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Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript

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Nae J. Dun – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Expression and activity of cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript peptide1–39 in the rat
    Regulatory Peptides, 2006
    Co-Authors: Siok L. Dun, Jun Yang, Jaw Kang Chang, Eugen Brailoiu, Wei-kung Hsieh, Chih-chia Lai, Nae J. Dun

    Abstract:

    Abstract Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide consists of a family of peptides. Expression of the peptide fragment CART1–39 was explored in the rat using an antiserum directed against CART1–39 of the short form of the human CART prohormone. CART1–39-immunoreactivity, herein referred to as irCART, was detected in the rat central and peripheral nervous tissues with a pattern similar to that labeled with the antiserum CART55–102 or CART79–102. For example, irCART cells were detected in the hypothalamus, pons, medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and adrenal medulla. In urethane-anesthetized rats, CART1–39 (0.05 to 2 nmol) by intrathecal injection did not cause a significant change of blood pressure or heart rate, but potentiated the pressor effects of glutamate injected intrathecally. Lastly, the effect of CART1–39 on intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i was assessed and compared to that caused by CART55–102 in cultured rat cortical neurons using the microfluorimetric method. CART1–39 (100 nM) induced two types of responses in a population of cortical neurons: 1) a slowly rising increase in [Ca2+]i superimposed with oscillations, and 2) a fast increase followed by a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i. CART55–102 caused only a slowly rising increase in [Ca2+]i in cortical neurons. Our result shows that the expression pattern of irCART in the rat nervous system and the potentiating action of CART1–39 on glutamate-induced pressor response is similar to that reported for CART55–102; but the calcium mobilizing action of CART1–39 differs from that of CART55–102, suggesting the possible existence of multiple CART receptors coupled to different calcium signaling pathways.

  • Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript peptide and sympatho-adrenal axis.
    Peptides, 2006
    Co-Authors: Siok L. Dun, G. Cristina Brailoiu, Jun Yang, Jaw Kang Chang, Nae J. Dun

    Abstract:

    Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript peptide (CART) is constitutively expressed in discrete regions of the mammalian central and peripheral nervous system. Immunohistochemical studies reveal a well-defined network of CART-immunoreactive (irCART) neurons organized along the sympatho-adrenal axis. Sympathetic preganglionic neurons, but not parasympathetic preganglionic neurons, in the lateral horn area are CART-positive; which in turn innervate postganglionic neurons in the paravertebral and prevertebral sympathetic ganglia as well as the adrenal medulla. A population of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla is CART-positive; whereas, postganglionic neurons are not. Sympathetic preganglionic neurons themselves are contacted by irCART cell processes arising from neurons in the arcuate nucleus, the retrochiasmatic nucleus and the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Results from several recent studies suggest CART directly excites neurons along the sympathetic neural axis or indirectly by potentiating the action of glutamate on NMDA receptors, as evidenced by an elevation of blood pressure and heart rate following intracerebroventricular, intracisternal or intrathecal administration of the peptide to anesthetized rats or conscious rabbits.

  • Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript peptide attenuates phenylephrine-induced bradycardia in anesthetized rats.
    American journal of physiology. Regulatory integrative and comparative physiology, 2003
    Co-Authors: Phouangmala Scruggs, Siok L. Dun, Nae J. Dun

    Abstract:

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the origin of cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide immunoreactive (irCART) fibers observed in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and assess the role of CART peptide on phenylephrine (PE)-induced baroreflex. Immunohistochemical and retrograde tract-tracing studies showed that some of the irCART fibers observed in the NTS may have their cell bodies in the nodose ganglia. In urethane-anesthetized rats, intracisternal or bilateral intra-NTS microinjection of the CART peptide fragment 55-102 (0.1-3 nmol), referred to herein as CARTp, consistently and dose dependently attenuated PE-induced bradycardia. CARTp, in the doses used here, caused no significant changes of resting blood pressure or heart rate. Bilateral intra-NTS injections of CART antibody (1:500) potentiated PE-induced bradycardia. Injections of saline, normal rabbit serum, or concomitant injection of CARTp and CART antiserum into the NTS caused no significant changes of PE-induced baroreflex. The result suggests that endogenously released CARTp from primary afferents or exogenously administered CARTp modulates PE-induced baroreflex.

Michael J Kuhar – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Wake promoting effects of cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART).
    Neuropeptides, 2010
    Co-Authors: Glenda L. Keating, Michael J Kuhar, Donald L. Bliwise, David B. Rye

    Abstract:

    Abstract Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) peptides modulate anxiety, food intake, endocrine function, and mesolimbic dopamine related reward and reinforcement. Each of these disparate behaviors takes place during the state of wakefulness. Here, we identify a potential wake promoting role of CART by characterizing its effects upon sleep/wake architecture in rats. Dose-dependent increases in wake were documented following intracerebroventricular CART 55–102 administered at the beginning of the rat’s major sleep period. Sustained wake was observed for up to 4 h following delivery of 2.0 μg of CART peptide. The wake promoting effect was specific to active CART 55–102 because no effect on sleep/wake was observed with the inactive form of the peptide. Increased wake was followed by robust rebound in NREM and REM sleep that extended well into the subsequent lights-off, or typical wake period, of the rat. These findings point to a potential novel role for CART in regulating wakefulness.

  • Studies of cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) knockout mice.
    Peptides, 2006
    Co-Authors: Mark C Moffett, Lisa M. Stanek, Jill Harley, George A. Rogge, Mark A. Asnicar, Hansen Hsiung, Michael J Kuhar

    Abstract:

    CART (cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptides are neuropeptides expressed throughout the central nervous system and have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes. Research on the many physiological processes involving CART peptide have been somewhat limited by the lack of an identified CART antagonist. Development of CART peptide deficient mice has allowed scientists to further explore the many functions of CART peptide. This review briefly summarizes recent findings in the literature characterizing CART peptide deficient mice.

  • CART (cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide receptors: specific binding in AtT20 cells.
    European journal of pharmacology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Aleksandra Vicentic, Anita Lakatos, Michael J Kuhar

    Abstract:

    Given previous evidence for CART (cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) signaling in AtT20 cells, the binding of [125I]-CART61-102 was characterized in these cells. The binding was specific, saturable, dependent on time, pH, temperature and protein concentration, with a Bmax of 101.4+/-8.8 fmol/mg protein and a Kd of 21.9+/-8.0 pM. Only active CART55-102, but not other peptides or drugs, inhibited the [125I]-CART61-102 binding. These data are the first demonstration of specific receptor binding for CART peptides.

Jaw Kang Chang – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Expression and activity of cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript peptide1–39 in the rat
    Regulatory Peptides, 2006
    Co-Authors: Siok L. Dun, Jun Yang, Jaw Kang Chang, Eugen Brailoiu, Wei-kung Hsieh, Chih-chia Lai, Nae J. Dun

    Abstract:

    Abstract Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide consists of a family of peptides. Expression of the peptide fragment CART1–39 was explored in the rat using an antiserum directed against CART1–39 of the short form of the human CART prohormone. CART1–39-immunoreactivity, herein referred to as irCART, was detected in the rat central and peripheral nervous tissues with a pattern similar to that labeled with the antiserum CART55–102 or CART79–102. For example, irCART cells were detected in the hypothalamus, pons, medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and adrenal medulla. In urethane-anesthetized rats, CART1–39 (0.05 to 2 nmol) by intrathecal injection did not cause a significant change of blood pressure or heart rate, but potentiated the pressor effects of glutamate injected intrathecally. Lastly, the effect of CART1–39 on intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i was assessed and compared to that caused by CART55–102 in cultured rat cortical neurons using the microfluorimetric method. CART1–39 (100 nM) induced two types of responses in a population of cortical neurons: 1) a slowly rising increase in [Ca2+]i superimposed with oscillations, and 2) a fast increase followed by a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i. CART55–102 caused only a slowly rising increase in [Ca2+]i in cortical neurons. Our result shows that the expression pattern of irCART in the rat nervous system and the potentiating action of CART1–39 on glutamate-induced pressor response is similar to that reported for CART55–102; but the calcium mobilizing action of CART1–39 differs from that of CART55–102, suggesting the possible existence of multiple CART receptors coupled to different calcium signaling pathways.

  • Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript peptide and sympatho-adrenal axis.
    Peptides, 2006
    Co-Authors: Siok L. Dun, G. Cristina Brailoiu, Jun Yang, Jaw Kang Chang, Nae J. Dun

    Abstract:

    Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript peptide (CART) is constitutively expressed in discrete regions of the mammalian central and peripheral nervous system. Immunohistochemical studies reveal a well-defined network of CART-immunoreactive (irCART) neurons organized along the sympatho-adrenal axis. Sympathetic preganglionic neurons, but not parasympathetic preganglionic neurons, in the lateral horn area are CART-positive; which in turn innervate postganglionic neurons in the paravertebral and prevertebral sympathetic ganglia as well as the adrenal medulla. A population of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla is CART-positive; whereas, postganglionic neurons are not. Sympathetic preganglionic neurons themselves are contacted by irCART cell processes arising from neurons in the arcuate nucleus, the retrochiasmatic nucleus and the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Results from several recent studies suggest CART directly excites neurons along the sympathetic neural axis or indirectly by potentiating the action of glutamate on NMDA receptors, as evidenced by an elevation of blood pressure and heart rate following intracerebroventricular, intracisternal or intrathecal administration of the peptide to anesthetized rats or conscious rabbits.

  • Differential expression of cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript-immunoreactivity in the rat spinal preganglionic nuclei
    Neuroscience letters, 2000
    Co-Authors: Siok L. Dun, Nae J. Dun, Jun Yang, Deoclécio A. Chianca, Jaw Kang Chang

    Abstract:

    The distribution of cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript-like immunoreactivity (CART-LI) was investigated in the rat spinal cords with the use of an antiserum against the CART peptide fragment 55-102. CART-LI fibers were concentrated in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn of all segments. In addition to CART-LI fibers, intensely labeled somata were detected in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) and other sympathetic preganglionic nuclei of the thoracolumbar segments. In the lumbosacral segments, CART-LI fibers but not somata were seen in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus. Double-labeling the spinal sections with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-antisera and CART-antisera revealed that the large majority of ChAT-positive somata in the sympathetic preganglionic nuclei were CART-positive, whereas ChAT-positive somata in the parasympathetic preganglionic nuclei were CART-negative. Our results show that CART-LI is selectively expressed in a population of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs), but not in parasympathetic preganglionic neurons (PPNs) of the rat.