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Anatomical Variation

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Joe Iwanaga – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • an unusual Anatomical Variation of the inferior alveolar nerve
    Anatomy & Cell Biology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Joe Iwanaga, Shogo Maekawa, Mizuki Nagata, Yuki Matsushita, Shane R Tubbs


    A number of studies have previously shown Variations of inferior alveolar, however, only a few reports focused on nearby the foramen ovale. In a formalin fixed cadaver, we identified three minor branches (anterior, middle, and posterior branches) arising from the main trunk of the mandibular nerve adjacent to the foramen ovale, passing lateral to the maxillary artery (MA), and joining the inferior alveolar nerve. The diameter of the branches was 0.68 mm, 1.43 mm, and 0.40 mm, respectively. The branches traveled inside the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) or between the LPM and tensor/levator veli palatini. Moreover, all of the branches were superficial to MA. Knowledge of such a Variation might be helpful to dentists during, for example, anesthetic blockade and various oral surgeries.

  • Supernumerary incisive canals in a cadaver: a rare Anatomical Variation
    Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, 2019
    Co-Authors: Shogo Kikuta, Joe Iwanaga, Jingo Kusukawa, R. Shane Tubbs


    We present a rare Anatomical Variation in which an additional incisive canal was observed during the routine dissection of the palatal region in a cadaver. The diameter of the incisive and additional incisive canals measured 4.59 mm and 0.91 mm, respectively. Even though this Variation is rare, oral surgeons should be aware of such Anatomical Variations for a better understanding.

Hee Kyu Kwon – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The effect of Anatomical Variation of the sural nerve on nerve conduction studies.
    American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation, 2008
    Co-Authors: Sung Bom Pyun, Hee Kyu Kwon


    ABSTRACTPyun S-B, Kwon H-K: The effect of Anatomical Variation of the sural nerve on nerve conduction studies. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2008;87:438–442.Objective:To investigate the types of sural nerve formation through cadaver study, and to evaluate the relationship between Anatomical Variation and ne

Anders Fuglsangfrederiksen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • misinterpretation of sural nerve conduction studies due to Anatomical Variation
    Clinical Neurophysiology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Hatice Tankisi, Kirsten Pugdahl, Marit Otto, Anders Fuglsangfrederiksen


    Abstract Objective Anatomical Variation of the sural nerve has been documented in numerous cadaver studies. The sural nerve conduction parameters can potentially be influenced by the sural nerve type A formation formed by the union of the medial sural cutaneous nerve (MSCN) and the peroneal communicating branch (PCB) and the type C formation with the sural nerve formed solely by the PCB. Methods In 17 out of 240 prospectively examined subjects referred for polyneuropathy a suspicion of an Anatomical Variation of the sural nerve was raised due to decreased amplitude or substantial side-to-side Variation (>50%) of the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) in disproportion to the clinical findings. To verify the Variation the sural nerve was examined further with surface electrodes and near-nerve technique, including extra lateral and distal needle placements. Results In all 17 subjects an Anatomical Variation affecting the sural SNAP was confirmed as a normal sural SNAP could be obtained by changing the electrode placement. The most frequent Variation, seen in 15 subjects, was a type A formation with union of the MSCN and the PCB distally at low calf, while a type C formation was seen in 2 subjects. Conclusions In case of a decreased sural SNAP amplitude or substantial side-to-side Variation in disproportion to the neurologic evaluation, an Anatomical Variation instead of pathology could be suspected and a different electrode placement be considered. Significance Neurophysiologists should be aware of different types of formations of the sural nerve which may cause misinterpretations of nerve conduction studies, especially when needle electrodes are used.