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Angiotensin 2 Receptor

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Andrew J Palmer – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Irbesartan treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension and renal disease: a UK health economics analysis.
    International Journal of Clinical Practice, 2007
    Co-Authors: Andrew J Palmer, William J. Valentine

    Abstract:

    : The objective of the study was to determine the impact of irbesartan treatment on life expectancy (LE), costs and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients. A peer-reviewed and published Markov model was used to simulate progression from microalbuminuria to overt nephropathy, doubling of serum creatinine, ESRD and all-cause mortality in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Three treatment strategies were evaluated: (i) ‘control’ regimen of conventional antihypertensive therapy (excluding Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, Angiotensin2Receptor antagonists and dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers), (ii) ‘early irbesartan’ 300 mg daily and (iii) ‘late irbesartan’ 300 mg daily (started when overt nephropathy developed). Transition probabilities determining nephropathy progression were taken from the Irbesartan in Reduction of Microalbuminuria-2 study, Irbesartan in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial and other published sources. Outcomes were projected over 25 years. The mean +/- SD cumulative incidence of ESRD was reduced by 8.8% +/- 0.6 and 12.4% +/- 0.7 in patients treated with early irbesartan compared with late irbesartan and control respectively. Early irbesartan treatment improved undiscounted LE by 1.38 +/- 0.08 years (discounted: 0.81 +/- 0.04 years) compared with late irbesartan and 1.41 +/- 0.08 years (discounted: 0.83 +/- 0.04 years) compared with control. Early irbesartan treatment was projected to save (mean +/- SD) pounds 2310 +/- 327 and pounds 3801 +/- 327 over patient lifetimes compared with late irbesartan and control respectively. Irbesartan treatment is predicted to improve survival and reduce costs in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria compared with ‘control’. Early irbesartan treatment is more effective than late irbesartan. Irbesartan is a valuable treatment option in this patient group in a UK setting.

  • A French cost-consequence analysis of the renoprotective benefits of irbesartan in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion, 2006
    Co-Authors: Andrew J Palmer, Lieven Annemans, S Roze, Pablo Lapuerta, Roland Chen, S Gabriel, William J. Valentine, Daniel M. D. Tucker, P Carita

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: We performed a cost-consequence analysis in a French setting of the renoprotective benefit of irbesartan in hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients over a 25-year period. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A previously published Markov model simulated progression from microalbuminuria to overt nephropathy, doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease and death. Three treatment strategies with analogous blood pressure control were compared: (A) control–conventionally medicated antihypertensive therapy (excluding Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, other Angiotensin2Receptor antagonists and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers) initiated at microalbuminuria; (B) early irbesartan–(300 mg daily added to control, initiated with microalbuminuria) and (C) late irbesartan–(300 mg daily, initiated with overt nephropathy). Probabilities came from the Irbesartan in Reduction of Microalbuminuria-2 study, Irbesartan in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial and other sources. Clinical and economic outcomes were projected over 25 years. Annual discount rates were 3%. RESULTS: Compared to control, early use of irbesartan added (mean +/- standard deviation) 1.51 +/- 0.08 undiscounted life years (discounted: 0.94 +/- 0.05 years), while late irbesartan added 0.07 +/- 0.01 (0.04 +/- 0.01) years/patient. Early irbesartan added 1.03 +/- 0.06 discounted quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), while late irbesartan added 0.06 +/- 0.01 QALYs. Early and late irbesartan treatments were projected to save 22,314 +/- 1273 euro and 6619 +/- 820 euro/patient, respectively versus control. Sensitivity analysis showed that even over short time horizons both irbesartan treatments were superior to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In France, early irbesartan treatment improved quality and length of life and reduced costs in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. Late irbesartan therapy is beneficial, but earlier irbesartan leads to better outcomes.

  • Health economic implications of irbesartan plus conventional antihypertensive medications versus conventional blood pressure control alone in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and renal disease in Switzerland.
    Swiss medical weekly, 2006
    Co-Authors: Andrew J Palmer, S Roze, William J. Valentine, Andreas Frei, Michel Burnier, Bernhard Hess, Giatgen A. Spinas, Michael Brändle

    Abstract:

    The aim of this health economic modelling study was to investigate the effect of irbesartan combined with conventional antihypertensive medications compared to conventional antihypertensive therapy alone on the progression of nephropathy in patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria in a Swiss setting.
    In simulated patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes, treatment of microalbuminuria with irbesartan 300 mg daily plus conventional antihypertensive medications was compared to a control regimen (conventional medications excluding Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, other Angiotensin2Receptor antagonist and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers). Progression from microalbuminuria to nephropathy, doubling of serum creatinine, ESRD, and all-cause mortality was simulated over a 25-year time horizon using a published Markov model adapted to a Swiss setting. Transition probabilities were based on the Irbesartan in Reduction of Microalbuminuria-2 Study, Irbesartan in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial and other sources. Costs and clinical outcomes were discounted at 5% annually according to Swiss guidelines, and a third party payer perspective was taken.
    Treatment with irbesartan was projected to improve mean life expectancy by 0.57 years compared to conventional antihypertension treatment (undiscounted 1.22 years). Irbesartan treatment was associated with cost savings of CHF 21,488 per patient over the 25-year time horizon. Sensitivity analysis showed that irbesartan therapy remained dominant to conventional antihypertension treatment over a range of plausible assumptions.
    Addition of irbesartan to conventional antihypertension therapy was projected to improve life expectancy and reduce costs in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria in a Swiss setting.

S Roze – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • A French cost-consequence analysis of the renoprotective benefits of irbesartan in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion, 2006
    Co-Authors: Andrew J Palmer, Lieven Annemans, S Roze, Pablo Lapuerta, Roland Chen, S Gabriel, William J. Valentine, Daniel M. D. Tucker, P Carita

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: We performed a cost-consequence analysis in a French setting of the renoprotective benefit of irbesartan in hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients over a 25-year period. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A previously published Markov model simulated progression from microalbuminuria to overt nephropathy, doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease and death. Three treatment strategies with analogous blood pressure control were compared: (A) control–conventionally medicated antihypertensive therapy (excluding Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, other Angiotensin2Receptor antagonists and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers) initiated at microalbuminuria; (B) early irbesartan–(300 mg daily added to control, initiated with microalbuminuria) and (C) late irbesartan–(300 mg daily, initiated with overt nephropathy). Probabilities came from the Irbesartan in Reduction of Microalbuminuria-2 study, Irbesartan in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial and other sources. Clinical and economic outcomes were projected over 25 years. Annual discount rates were 3%. RESULTS: Compared to control, early use of irbesartan added (mean +/- standard deviation) 1.51 +/- 0.08 undiscounted life years (discounted: 0.94 +/- 0.05 years), while late irbesartan added 0.07 +/- 0.01 (0.04 +/- 0.01) years/patient. Early irbesartan added 1.03 +/- 0.06 discounted quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), while late irbesartan added 0.06 +/- 0.01 QALYs. Early and late irbesartan treatments were projected to save 22,314 +/- 1273 euro and 6619 +/- 820 euro/patient, respectively versus control. Sensitivity analysis showed that even over short time horizons both irbesartan treatments were superior to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In France, early irbesartan treatment improved quality and length of life and reduced costs in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. Late irbesartan therapy is beneficial, but earlier irbesartan leads to better outcomes.

  • Health economic implications of irbesartan plus conventional antihypertensive medications versus conventional blood pressure control alone in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and renal disease in Switzerland.
    Swiss medical weekly, 2006
    Co-Authors: Andrew J Palmer, S Roze, William J. Valentine, Andreas Frei, Michel Burnier, Bernhard Hess, Giatgen A. Spinas, Michael Brändle

    Abstract:

    The aim of this health economic modelling study was to investigate the effect of irbesartan combined with conventional antihypertensive medications compared to conventional antihypertensive therapy alone on the progression of nephropathy in patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria in a Swiss setting.
    In simulated patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes, treatment of microalbuminuria with irbesartan 300 mg daily plus conventional antihypertensive medications was compared to a control regimen (conventional medications excluding Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, other Angiotensin2Receptor antagonist and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers). Progression from microalbuminuria to nephropathy, doubling of serum creatinine, ESRD, and all-cause mortality was simulated over a 25-year time horizon using a published Markov model adapted to a Swiss setting. Transition probabilities were based on the Irbesartan in Reduction of Microalbuminuria-2 Study, Irbesartan in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial and other sources. Costs and clinical outcomes were discounted at 5% annually according to Swiss guidelines, and a third party payer perspective was taken.
    Treatment with irbesartan was projected to improve mean life expectancy by 0.57 years compared to conventional antihypertension treatment (undiscounted 1.22 years). Irbesartan treatment was associated with cost savings of CHF 21,488 per patient over the 25-year time horizon. Sensitivity analysis showed that irbesartan therapy remained dominant to conventional antihypertension treatment over a range of plausible assumptions.
    Addition of irbesartan to conventional antihypertension therapy was projected to improve life expectancy and reduce costs in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria in a Swiss setting.

  • Health economic implications of irbesartan plus conventional antihypertensive medications versus conventional blood pressure control alone in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and renal disease in Switzerland.
    Swiss Medical Weekly, 2006
    Co-Authors: Andrew J Palmer, S Roze, William J. Valentine, Andreas Frei, Michel Burnier, Bernhard Hess, Giatgen A. Spinas, Michael Brändle

    Abstract:

    Objectives: The aim of this health economic modelling study was to investigate the effect of irbesartan combined with conventional antihypertensive medications compared to conventional antihypertensive therapy alone on the progression of nephropathy in patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria in a Swiss setting. Methods: In simulated patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes, treatment of microalbuminuria with irbesartan 300 mg daily plus conventional antihypertensive medications was compared to a control regimen (conventional medications excluding Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, other Angiotensin2Receptor antagonist and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers). Progression from microalbuminuria to nephropathy, doubling of serum creatinine, ESRD, and all-cause mortality was simulated over a 25-year time horizon using a published Markov model adapted to a Swiss setting. Transition probabilities were based on the Irbesartan in Reduction of Microalbuminuria-2 Study, Irbesartan in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial and other sources. Costs and clinical outcomes were discounted at 5% annually according to Swiss guidelines, and a third party payer perspective was taken. Results: Treatment with irbesartan was projected to improve mean life expectancy by 0.57 years compared to conventional antihypertension treatment (undiscounted 1.22 years). Irbesartan treatment was associated with cost savings of CHF 21,488 per patient over the 25-year time horizon. Sensitivity analysis showed that irbesartan therapy remained dominant to conventional antihypertension treatment over a range of plausible assumptions. Conclusions: Addition of irbesartan to conventional antihypertension therapy was projected to improve life expectancy and reduce costs in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria in a Swiss setting.

Atsunori Kashiwagi – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Effects of high sodium intake and diuretics on the circadian rhythm of blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients treated with an Angiotensin II Receptor blocker
    Clinical and Experimental Nephrology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Masakazu Haneda, Yukiyo Yokomaku, Shinji Kume, Masami Kanasaki, Keiji Isshiki, Shin-ichi Araki, Toshiro Sugiomoto, Daisuke Koya, Atsunori Kashiwagi

    Abstract:

    Backgrounds The inhibition of the renin-Angiotensin system in the diabetic condition was reported to enhance the sodium sensitivity of blood pressure. In patients with sodium-sensitive hypertension, high sodium intake reduces the nocturnal fall in blood pressure. Therefore, we examined the effects of the amount of sodium intake or diuretics in patients with diabetes treated with an Angiotensin Receptor blocker. Methods We recruited 32 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with base line blood pressure ≥130/80 mmHg and treated with valsartan (80 mg daily). At baseline, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and 24-h urinary excretion of sodium were measured. The patients were then randomly assigned to take either combination therapy with 50 mg of losartan plus 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide or monotherapy with 160 mg of valsartan for 24 weeks. Results At baseline, 22 of 32 (69%) patients were classified as non-dippers, and the night/day ratio of mean arterial pressure was significantly correlated with 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The combination therapy resulted in a significantly higher fall than the monotherapy in 24-h mean, daytime, night-time and morning blood pressures. The night/day ratio of mean arterial pressure was significantly reduced from the baseline at the end of the study in the combination therapy group, but not in the monotherapy group. In non-dipper patients, the diminished nocturnal fall in blood pressure was restored by the combination therapy. Conclusions Excessive intake of salt causes non-dipping and diuretics restored nocturnal BP fall in type 2 diabetic patients treated with Angiotensin 2 Receptor blockers.