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William H. James – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The sex ratio in anencephaly
    , 2016
    Co-Authors: William H. James
    Abstract:

    SUMMARY A review of the data supports the suggestion of Knox (1974) that the sex ratio and incidence of Anencephalics vary together within populations, as they are known to do between populations. There seems some doubt, though, whether Knox was correct in hypothesising that the sex ratio of Anencephalics varies with their incidence in relation to the dizygotic twinning rate. The pattern of variation seems to suggest that there are two sorts of cause of anencephaly, one of which is environmental and affects predominantly female embryos. The other may be environmental or genetic, and seems to attack the sexes in roughly equal numbers. If this hypothesis were correct, it would carry implications for the testing of specific teratogens. It is well known that anencephalic infants include a high proportion of females. Under the circumstances it is convenient, following Knox (1974), to refer to the F/M ratio of the affected. Knox established that in general this ratio is higher in populations in which the incidence of anencephaly is high than i

  • The Sex Ratios of Anencephalics Born to Anencephalic-prone Women
    Developmental medicine and child neurology, 2008
    Co-Authors: William H. James
    Abstract:

    Anencephalic infants born to women who are very prone to bear them do not have a sex ratio appreciably different from that of other anencephalic births. Moreover, the sexes of affected cases in sibships containing exactly two anencephalic births seem to be distributed approximately binomially. Bearing in mind the correlation between prevalence at birth and sex ratio in anencephaly, these findings suggest that an environmental teratogen attacks the fetuses of women who are already (perhaps genetically) disposed to bear anencephalic infants.

  • the sex ratios of Anencephalics born to anencephalic prone women
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 2008
    Co-Authors: William H. James
    Abstract:

    UMMARY Anencephalic infants born to women who are very prone to bear them do not have a sex ratio appreciably different from that of other anencephalic births. Moreover, the sexes of affected cases in sibships containing exactly two anencephalic births seem to be distributed approximately binomially. Bearing in mind the correlation between prevalence at birth and sex ratio in anencephaly, these findings suggest that an environmental teratogen attacks the fetuses of women who are already (perhaps genetically) disposed to bear anencephalic infants. RESUME Le sexe des nouveaux-nes anencephaliques Les enfants anencephaliques nes de femme qui sont tres enclines a les porter n’ont pas un sex-ratio significativement different de celui des autres naissances anencephaliques. De plus, le sexe des enfants atteints de la fratrie, presentant exactement deux naissances anencephaliques semble etre distribue grossierement binomialement. Si l’on tient compte de la correlation entre la frequence a la naissance et le sex-ratio dans l’anencephalie, ces donnees suggerent qu’un facteur d’environnement teratogene frappe les femmes deja predisposees (peut-etre genetiquement) a donner des enfants anencephaliques. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Die Geschlechtsverteilung bei anencephalen Neugeborenen Die Geschlechtsverteilung bei anencephalen Kindern, deren Mutter eine Praedisposition fur die Entstehung dieser Misbildung hatten, unterschied sich nicht wesentlich von der bei anderen anencephalen Kindern. Daruberhinaus wurde festgestellt, das unter Geschwistern die Geschlechtsverteilung bei jeweils zwei anencephalen Geburten ungefahr binomisch war. Berucksichtigt man die Beziehung zwischen der Pravalenz bei der Geburt und der Geschlechtsverteilung bei den anencephalen Kindern, so weisen die Befunde darauf hin, das ein auseres Teratogen die Frauen betrifft, die schon (vielleicht genetisch) paedisponiert sind, anencephale Kinder zu bekommen. RESUMEN Los sexos de los recien nacidos anencefalicos Los recien nacidos anencefalicos de madres que tienen gran tendencia a tenerlos no tienen una distribucion de sexo apreciablemente diferente de los otros nacidos anencefalicos. Ademas los sexos de los afectos en fratrias que contienen exactamente dos anencefalicos, parece que estan distribuidos a groso modo de forma binomial. Teniendo en cuenta la correlacion entre la prevalencia en el nacimiento y la distribucion entre sexos en la anencefalia, estos hallazgos sugieren que un ambiente teratogeno ataca a las mujeres que ya estan predispuestas (tal vez geneticamente) ha tener ninos anencefalicos.

James H. Diaz – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The anencephalic organ donor: a challenge to existing moral and statutory laws.
    Critical care medicine, 1993
    Co-Authors: James H. Diaz
    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES To inform physicians of the critical shortage of neonatal heart donors and to provide arguments for and against selecting brain-absent Anencephalics as heart donors for brain-normal infants who are dying of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. DATA SOURCES International scientific journals of medicine, genetics, epidemiology, bioethics, and public health; adjudicated U.S. civil court cases; and state regulations and statutes. STUDY SELECTION Worldwide experience with Anencephalics as homologous organ donors. DATA EXTRACTION Demographic and epidemiologic data on anencephalic births and natural histories; U.S. civil, district, and appellate court case decisions directing or prohibiting organ donation; state determination-of-death acts; state uniform-anatomical-gift acts. DATA SYNTHESIS Organization of all data into either moral challenges or legal challenges to anencephalic organ donation. CONCLUSIONS Statutory laws pose a greater challenge to anencephalic organ donation than moral laws. Case law reviews eliminate substituted judgment rulings in directing anencephalic organ donation. A redefinition of brain death applying only to human beings born without a brain would make more donor hearts available to brain-normal infants dying of hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

Bunyami Unal – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Stereological evaluation of the kidneys of anencephalic and normal fetuses.
    Renal failure, 2011
    Co-Authors: Ahmet Kalaycioglu, Yilmaz Ucuncu, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Muhammed Eyüp Altunkaynak, Cemal Gundogdu, Osman Nuri Keles, Bunyami Unal, Süleyman Kaplan
    Abstract:

    The aim of this study is to test the glomerular and other quantitative parameters of kidneys of anencephalic fetuses and comparing those to “normal” fetuses. In this study, 20 kidneys of human fetuses (5 boys and 5 girls of anencephalic fetus, and 5 boys and 5 girls of normal fetus), at gestational ages of 25-30 weeks, were examined. This study is based on two basic research methods: one is a conventional anatomical measurement at the macroscopical level; the other is a design-biased stereological method at the microscopical level. Physical dissector and Cavalieri principle were used to estimate the total and numerical density of glomerulus and the volume of kidney, respectively. The results of the two types of investigation were compared based on anencephalic/normal and boy/girl kidneys at both the macroscopical and microscopical levels. There was no significant difference found between the quantitative features of kidneys (volume of kidneys and mean number and/or height of glomerulus) belonging to anencephalic and normal fetuses. The results of this study suggest that anencephalic fetuses did not differ from normal fetuses in respect of kidneys.

  • Anencephalic fetuses can be an alternative for kidney transplantation:: a stereological and histological investigation
    Histology and histopathology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Ahmet Kalaycioglu, Yilmaz Ucuncu, Cemal Gundogdu, Osman Nuri Keles, Mehmet Karaca, Ismail Can, Abdullah Uyanik, Bunyami Unal
    Abstract:

    In the study, stereological, histological, and anatomical techniques were used to investigate structural and morphometrical features of anencephalic and normal fetal kidneys. Twenty human fetal kidneys (5 male and 5 female anencephalic fetuses, and 5 male and 5 female normal fetuses) at gestational ages 30 to 35 weeks were examined. Our study used two basic research methods. One was conventional anatomical measurement at the macroscopic level, such as volume, length, weight, etc. The other consisted of conventional and modern microscopic techniques. The microscopic techniques were based on two research methods: histopathological examination at light microscopic level and stereological estimations, including mean kidney volumes, obtained by the Cavalieri method, and the total number and mean height of the glomeruli via the physical dissector method. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of width, height, weight, and fluid replacement volumes. Microscopic quantitative assessment found no statistical differences either, in terms of the kidney volumes and the number and height of the glomeruli. Our findings suggest that kidneys from anencephalic infants may be a suitable alternative for renal transplantation.

Ahmet Kalaycioglu – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Stereological evaluation of the kidneys of anencephalic and normal fetuses.
    Renal failure, 2011
    Co-Authors: Ahmet Kalaycioglu, Yilmaz Ucuncu, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Muhammed Eyüp Altunkaynak, Cemal Gundogdu, Osman Nuri Keles, Bunyami Unal, Süleyman Kaplan
    Abstract:

    The aim of this study is to test the glomerular and other quantitative parameters of kidneys of anencephalic fetuses and comparing those to “normal” fetuses. In this study, 20 kidneys of human fetuses (5 boys and 5 girls of anencephalic fetus, and 5 boys and 5 girls of normal fetus), at gestational ages of 25-30 weeks, were examined. This study is based on two basic research methods: one is a conventional anatomical measurement at the macroscopical level; the other is a design-biased stereological method at the microscopical level. Physical dissector and Cavalieri principle were used to estimate the total and numerical density of glomerulus and the volume of kidney, respectively. The results of the two types of investigation were compared based on anencephalic/normal and boy/girl kidneys at both the macroscopical and microscopical levels. There was no significant difference found between the quantitative features of kidneys (volume of kidneys and mean number and/or height of glomerulus) belonging to anencephalic and normal fetuses. The results of this study suggest that anencephalic fetuses did not differ from normal fetuses in respect of kidneys.

  • Anencephalic fetuses can be an alternative for kidney transplantation:: a stereological and histological investigation
    Histology and histopathology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Ahmet Kalaycioglu, Yilmaz Ucuncu, Cemal Gundogdu, Osman Nuri Keles, Mehmet Karaca, Ismail Can, Abdullah Uyanik, Bunyami Unal
    Abstract:

    In the study, stereological, histological, and anatomical techniques were used to investigate structural and morphometrical features of anencephalic and normal fetal kidneys. Twenty human fetal kidneys (5 male and 5 female anencephalic fetuses, and 5 male and 5 female normal fetuses) at gestational ages 30 to 35 weeks were examined. Our study used two basic research methods. One was conventional anatomical measurement at the macroscopic level, such as volume, length, weight, etc. The other consisted of conventional and modern microscopic techniques. The microscopic techniques were based on two research methods: histopathological examination at light microscopic level and stereological estimations, including mean kidney volumes, obtained by the Cavalieri method, and the total number and mean height of the glomeruli via the physical dissector method. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of width, height, weight, and fluid replacement volumes. Microscopic quantitative assessment found no statistical differences either, in terms of the kidney volumes and the number and height of the glomeruli. Our findings suggest that kidneys from anencephalic infants may be a suitable alternative for renal transplantation.

C. Mediano – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Terminal deletion of Xp in a dysmorphic anencephalic fetus
    Prenatal diagnosis, 1994
    Co-Authors: Alberto Plaja, T. Vendrell, E. Sarret, N. Torán, C. Mediano
    Abstract:

    We report an anencephalic fetus with acrania, cervicodorsal rachischisis, and a 46,X,del(X)(p22.1) karyotype. Necropsy revealed a left diaphragmatic hernhernia, ipsilateral lung hypoplasia, and intestinal malrotation. The fetus also had horseshoe kidneys and adrenal gland hypoplasia with absence of the fetal zone.