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Gullapalli N Rao – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.
    Clinical & experimental ophthalmology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Rohit C Khanna, Gudlavalleti Vs Murthy, Srinivas Marmamula, Asha Latha Mettla, Pyda Giridhar, Seema Banerjee, Konegari Shekhar, Subhabrata Chakrabarti, Clare Gilbert, Gullapalli N Rao
    Abstract:

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  • Visual impairment in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: Andhra Pradesh – rapid assessment of visual impairment (AP-RAVI) project.
    PloS one, 2013
    Co-Authors: Srinivas Marmamula, Rohit C Khanna, Konegari Shekhar, Saggam Narsaiah, Gullapalli N Rao
    Abstract:

    Purpose To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in urban and rural population aged ≥40 years in the South India state of Andhra Pradesh.

  • Blindness in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 2001
    Co-Authors: Lalit Dandona, Srinivas Marmamula, Pyda Giridhar, Rakhi Dandona, Kovai Vilas, Mudigonda N Prasad, Rajesh K John, Catherine A. Mccarty, Gullapalli N Rao
    Abstract:

    PURPOSE. To determine the current prevalence and causes of blindness in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh to assess if blindness has decreased since the last survey of 1986-1989. METHODS. A population-based epidemiology study, using a stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling strategy, was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Participants of all ages (n = 10,293), 87.3% of the 11,786 eligible, from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural areas representative of the population of Andhra Pradesh, underwent interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. Blindness was defined as presenting distance visual acuity < 6/60 or central visual field < 20 in the better eye. RESULTS. Two hundred seventy-five participants were blind, a prevalence of 1.84% (95% confidence interval, 1.49%-2.19%) when adjusted for the age, sex, and urban-rural distribution of the population in 2000. The causes of this blindness were easily treatable in 60.3% (cataract, 44%; refractive error, 16.3%). Preventable corneal disease, glaucoma, complications of cataract surgery, and amblyopia caused another 19% of the blindness. Blindness was more likely with increasing age and decreasing socioeconomic status, and in female subjects and in rural areas. Among the 76 million population of Andhra Pradesh, 714,400 are estimated to have cataract-related blindness (615,600 cataract, 53,200 cataract surgery-related complications, 45,600 aphakia), and 228,000 refractive error-related blindness (159,600 myopia, 22,800 hyperopia, 45,600 refractive error-related amblyopia). If 95% of the cataract and refractive error blindness in Andhra Pradesh had been treated effectively, 3.4 and 7.4 million blind-person-years, respectively, could have been prevented. If 90% of the blindness due to preventable corneal disease and glaucoma had been prevented, another 2.7 million blind-person-years could have been prevented. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of blindness in this Indian state has increased from 1.5% in the late 1980s to 1.84% currently, as against the target of the National Program for Control of Blindness to reduce the prevalence to 0.3% by 2000. The number of people with cataract-related blindness has not reduced even with the eye care policy focus on cataract. Reduction of blindness in India will require strategies that are more effective than those that have been pursued so far.

Srinivas Marmamula – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.
    Clinical & experimental ophthalmology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Rohit C Khanna, Gudlavalleti Vs Murthy, Srinivas Marmamula, Asha Latha Mettla, Pyda Giridhar, Seema Banerjee, Konegari Shekhar, Subhabrata Chakrabarti, Clare Gilbert, Gullapalli N Rao
    Abstract:

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  • Visual impairment in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: Andhra Pradesh – rapid assessment of visual impairment (AP-RAVI) project.
    PloS one, 2013
    Co-Authors: Srinivas Marmamula, Rohit C Khanna, Konegari Shekhar, Saggam Narsaiah, Gullapalli N Rao
    Abstract:

    Purpose To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in urban and rural population aged ≥40 years in the South India state of Andhra Pradesh.

  • Blindness in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 2001
    Co-Authors: Lalit Dandona, Srinivas Marmamula, Pyda Giridhar, Rakhi Dandona, Kovai Vilas, Mudigonda N Prasad, Rajesh K John, Catherine A. Mccarty, Gullapalli N Rao
    Abstract:

    PURPOSE. To determine the current prevalence and causes of blindness in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh to assess if blindness has decreased since the last survey of 1986-1989. METHODS. A population-based epidemiology study, using a stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling strategy, was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Participants of all ages (n = 10,293), 87.3% of the 11,786 eligible, from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural areas representative of the population of Andhra Pradesh, underwent interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. Blindness was defined as presenting distance visual acuity < 6/60 or central visual field < 20 in the better eye. RESULTS. Two hundred seventy-five participants were blind, a prevalence of 1.84% (95% confidence interval, 1.49%-2.19%) when adjusted for the age, sex, and urban-rural distribution of the population in 2000. The causes of this blindness were easily treatable in 60.3% (cataract, 44%; refractive error, 16.3%). Preventable corneal disease, glaucoma, complications of cataract surgery, and amblyopia caused another 19% of the blindness. Blindness was more likely with increasing age and decreasing socioeconomic status, and in female subjects and in rural areas. Among the 76 million population of Andhra Pradesh, 714,400 are estimated to have cataract-related blindness (615,600 cataract, 53,200 cataract surgery-related complications, 45,600 aphakia), and 228,000 refractive error-related blindness (159,600 myopia, 22,800 hyperopia, 45,600 refractive error-related amblyopia). If 95% of the cataract and refractive error blindness in Andhra Pradesh had been treated effectively, 3.4 and 7.4 million blind-person-years, respectively, could have been prevented. If 90% of the blindness due to preventable corneal disease and glaucoma had been prevented, another 2.7 million blind-person-years could have been prevented. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of blindness in this Indian state has increased from 1.5% in the late 1980s to 1.84% currently, as against the target of the National Program for Control of Blindness to reduce the prevalence to 0.3% by 2000. The number of people with cataract-related blindness has not reduced even with the eye care policy focus on cataract. Reduction of blindness in India will require strategies that are more effective than those that have been pursued so far.

Rohit C Khanna – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.
    Clinical & experimental ophthalmology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Rohit C Khanna, Gudlavalleti Vs Murthy, Srinivas Marmamula, Asha Latha Mettla, Pyda Giridhar, Seema Banerjee, Konegari Shekhar, Subhabrata Chakrabarti, Clare Gilbert, Gullapalli N Rao
    Abstract:

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  • Visual impairment in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: Andhra Pradesh – rapid assessment of visual impairment (AP-RAVI) project.
    PloS one, 2013
    Co-Authors: Srinivas Marmamula, Rohit C Khanna, Konegari Shekhar, Saggam Narsaiah, Gullapalli N Rao
    Abstract:

    Purpose To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in urban and rural population aged ≥40 years in the South India state of Andhra Pradesh.

Konegari Shekhar – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.
    Clinical & experimental ophthalmology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Rohit C Khanna, Gudlavalleti Vs Murthy, Srinivas Marmamula, Asha Latha Mettla, Pyda Giridhar, Seema Banerjee, Konegari Shekhar, Subhabrata Chakrabarti, Clare Gilbert, Gullapalli N Rao
    Abstract:

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  • Visual impairment in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: Andhra Pradesh – rapid assessment of visual impairment (AP-RAVI) project.
    PloS one, 2013
    Co-Authors: Srinivas Marmamula, Rohit C Khanna, Konegari Shekhar, Saggam Narsaiah, Gullapalli N Rao
    Abstract:

    Purpose To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in urban and rural population aged ≥40 years in the South India state of Andhra Pradesh.

Saggam Narsaiah – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Visual impairment in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: Andhra Pradesh – rapid assessment of visual impairment (AP-RAVI) project.
    PloS one, 2013
    Co-Authors: Srinivas Marmamula, Rohit C Khanna, Konegari Shekhar, Saggam Narsaiah, Gullapalli N Rao
    Abstract:

    Purpose To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in urban and rural population aged ≥40 years in the South India state of Andhra Pradesh.