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Anaerobic Infection

The Experts below are selected from a list of 180 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Dana T Graves – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • interleukin 1 receptor signaling rather than that of tumor necrosis factor is critical in protecting the host from the severe consequences of a polymicrobe Anaerobic Infection
    Infection and Immunity, 2000
    Co-Authors: Dana T Graves, Chihping Chen, Christopher Douville, Yanling Jiang

    Abstract:

    Infection of the dental pulp leads to an osteolytic lesion that results from a polymicrobial Infection consisting largely of pathogenic anaerobes. Infection causes significant morbidity and mortality mediated by bacterial factors and in some cases by the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. The inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in particular, play a complex and central role in the responses to microbial pathogens. However, relatively little is known about the significance of these cytokines in protecting the host from focal polymicrobial Anaerobic Infections. To establish the relative importance of IL-1 and TNF in mediating the response to a mixed Anaerobic Infection, we inoculated the dental pulp of mice with six Anaerobic pathogens containing functional deletions of receptors to IL-1 (IL-1R1−/−), TNF (TNFRp55−/−-p75−/−), or both (TNFRp55−/−-IL-1RI−/−). The results indicate that IL-1 receptor signaling and TNF receptor signaling both play similarly important roles in protecting the host from local tissue damage. However, IL-1 receptor signaling is considerably more important than TNF receptor signaling in preventing the spread of Infection into surrounding fascial planes, since IL-1R1−/− but not TNFRp55−/−-p75−/− mice exhibited significantly higher morbidity and mortality. Moreover, all of the fatal Infections occurred in male mice, suggesting the importance of gender differences in limiting the impact of these Infections.

  • interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor receptor signaling is not required for bacteria induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss but is essential for protecting the host from a mixed Anaerobic Infection
    American Journal of Pathology, 1999
    Co-Authors: Chihping Chen, Yanling Jiang, Marc Hertzberg, Dana T Graves

    Abstract:

    Bacterial Infection causes significant morbidity, mediated in part by the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Cytokine induction is thought to stimulate osteolysis in conditions such as periodontal disease and otitis media. To establish the relative importance of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in mediating the response to a mixed Anaerobic Infection, we used an in vivo model in which the dental pulp was inoculated with six Anaerobic pathogens, in mice with functional deletions of receptors to IL-1 (IL-1RI−/−), TNF (TNFRp55−/−-p75−/−), or both (TNFRp55−/−-IL-1RI−/−). Polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocyte recruitment occurred to the greatest extent in TNFRp55−/−-IL-1RI−/− mice, and to a lesser extent in IL-1RI−/− or TNFRp55−/−-p75−/− mice, and the least in wild-type mice, demonstrating that recruitment of these phagocytes is not dependent on IL-1 or TNF receptor signaling. A similar pattern was observed for bacterial penetration into host tissue. Because it had recently been reported that TNF played a critical role in mediating lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss, we anticipated that mice with targeted deletions of TNFRp55−/− would have reduced osteoclastogenesis. Surprisingly, osteolytic lesion formation was greatest in animals lacking TNF and/or IL-1 receptors. These results indicate that IL-1 or TNF receptor signaling is not required for bacteria-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss, but does play a critical role in protecting the host against mixed Anaerobic Infections.

Yanling Jiang – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • interleukin 1 receptor signaling rather than that of tumor necrosis factor is critical in protecting the host from the severe consequences of a polymicrobe Anaerobic Infection
    Infection and Immunity, 2000
    Co-Authors: Dana T Graves, Chihping Chen, Christopher Douville, Yanling Jiang

    Abstract:

    Infection of the dental pulp leads to an osteolytic lesion that results from a polymicrobial Infection consisting largely of pathogenic anaerobes. Infection causes significant morbidity and mortality mediated by bacterial factors and in some cases by the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. The inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in particular, play a complex and central role in the responses to microbial pathogens. However, relatively little is known about the significance of these cytokines in protecting the host from focal polymicrobial Anaerobic Infections. To establish the relative importance of IL-1 and TNF in mediating the response to a mixed Anaerobic Infection, we inoculated the dental pulp of mice with six Anaerobic pathogens containing functional deletions of receptors to IL-1 (IL-1R1−/−), TNF (TNFRp55−/−-p75−/−), or both (TNFRp55−/−-IL-1RI−/−). The results indicate that IL-1 receptor signaling and TNF receptor signaling both play similarly important roles in protecting the host from local tissue damage. However, IL-1 receptor signaling is considerably more important than TNF receptor signaling in preventing the spread of Infection into surrounding fascial planes, since IL-1R1−/− but not TNFRp55−/−-p75−/− mice exhibited significantly higher morbidity and mortality. Moreover, all of the fatal Infections occurred in male mice, suggesting the importance of gender differences in limiting the impact of these Infections.

  • interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor receptor signaling is not required for bacteria induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss but is essential for protecting the host from a mixed Anaerobic Infection
    American Journal of Pathology, 1999
    Co-Authors: Chihping Chen, Yanling Jiang, Marc Hertzberg, Dana T Graves

    Abstract:

    Bacterial Infection causes significant morbidity, mediated in part by the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Cytokine induction is thought to stimulate osteolysis in conditions such as periodontal disease and otitis media. To establish the relative importance of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in mediating the response to a mixed Anaerobic Infection, we used an in vivo model in which the dental pulp was inoculated with six Anaerobic pathogens, in mice with functional deletions of receptors to IL-1 (IL-1RI−/−), TNF (TNFRp55−/−-p75−/−), or both (TNFRp55−/−-IL-1RI−/−). Polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocyte recruitment occurred to the greatest extent in TNFRp55−/−-IL-1RI−/− mice, and to a lesser extent in IL-1RI−/− or TNFRp55−/−-p75−/− mice, and the least in wild-type mice, demonstrating that recruitment of these phagocytes is not dependent on IL-1 or TNF receptor signaling. A similar pattern was observed for bacterial penetration into host tissue. Because it had recently been reported that TNF played a critical role in mediating lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss, we anticipated that mice with targeted deletions of TNFRp55−/− would have reduced osteoclastogenesis. Surprisingly, osteolytic lesion formation was greatest in animals lacking TNF and/or IL-1 receptors. These results indicate that IL-1 or TNF receptor signaling is not required for bacteria-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss, but does play a critical role in protecting the host against mixed Anaerobic Infections.

Itzhak Brook – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Anaerobic Infections in children.
    Advances in Pediatrics, 2020
    Co-Authors: Itzhak Brook

    Abstract:

    : Anaerobic bacteria commonly cause Infection in children. Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membrane bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial Infections of endogenous origin. Because of their fastidious nature, they are difficult to isolate from infectious sites and are often overlooked. Anaerobic Infections can occur in all body sites, including the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. Anaerobic bacteria colonize the newborn after delivery and have been recovered from several types of neonatal Infections. These include cellulitis of the site of fetal monitoring, neonatal aspiration pneumonia, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, omphalitis, and infant botulism. The lack of directing adequate therapy against these organisms may lead to clinical failures. Their isolation requires appropriate methods of collection, transportation, and cultivation of specimens. Treatment of Anaerobic Infection is complicated by the slow growth of these organisms, by their polymicrobial nature, and by the growing resistance of Anaerobic bacteria to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is often the only form of therapy required, whereas in other cases it is an important adjunct to a surgical approach. Because Anaerobic bacteria generally are recovered mixed with aerobic organisms, the choice of appropriate antimicrobial agents should provide for adequate coverage of both types of pathogens.

  • Clinical clues to diagnosis of Anaerobic Infections
    Infections in Medicine, 2020
    Co-Authors: Itzhak Brook

    Abstract:

    The diagnosis of Anaerobic Infections can be difficult, but it may be expedited by the recognition of certain clinical signs. Predisposing conditions and bacteriologic hints should alert the physician, who may apply diagnostic procedures to ascertain the nature of the pathogens and the extent of the Infection. Almost all Anaerobic Infections originate from the patient’s own microflora. Poor blood supply and tissue necrosis lower the oxidation-reduction potential and favor the growth of Anaerobic bacteria. Any condition that lowers the blood supply to an affected area of the body can predispose to Anaerobic Infection. Therefore, trauma, foreign bodies, malignancy, surgery, edema, shock, colitis, and vascular disease may serve as predisposing factors. The source of bacteria involved in most Anaerobic Infections is the normal, indigenous flora. Anaerobic Infections can themselves provide clues to the presence of an underlying medical problem.

  • spectrum and treatment of Anaerobic Infections
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, 2016
    Co-Authors: Itzhak Brook

    Abstract:

    Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are a frequent cause of endogenous bacterial Infections. Anaerobic Infections can occur in all body locations: the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. Treatment of Anaerobic Infection is complicated by their slow growth in culture, by their polymicrobial nature and by their growing resistance to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is frequently the only form of therapy needed, whereas in others it is an important adjunct to drainage and surgery. Because anaerobes generally are isolated mixed with aerobes, the antimicrobial chosen should provide for adequate coverage of both. The most effective antimicrobials against anaerobes are: metronidazole, the carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem, ertapenem), chloramphenicol, the combinations of a penicillin and a beta-lactamase inhibitors (ampicillin or ticarcillin plus clavulanate, amoxicillin plus sulbactam, piperacillin plus tazobactam), tigecycline, cefoxitin and clindamycin.