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Lorene Samoska – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • A WR4 Amplifier Module Chain With an 87 K Noise Temperature at 228 GHz
    IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2015
    Co-Authors: Mikko Varonen, Lorene Samoska, Andy Fung, Sharmila Padmanabhan, Pekka Kangaslahti, Richard Lai, Stephen Sarkozy, Mary Soria, Heather R. Owen, Theodore Reck

    Abstract:

    In this letter we report an ultra-low-noise Amplifier Module chain in the WR4 frequency range. The Amplifier chips were fabricated in a 35 nm InP HEMT technology and packaged in waveguide housings utilizing quartz E-plane waveguide probes. When cryogenically cooled to 22 K and measured through a mylar vacuum window, the Amplifier Module chain achieves a receiver noise temperature of 87 K at 228 GHz and less than a 100 K noise temperature from 217 to 236 GHz. The LNA Modules have 21–31 dB gain and the power dissipation is 12.4–15.8 mW. To the best of authors’ knowledge, these are the lowest LNA noise temperatures at these frequencies reported to date.

  • Amplifier Module for 260-GHz Band Using Quartz Waveguide Transitions
    , 2012
    Co-Authors: Sharmila Padmanabhan, Lorene Samoska, Pekka Kangaslahti, Stephen Sarkozy, Alejandro Peralta, Man Fung, Mary M. Soria, David Pukala, Seth Sin, Richard Lai

    Abstract:

    Packaging of MMIC LNA (monolithic microwave integrated circuit low-noise Amplifier) chips at frequencies over 200 GHz has always been problematic due to the high loss in the transition between the MMIC chip and the waveguide medium in which the chip will typically be used. In addition, above 200 GHz, wire-bond inductance between the LNA and the waveguide can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide Amplifier Module. This work resulted in the development of a low-loss quartz waveguide transition that includes a capacitive transmission line between the MMIC and the waveguide probe element. This capacitive transmission line tunes out the wirebond inductance (where the wire-bond is required to bond between the MMIC and the probe element). This inductance can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide Amplifier Module. The Amplifier Module consists of a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, a short capacitive tuning element, a short wire-bond to the MMIC, and the MMIC LNA. The output structure is similar, with a short wire-bond at the output of the MMIC, a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, and the output waveguide. The quartz probe element is made of 3-mil quartz, which is the thinnest commercially available material. The waveguide band used is WR4, from 170 to 260 GHz. This new transition and block design is an improvement over prior art because it provides for better RF matching, and will likely yield lower loss and better noise figure. The development of high-performance, low-noise Amplifiers in the 180-to- 700-GHz range has applications for future earth science and planetary instruments with low power and volume, and astrophysics array instruments for molecular spectroscopy. This frequency band, while suitable for homeland security and commercial applications (such as millimeter-wave imaging, hidden weapons detection, crowd scanning, airport security, and communications), also has applications to future NASA missions. The Global Atmospheric Composition Mission (GACM) in the NRC Decadel Survey will need low-noise Amplifiers with extremely low noise temperatures, either at room temperature or for cryogenic applications, for atmospheric remote sensing.

  • Submillimeter-Wave Amplifier Module with Integrated Waveguide Transitions
    , 2009
    Co-Authors: Lorene Samoska, Mary M. Soria, David Pukala, Vesna Radisic, Goutam Chattopadhyay, Todd Gaier, Manfung, William Deal, Gerry Mei, Richard Lai

    Abstract:

    To increase the usefulness of monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) components at submillimeter-wave frequencies, a chip has been designed that incorporates two integrated, radial E-plane probes with an MMIC Amplifier in between, thus creating a fully integrated waveguide Module. The integrated Amplifier chip has been fabricated in 35-nm gate length InP high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) technology. The radial probes were mated to grounded coplanar waveguide input and output lines in the internal Amplifier. The total length of the internal HEMT Amplifier is 550 m, while the total integrated chip length is 1,085 m. The chip thickness is 50 m with the chip width being 320 m. The internal MMIC Amplifier is biased through wire-bond connections to the gates and drains of the chip. The chip has 3 stages, employing 35-nm gate length transistors in each stage. Wire bonds from the DC drain and gate pads are connected to off-chip shunt 51-pF capacitors, and additional off-chip capacitors and resistors are added to the gate and drain bias lines for low-frequency stability of the Amplifier. Additionally, bond wires to the grounded coplanar waveguide pads at the RF input and output of the internal Amplifier are added to ensure good ground connections to the waveguide package. The S-parameters of the Module, not corrected for input or output waveguide loss, are measured at the waveguide flange edges. The Amplifier Module has over 10 dB of gain from 290 to 330 GHz, with a peak gain of over 14 dB at 307 GHz. The WR2.2 waveguide cutoff is again observed at 268 GHz. The Module is biased at a drain current of 27 mA, a drain voltage of 1.24 V, and a gate voltage of +0.21 V. Return loss of the Module is very good between 5 to 25 dB. This result illustrates the usefulness of the integrated radial probe transition, and the wide (over 10-percent) bandwidth that one can expect for Amplifier Modules with integrated radial probes in the submillimeter-regime (>300 GHz).

R Lai – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • a submillimeter wave hemt Amplifier Module with integrated waveguide transitions operating above 300 ghz
    IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2008
    Co-Authors: Lorene Samoska, Mary Soria, Goutam Chattopadhyay, Todd Gaier, W R Deal, D Pukala, A Fung, V Radisic, X B Mei, R Lai

    Abstract:

    In this paper, we report on the first demonstration of monolithically integrated waveguide transitions in a submillimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuit (S-MMIC) Amplifier Module. We designed the Module for a targeted frequency range of 300-350 GHz, using WR2.2 for the input and output waveguides. The waveguide Module utilizes radial -plane transitions from S-MMIC to waveguide. We designed back-to-back radial probe transitions separated by thru transmission lines to characterize the Module, and have incorporated the radial -plane transitions with an S-MMIC Amplifier, fabricated monolithically as a single chip. The chip makes use of an S-MMIC process and Amplifier design from the Northrop Grumman Corporation, Redondo Beach, CA, using 35-nm gate-length InP transistors. The integrated Module design eliminates the need for wire bonds in the RF signal path, and enables a drop-in approach for minimal assembly. The waveguide Module includes a channel design, which optimizes the -plane probe bandwidth to compensate for an S-MMIC width, which is larger than the waveguide dimension, and is compatible with S-MMIC fabrication and design rules. This paper demonstrates for the first time that waveguide-based S-MMIC Amplifier Modules with integrated waveguide transitions can be successfully operated at submillimeter-wave frequencies.

Richard Lai – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • A WR4 Amplifier Module Chain With an 87 K Noise Temperature at 228 GHz
    IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2015
    Co-Authors: Mikko Varonen, Lorene Samoska, Andy Fung, Sharmila Padmanabhan, Pekka Kangaslahti, Richard Lai, Stephen Sarkozy, Mary Soria, Heather R. Owen, Theodore Reck

    Abstract:

    In this letter we report an ultra-low-noise Amplifier Module chain in the WR4 frequency range. The Amplifier chips were fabricated in a 35 nm InP HEMT technology and packaged in waveguide housings utilizing quartz E-plane waveguide probes. When cryogenically cooled to 22 K and measured through a mylar vacuum window, the Amplifier Module chain achieves a receiver noise temperature of 87 K at 228 GHz and less than a 100 K noise temperature from 217 to 236 GHz. The LNA Modules have 21–31 dB gain and the power dissipation is 12.4–15.8 mW. To the best of authors’ knowledge, these are the lowest LNA noise temperatures at these frequencies reported to date.

  • Amplifier Module for 260-GHz Band Using Quartz Waveguide Transitions
    , 2012
    Co-Authors: Sharmila Padmanabhan, Lorene Samoska, Pekka Kangaslahti, Stephen Sarkozy, Alejandro Peralta, Man Fung, Mary M. Soria, David Pukala, Seth Sin, Richard Lai

    Abstract:

    Packaging of MMIC LNA (monolithic microwave integrated circuit low-noise Amplifier) chips at frequencies over 200 GHz has always been problematic due to the high loss in the transition between the MMIC chip and the waveguide medium in which the chip will typically be used. In addition, above 200 GHz, wire-bond inductance between the LNA and the waveguide can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide Amplifier Module. This work resulted in the development of a low-loss quartz waveguide transition that includes a capacitive transmission line between the MMIC and the waveguide probe element. This capacitive transmission line tunes out the wirebond inductance (where the wire-bond is required to bond between the MMIC and the probe element). This inductance can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide Amplifier Module. The Amplifier Module consists of a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, a short capacitive tuning element, a short wire-bond to the MMIC, and the MMIC LNA. The output structure is similar, with a short wire-bond at the output of the MMIC, a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, and the output waveguide. The quartz probe element is made of 3-mil quartz, which is the thinnest commercially available material. The waveguide band used is WR4, from 170 to 260 GHz. This new transition and block design is an improvement over prior art because it provides for better RF matching, and will likely yield lower loss and better noise figure. The development of high-performance, low-noise Amplifiers in the 180-to- 700-GHz range has applications for future earth science and planetary instruments with low power and volume, and astrophysics array instruments for molecular spectroscopy. This frequency band, while suitable for homeland security and commercial applications (such as millimeter-wave imaging, hidden weapons detection, crowd scanning, airport security, and communications), also has applications to future NASA missions. The Global Atmospheric Composition Mission (GACM) in the NRC Decadel Survey will need low-noise Amplifiers with extremely low noise temperatures, either at room temperature or for cryogenic applications, for atmospheric remote sensing.

  • Submillimeter-Wave Amplifier Module with Integrated Waveguide Transitions
    , 2009
    Co-Authors: Lorene Samoska, Mary M. Soria, David Pukala, Vesna Radisic, Goutam Chattopadhyay, Todd Gaier, Manfung, William Deal, Gerry Mei, Richard Lai

    Abstract:

    To increase the usefulness of monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) components at submillimeter-wave frequencies, a chip has been designed that incorporates two integrated, radial E-plane probes with an MMIC Amplifier in between, thus creating a fully integrated waveguide Module. The integrated Amplifier chip has been fabricated in 35-nm gate length InP high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) technology. The radial probes were mated to grounded coplanar waveguide input and output lines in the internal Amplifier. The total length of the internal HEMT Amplifier is 550 m, while the total integrated chip length is 1,085 m. The chip thickness is 50 m with the chip width being 320 m. The internal MMIC Amplifier is biased through wire-bond connections to the gates and drains of the chip. The chip has 3 stages, employing 35-nm gate length transistors in each stage. Wire bonds from the DC drain and gate pads are connected to off-chip shunt 51-pF capacitors, and additional off-chip capacitors and resistors are added to the gate and drain bias lines for low-frequency stability of the Amplifier. Additionally, bond wires to the grounded coplanar waveguide pads at the RF input and output of the internal Amplifier are added to ensure good ground connections to the waveguide package. The S-parameters of the Module, not corrected for input or output waveguide loss, are measured at the waveguide flange edges. The Amplifier Module has over 10 dB of gain from 290 to 330 GHz, with a peak gain of over 14 dB at 307 GHz. The WR2.2 waveguide cutoff is again observed at 268 GHz. The Module is biased at a drain current of 27 mA, a drain voltage of 1.24 V, and a gate voltage of +0.21 V. Return loss of the Module is very good between 5 to 25 dB. This result illustrates the usefulness of the integrated radial probe transition, and the wide (over 10-percent) bandwidth that one can expect for Amplifier Modules with integrated radial probes in the submillimeter-regime (>300 GHz).