic difference between the hosts.

  • a new termite species isoptera termitidae termitinae Amitermes and first record of a subterranean termite from the coastal desert of south america
    Zootaxa, 2010
    Co-Authors: Rudolf H Scheffrahn, Jeanbernard Huchet

    Abstract:

    At about one hundred species, Amitermes, is the second largest genus after Microcerotermes in the subfamily Termitinae. This cosmopolitan genus is found in a wide variety of habitats from rainforests e.g., Amitermes excellens (Silvestri) from Guyana and Amitermes dentatus (Haviland) from Sumatra to deserts, e.g. Amitermes emersoni Light from Coachella, California and Amitermes desertorum Desneux from Egypt. Only eight species of Amitermes are known from the Neotropics and only five occur across mainland South America. Soldiers of Amitermes are characterized by a bulbous head capsule and sickle-shaped mandibles, each with a single tooth of various shapes on their inner margins. Soldiers of all species have a large cephalic gland opening to a circular fontanelle on the frons. When confronted by an agonist, the soldier emits a terpenoid secretion which oozes onto setae around and below the fontanelle. Herein, is described a new Amitermes from Peru and the first record of a subterranean termite along the Pacific coastal desert of South America.

  • Amitermes amicki a new subterranean termite isoptera termitidae termitinae from aruba
    Florida Entomologist, 1999
    Co-Authors: Rudolf H Scheffrahn, Nanyao Su, Timothy G Myles

    Abstract:

    Amitermes amicki n. sp. is described from soldiers collected on Aruba. For comparison, the soldier of A. beaumonti is redescribed from specimens collected in Mexico, Belize, and Cuba. Amitermes amicki is the eighth congener thus far described from the Neotropical Region. A technique is reported to enhance the visual clarity of digitized scanning electron micrographs.

David M J S Bowman – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • phylogeography of an australian termite Amitermes laurensis isoptera termitidae with special reference to the variety of mound shapes
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2007
    Co-Authors: Masato Ozeki, Peter Jacklyn, Yuji Isagi, Hiromi Tsubota, David M J S Bowman

    Abstract:

    In northern Australia, the debris-feeding termite Amitermes laurensis builds tall, wedge-shaped mounds in the northern part of Cape York Peninsula and Arnhem Land, where their habitats are seasonally flooded, and small dome shaped mounds in the southeastern part of Cape York Peninsula, where their habitats are well-drained. Phylogeographic analyses were conducted in 238 individuals from 30 populations using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene. DNA sequences of 50 haplotypes were used to construct NJ, MP and ML trees. Phylogenetic trees for 16 Amitermes species showed monophyly of A. laurensis and the variation of A. laurensis mounds did not strongly correspond to the intraspecific phylogeny. It was observed that mounds with the same shape were constructed by phylogenetically different groups under similar environmental conditions and different mounds shapes were built by phylogenetically closely related groups under the different environmental conditions. Thus, phylogenetically close groups of A. laurensis, in different habitats, may adapt to environmental conditions by constructing different mound shapes. We also investigated the phylogeographic structure of A. laurensis. The significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated isolation by distance, reflecting restricted dispersal ability of alates. Although the overall genetic structure of A. laurensis showed isolation by distance, we also identified two exceptions: (i) secondary contacts of genetically divergent lineages in southern Cape York Peninsula, and (ii) low genetic differences between geographically separated populations of Cape York Peninsula and Arnhem Land. Therefore, the phylogeography of A. laurensis may reflect continuous gene flow restricted to short distances and past changes of gene flow associated with the fluctuation of environmental conditions accompanying the changing sea levels in the Quaternary.